| Motto : “ A mari usque ad mare ” |
(in Latin : “From sea to sea”)
| Anthem : O Canada|
(in English : Oh Canada! )
|Capital|| Ottawa |
|Most populous city|| Toronto |
|Official languages||English and French [ 1 ]|
|Demonym||Canadian [ 1 ]|
|Form of government||Federal parliamentary monarchy|
|• Reina||Isabel II|
|• Governor General||Home|
|• Prime Minister||Justin trudeau|
|Legislative body||Parliament of Canada|
• Westminster Statute
• Act of Canada
of the United Kingdom |
1 of July of 1867
November to December of 1931
17 of April of 1982
|• Total||9 984 670 km²|
|• Water (%)||8,62 %|
|Borders||8 893 km|
|Coast line||243 042 km|
|Highest point||Monte Logan|
|Total population||38th position|
|• Estimate (2018)||37 067 011 hab. [ 2 ]|
|• Density (est.)||3,92 hab./km²|
|Start ( PPA )||15th position|
|• Total (2018)||US $ 1.847 billones [ 3 ] (est)|
|• Per capita||US $ 49,775 [ 3 ] (est)|
|START (nominal)||10th position|
|• Total (2018)||US $ 1,798 billones [ 3 ] (est)|
|• Per capita||US $ 48,446 [ 3 ] (est)|
|IDH (2020)||0.929 [ 4 ] ( 16º ) - Very High [ 5 ]|
|Currency|| Canadian dollar |
|Time zone||UTC -3,5 a UTC -8|
|• In summer||UTC -2,5 a UTC -7|
|ISO code||124 / CAN / CA|
|Internet domain|| |
|Telephone prefix|| |
|Radio prefix|| |
|Country acronym for aircraft||CF-, C-F, C-G, C-I|
|Country acronym for automobiles||CDN|
Canada (in English : Canada , pron. AFI : / ˈkænədə / ; in French : Canada , pron. AFI : / kanada / ) is a sovereign country in North America , whose form of government is the federal parliamentary monarchy . Its territory is organized into ten provinces and three territories . Its capital is the city of Ottawa and the most populous city is Toronto .
Located in the extreme north of the North American subcontinent , it stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and north to the Arctic Ocean . It shares a border with the United States to the south, and to the northwest with its federal state Alaska . It is the second largest country in the world after Russia , and also the northernmost . It occupies about half the territory of North America. Because of its climate, it is one of the 15 countries with the lowest population density in the world, with approximately 4 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The territory occupied by Canada was inhabited by the various Aboriginal population groups for millennia. Since the late 15th century , numerous British and French expeditions explored along the Atlantic coast, where they later settled. France ceded almost all of its North American colonies in 1763 after the Franco-Indian War .
In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through the Confederacy , Canada was formed as a federal domain of four provinces. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of autonomy from the United Kingdom . This growing autonomy was highlighted in the 1931 Statute of Westminster and culminated in the 1982 Canadian Constitution Act , which broke the vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament . [ 8 ]It is governed as a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II as head of state . It is a bilingual nation with English and French as official languages at the federal level.
Canada is an industrially and technologically pioneering and advanced nation , largely self-sufficient in energy thanks to its relatively extensive deposits of fossil fuels and extensive generation of nuclear power and hydroelectric power . Being one of the most developed countries , it has a diversified economy , which makes it independent due to its large deposits and abundant natural resources as well as trade , particularly with the United States and Mexico . He is currently a member of the OAS , theG-8 , G-20 , NATO , OECD , WTO , UKUSA , APEC , Commonwealth of Nations , La Francophonie and the United Nations . It is considered one of the countries with the best quality of life . [ 4 ]
The name " Canada" comes from the Iroquois root kanāta which means 'town', 'settlement' or, initially referring to Stadaconé , a settlement on the site of present-day Quebec City . [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The explorer Jacques Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but also the entire area under the mandate of Stadacona; By 1545, European maps and books had begun to refer to the entire region as Canada. [ 11 ]
From the 17th century onward, the region of New France that lay near the St. Lawrence River and along the northern shore of the Great Lakes was known as Canada. Later, the area was divided into two British colonies: Upper Canada and Lower Canada , although in 1841 they were united again as the Province of Canada . [ 12 ] After the Confederacy of 1867, the name of Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country and the Dominion (a term from Psalm 72: 8) [ 13 ]Was the title conferred on the country. Combined, the term Dominion of Canada was used until the 1950s. [ 14 ] As the Dominion asserted its political autonomy from the United Kingdom , the federal government increasingly used the term " Canada " in state documents and treaties, a a fact that is reflected in the change of name of the national holiday in 1982, when it went from being Dominion Day to Canada Day . [ 14 ]
The first inhabitants of the territory that currently comprises Canada were the " First Nations ", [ 15 ] the Eskimos [ 16 ] and the Métis . [ 17 ] The terms "Indians" and "eskimos" have fallen into disuse. [ 18 ] archaeological and genetic studies confirm the human presence in the northern Yukon ago 26 500 years old , and in southern Ontario makes 9500 years . [ 19 ] [ 20] [ 21 ] Old Crow FlatsandBluefish Cavesare the oldest archaeological sites left by the first Canadian residents. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Among the traditions of the "First Nations" are eight unique stories describing the creation of the world and of their tribes. [ 25 ] These aboriginal peoples are characterized by their urban settlements that have lasted until the 21st century, by their civil and monumental architecture, and by a complex social hierarchy. [ 26] Some of these civilizations disappeared long before the arrival of Europeans (15th and 16th centuries), and have only recently been discovered by archaeological excavations.
The mestizo culture of the Métis originated in the mid-17th century, when some Europeans mixed up with aborigines from the 'First Nations'. [ 27 ] For their part, during the first decades, the Eskimos had more limited contact with the European colonizers. [ 28 ]
It is estimated that at the end of the 15th century the aboriginal population was between 200,000 [ 29 ] and two million inhabitants. [ 30 ] Multiple outbreaks of infectious diseases brought by Europeans such as influenza , measles, and smallpox (to which they had no biological immunity), combined with other effects of contact with Europeans, resulted in a decrease in the Aboriginal population between 85% and 95%. [ 31 ] Since 2016, there has also been an investigation into the physical disappearance of between 1,200 and 4,000 indigenous women and the presumption ofliability by default of the government of Canada. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ]
The Europeans came first to the Americas when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around the year 1000; After the failure of that colony, the next attempt to explore Canadian territory was made in 1497, when the Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto (Juan Caboto) explored the Atlantic coast of North America in the service of England . In 1534, Jacques Cartier did the same on behalf of France . [ 37 ] The French explorer Samuel de Champlainarrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements in the region: Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. [ 38 ] Among the French settlers of New France, Canadians settled in the St. Lawrence River Valley , while the Acadiens in the present-day maritime provinces . French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes area , Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi Basin as far as Louisiana . TheBeaver Wars broke out for control of the fur trade. [ 39 ]
The English established outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and established the Thirteen Colonies to the south. [ 40 ] A series of four intercolonial wars raged between 1689 and 1763. [ 41 ] In 1713, mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht . Later, at the end of the Franco-Indian War in 1763, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, France ceded Canada and most of New France to Great Britain . [ 42 ]
Main article: British North America
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 separated the province of Quebec from New France and annexed the island of Cape Breton to Nova Scotia. [ 14 ] In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island ) became a separate colony. [ 43 ] To avoid conflict in Quebec, the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, which extended the territory of Quebec to the Great Lakes area and the Ohio Valley . In these places the French language was restored , the Catholic faithand French civil law. This angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies and influenced the start of the American Revolution . [ 14 ]
In the Treaty of Paris (1783) the independence of the United States was recognized , giving up the territories south of the Great Lakes. About 50,000 supporters of the English occupation fled the United States for Canada. [ 44 ] With this change, New Brunswick separated from Nova Scotia to reorganize the new settlements of English partisans in the Maritime provinces. To accommodate English-speaking immigrants in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later the Province of Quebec) and Upper CanadaEnglish-speaking (later Ontario), granting each the right to elect its own Legislative Assembly. [ 45 ]
Canada (Upper and Lower) was the main front during the War of 1812 , fought between the United States and the British Empire. After the war, large-scale immigration from Great Britain and Ireland began in 1815, [ 46 ] such that, from 1825 to 1846, 626,628 European immigrants landed in Canadian ports. [ 47 ] Before 1891, between a quarter and a third of all Europeans who emigrated to the country had died of infectious diseases. [ 31 ] During the 19th century, the lumber industry surpassed the fur trade in economic importance.
The desire for responsible government resulted in the aborted rebellions of 1837. Subsequently, the Durham Report recommended the establishment of responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture . [ 14 ] The Act of Union of 1840 merged the Canadians into the United Province of Canada . In 1849, the responsible government was established for all the British provinces in North America. [ 48 ] The signing of the Oregon Treatyby the United Kingdom and the United States in 1846 ended the dispute over the boundaries of Oregon, widening the northwestern border along the 49 ° N parallel. This paved the way for the founding of two British colonies on Vancouver Island. (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). [ 49 ] Additionally, the local government began a series of exploratory expeditions to reclaim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region .
Confederation and expansion
After several constitutional conferences, the Constitutional Act of 1867 officially proclaimed the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario , Quebec , Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick . [ 50 ] [ 51 ] Canada took control of Rupert 's Land and the Northwest Territory to form the Territory of the Northwest . The MétisInsurrectionists carried out the Red River rebellion in 1869, creating an autonomous government, although it was stifled by the recently created mounted police. [ 52 ] This led to the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (who joined in 1866) joined in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. [ 53 ]
Prime Minister John A. Macdonald organizes a policy described as "ethnocidal" towards the Amerindians of the central plains of the country to seize their lands, intentionally causing famines, arbitrary executions and forced assimilation of children. [ 54 ]
The Canadian Parliament passed a bill introduced by the Conservative party that established a national tariff policy to protect the nascent manufacturing industry. [ 51 ] To populate the west, the construction of three transcontinental trams (including the Canadian Pacific Railway ) was approved , opening the plains to colonization with the Land Act, in addition to creating the Mounted Police to ensure sovereignty over the territory. . [ 55 ] [ 56 ] In 1898, during the fever Klondike gold was created, theYukon Territory . The Liberal government of Wilfrid Laurier attracted European settlers to colonize the plains, as well as creating the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905. [ 53 ]
Military involvement in World War I helped foster a sense of nationality. The War Ministry in 1922 reported approximately 67,000 dead and 173,000 wounded during the war. Support for the UK during World War I sparked a major political crisis over conscription, with French speakers, mainly from Quebec . During the crisis, a large number of foreign enemies (especially the Ukrainians and Germans) were brought under the control of the government. The Liberal Party was deeply divided, with most of its English-speaking leaders joining the unionist government led by thePrime Minister Robert Borden , leader of the Conservative Party. The Liberals regained their influence after the war under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie King , who served as prime minister for three separate terms between 1921 and 1949.
The Military Voters Act of 1917 gave the vote to women who were war widows, or had children or husbands serving abroad. Trade unionists like Prime Minister Borden pledged during the 1917 campaign to equal suffrage for women . After her landslide victory, she introduced a bill in 1918 to extend suffrage to women. This law had no opponents, but it did not apply to provincial and municipal elections in Quebec. Quebec women won universal suffrage in 1940. The first woman elected to Parliament was Agnes Macphail of Ontario in 1921.
Convinced that Canada had excelled on the battlefields of Europe, Prime Minister Robert Borden demanded that it have a separate seat at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. This was initially opposed not only by the United Kingdom , but also by the United States. . Borden responded by noting that because Canada had lost nearly 60,000 men, the right to equal status as a nation had been enshrined on the battlefield. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George finally relented, and convinced Americans to resist accepting the presence of delegations from Canada, India , Australia , Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa . These also received their own seats in the League of Nations . He played a modest role in Paris, but just having a seat was a matter of pride.
In 1931 the British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster , which gave each domain the opportunity for almost complete legislative independence from London. While Newfoundland never adopted the statute, for Canada, the Statute of Westminster became its declaration of independence.
The country was hit hard by the Great Depression that began in 1929. Between 1929 and 1933, the gross national product fell by 40% (compared to 37% in the US). Unemployment reached 27% in 1933. In 1930, in the first stage of the long crisis, the liberal Prime Minister Mackenzie King believed that the crisis was temporary and that the economy would recover soon and without government intervention. He refused to provide unemployment relief or federal aid to the provinces, saying that if the provincial governments demanded federal money, he would not give them "a nickel." In the 1930 elections the main theme was the rapid deterioration of the economy. The winner of the 1930 election was Conservative Richard Bedford Bennett. Bennett had promised high tariffs, but as the deficit increased, he had to severely cut federal spending. With the slump in support and the depression getting worse and worse, Bennett tried to introduce policies based on the New Deal of the United States, to no avail. The Bennett administration became a source of popular discontent. The Conservative failure to restore prosperity resulted in the return of Mackenzie King's Liberals in the 1935 election.
Promising a much desired trade agreement with the United States, the Mackenzie King government approved the Reciprocal Trade Agreement of 1935. This marked the turning point in Canadian economic relations with the United States, leading to lower tariffs , and a dramatic increase in trade.
Canada's involvement in World War II began when Canada declared war on Nazi Germany on September 10, 1939, a week after the United Kingdom, to symbolically demonstrate its independence. The war restored Canada's economy and its self-confidence as it played an important role in the Atlantic and in Europe.
The government successfully mobilized the war economy, with impressive results in industrial and agricultural production. The depression ended, prosperity returned, and Canada's economy expanded significantly. Politically, Mackenzie King rejected any idea of a national unity government. The 1940 Canadian federal election was held as scheduled, producing another victory for the Liberals.
After the start of the war with Japan in December 1941, the Government, in cooperation with the United States, began the Japanese-Canadian internment, which sent 22,000 people of Japanese descent to resettlement camps far from the coast. The reason was fears of espionage or sabotage. The government ignored reports from the military and mounted police that most Japanese were law abiding and not a threat.
The Battle of the Atlantic began immediately, and was led by Leonard W. Murray of Nova Scotia . German submarines operated in Canadian waters throughout the war, sinking many warships and merchant ships. The Canadian Army participated in the failed defense of Hong Kong , the unsuccessful Dieppe raid in August 1942, the Allied invasion of Italy , and the highly successful invasion of France and the Netherlands.
Of the approximately 1.1 million Canadians who served in the armed forces in World War II, more than 45,000 died and another 55,000 were injured.
The Dominion of Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador ), then a dominion with a similar government to Australia , joined Canada in 1949. Between the late 19th century and 1996, more than 150,000 Aboriginal children were separated from their families. and placed in religious residential schools. Many children died there due to lack of healthcare. Furthermore, between the 1960s and 1980s, 20,000 Aboriginal children were abducted from their families and placed with non-Aboriginal families. [ 54 ]
The growth of the country, combined with the policies of successive liberal governments, gave rise to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, which was characterized by the adoption of the current maple leaf flag in 1965, [ 57 ] the application of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969 [ 58 ] and official multiculturalism in 1971. [ 59 ] Programs promoted by the Social Democrats were also createdsuch as universal health care, the pension plan, and student loans; some provincial governments, especially those of Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of them, such as federal incursions into their jurisdictions. [ 60 ] Finally, in 1982 another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the "patriation" of the Canadian Constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms . [ 61 ] In 1999, Nunavut became the federation's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government. [ 62 ]
At the same time, Quebec was experiencing profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution , giving rise to the birth of a nationalist movement in the province and a more radical front called the Front for the Liberation of Quebec (FLQ), whose actions led to the October crisis in 1970. [ 63 ] A decade later, in 1980, a failed referendum on the sovereignty / association of the province was held. [ 63 ] In 1990, there were unsuccessful attempts to make a constitutional amendment, followed by a second referendum in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by 50.6% against and 49.4% in favor. [64 ] In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, so parliament passed the Clarity Law, which describes the negotiation terms for a province to withdraw from the Confederation. [ 64 ]
In addition to Quebec sovereignty issues, a series of crises shook Canadian society in the 1980s and early 1990s. These include the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the massacre at the École Polytechnique de Montreal in 1989 and the Oka Crisis in 1990, the first in a series of violent clashes between the government and Aboriginal groups. [ 65 ] That same year, Canada joined the Gulf War as part of a US-led coalition force and participated in various "peacekeeping" missions for the rest of the decade. Although he sent troops to Afghanistanin 2001, he refused to send troops to Iraq when it was invaded by the United States in 2003. [ 66 ]
government and politics
Canada has a parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. The parliament consists of a House of Commons elected by the people and Senate appointed. Each member of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple majority in an electoral district or its equivalent. The prime minister is the one who calls general elections, which must be a maximum of five years after the previous election, or they can be triggered by the government by requesting a vote of no confidence in parliament. [ 67 ]
The members of the Senate, whose seats are distributed according to each region, are elected by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Governor General and can serve up to the age of 75. [ 68 ] In the 2015 elections, five parties had elected representatives to the federal parliament: the Liberal Party of Canada (ruling party), the Conservative Party of Canada (the official opposition), the New Democratic Party (NDP), the Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada .
The federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and that of the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate similarly to the House of Commons. [ 69 ] The three territories also have their own legislatures, but with fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces and with some structural differences (for example, the legislative assemblies of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut do not obey political parties and operate under consensus ). [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ]
Canada is also a constitutional monarchy , in which the Crown plays the role of an executive branch . This consists of Queen Elizabeth II ( legal head of state ), the viceroys she designates, the governor general (who acts on behalf of the head of state) and the deputy governors, who perform most of the monarch's ceremonial functions. [ 73 ] The executive branch, in matters of politics, consists of the prime minister ( head of government ) and the cabinet., who carry the day-to-day decisions of the government. The cabinet is made up of ministers who are generally selected from the House of Commons, led by the Prime Minister, who is usually the leader of the party that holds the majority in the House. [ 74 ] Unlike other countries of the Commonwealth of Nations , such as Australia , the holding of a referendum that questions the possibility of converting the country into a republic has not been considered.
The Prime Minister's Office (OPM) is one of the most powerful institutions in government, whose function is to initiate the legislative process for approval in parliament and to select, in addition to cabinet members, senators, magistrates from the federal court, heads of Crown companies and government agencies, and the Governor General. Formally, the Crown passes parliamentary legislation and the Prime Minister's orders. [ 75 ] The leader of the political party with the second highest number of seats becomes the leader of the opposition and is part of an accusatory parliamentary system, designed to keep the government under constant scrutiny. Julie PayetteShe is the Governor General since October 2, 2017; [ 76 ] Justin Trudeau , Liberal Party leader from Canada, is the prime minister since November 4, 2015; [ 77 ] and Andrew Scheer , leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, has been the leader of the opposition since May 27, 2017.
The judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to revoke laws that violate the Constitution . The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and is the last instance for crimes; since 2000 it has been chaired by Judge Beverley McLachlin . [ 78 ] Its nine members are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Justice.. All judges at the higher and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental judicial bodies. The federal government also appoints judges to the higher courts at the provincial and territorial levels. The judiciary at the lower levels in the provinces and territories are the responsibility of their respective governments. [ 79 ]
The common law ( Common Law ) is prevalent throughout the country, except in Quebec, where predominates civil law . [ 80 ] The criminal law is a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout the national territory. [ 80 ] Law enforcement and criminal courts are the responsibility of the provincial government, although in rural areas of all provinces except Ontario and Quebec, it is the responsibility of the Canadian Mounted Police . [ 81 ]
Foreign relations and armed forces
Canada and the United States share the longest unarmed border in the world, cooperate in military campaigns and exercises, and are each the other's largest trading partner. [ 82 ] However, the former has an independent foreign policy, notable for maintaining full relations with Cuba and for refusing to participate in the Iraq War . The country also maintains historical ties with the United Kingdom, France and other former British and French colonies, thanks to its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie . [ 83 ]In addition, another notable aspect of its foreign relations is the strong and positive relationship with the Netherlands , and traditionally the Dutch government gives tulips (Dutch national symbol) to Canada every year, in remembrance of the latter's contribution to its liberation. of the German occupation. [ 84 ]
It currently employs a professional military force, with a staff of about 67,000 and some 26,000 in the reserve. [ 85 ] The Canadian Forces (FC) unify the army , navy and air force into a single corps . The large military teams of the FC include 1,400 armored vehicles, 33 warships and 861 fighters. [ 86 ]
The strong attachment to the British Empire and the Commonwealth, led the country to participate in most of the British military incursions in the Second Boer War , the First World War and the Second World War . Since then, Canada has been an advocate of multilateralism , making efforts to solve world problems in collaboration with other nations. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] In addition, it was one of the founding countries of the United Nations in 1945 and the Organization of the North Atlantic Treatyin 1949. During the Cold War , he was a major contributor to the United Nations forces in the Korean War and together with the United States founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), to defend against possible air strikes by the Soviet Union. . [ 89 ]
During the Suez Crisis of 1956, the minister first future Lester B. Pearson eased tensions proposing the creation of the United Nations peacekeeping , which was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1957. [ 90 ] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of this concept. Canada has since served in fifty peacekeeping missions, including every UN campaign until 1989, [ 91 ] and maintains several regiments on international missions in Rwanda., the former Yugoslavia and other places; the country has faced controversy over its involvement abroad, particularly in the 1993 Somalia Affair . [ 92 ] The number of Canadian military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions has declined considerably over the past two decades. On June 30, 2006, 133 Canadians were on UN missions around the world, including 55 CF members, compared to 1044 military personnel under UN command on December 31, 1996. [ 93 ] [ 94 ]
Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990, in addition to the OAS General Assembly held in Windsor , Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April. 2001. [ 95 ] It also seeks to expand its ties with the Pacific Rim economies through its membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum. [ 96 ]
Since 2001, the FCs have had troops deployed to Afghanistan as part of the US Stabilization Force and the International Security Assistance Force . However, they pledged to withdraw from Kandahar province by 2011, [ 97 ] at the time it was announced that the total estimated spending for the war in Afghanistan is over $ 11.3 million. [ 98 ] Canada and the United States continue to integrate state and provincial agencies to reinforce security along their border, through the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative. [ 99 ]
In February 2007, Canada, Italy , the United Kingdom, Norway and Russia announced their plans to fund a $ 1.5 million project to help develop vaccines that could save millions of lives in poor nations and invited other countries to join them. [ 100 ] In August 2007, Canadian sovereignty in Arctic waters was challenged after a Russian submarine expedition to the North Pole ; Canadians have considered this area as sovereign territory since 1925. [ 101 ]
|CESCR||CCPR [ 104 ]||CERD [ 105 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 107 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 111 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
Territorial organization: Provinces and territories
Canada is a federation made up of ten provinces and three territories . In turn, they can be grouped into regions: Western Canada , Central Canada , Atlantic Canada and Northern Canada (the latter is formed by the three territories). The Eastern Canadarefers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together. The provinces have more autonomy than the territories, in addition to being responsible for most of the country's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together they receive more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure. among federations in the world. However, it is the federal government that can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Health Canada Act; the provinces may opt for models other than these, but they rarely do so in practice. Compensation payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxes are maintained between the richest and poorest provinces. [ 112 ]
|Province / Territory||ISO code||Capital||Entrance to the Confederacy||
(2008) [ 113 ]
|Ontario 1||ON||Toronto||July 1 , 1867||12 891 787||917 741||158 654||1 076 395|
|Quebec 1||QC||Quebec||7 744 530||1 356 128||185 928||1 542 056|
|Nova Scotia 2||NS||Halifax||935 962||53 338||1946||55 284|
|New Brunswick 2||NB||Fredericton||751 527||71 450||1458||72 908|
|Manitoba3||MB||Winnipeg||July 15 , 1870||1 196 291||553 556||94 241||647 797|
|Northwest Territories||NT||Yellowknife||42 514||1 183 085||163 021||1 346 106|
|British Columbia 2||BC||Victoria||July 20 , 1871||4 428 356||925 186||19 549||944 735|
|Prince Edward Island 2||ON||Charlottetown||July 1 , 1873||139 407||5660||—||5660|
|Yukon 5||YT||Whitehorse||June 13 , 1898||31 530||474 391||8052||482 443|
|Saskatchewan 4 5||SK||Regina||September 1 , 1905||1 010 146||591 670||59 366||651 036|
|Alberta 4 5||FROM||Edmonton||3 512 368||642 317||19 531||661 848|
|Newfoundland and Labrador 2||NL||Saint John of Newfoundland||March 31 , 1949||508 270||373 872||31 340||405 212|
|Nunavut5||NOT||Iqaluit||April 1 , 1999||31 152||1 936 113||157 077||2 093 190|
- Until before the formation of the Confederation, Ontario and Quebec formed the Province of Canada .
- Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were separate colonies when they joined the Confederacy. Before its entry, Newfoundland was a Dominion of the British Commonwealth.
- Manitoba was formed at the same time as the Northwest Territories.
- Saskatchewan and Alberta were created from the Northwest Territories.
- Canada did not acquire new territory to create the Yukon, Alberta, Saskatchewan, or Nunavut. These were formed from the Northwest Territories.
Geography and climate
Canada occupies much of northern North America , sharing its land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and with the state and territory of Alaska to the northwest, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north it borders the Arctic Ocean . By its total area (including its waters), it is the second largest country in the world, after Russia . [ 114 ] For its land area, it ranks fourth (land area is the total area minus the area of lakes and rivers). [ 115 ]
Since 1925, it has claimed the Arctic region between meridians 60 ° W and 141 ° W, [ 116 ] but this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost settlement in the country (and the world) is the FC Alert Station , located at the northern tip of Ellesmere Island at 82.5 ° N, just 817 kilometers from the North Pole. [ 117 ] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost . It is also the country with the longest coastline in the world: 202,080 kilometers . [ 114 ]
The population density of 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometer is among the lowest in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City area and the Windsor corridor, (located in southern Quebec and Ontario) on the shores of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. [ 118 ]
Canada has a long coastline, to the east, north and west, and since the last glacial period it has eight distinct forest regions, including a large area of taiga on the Canadian Shield . [ 120 ] The vastness and variety of Canada's geography, ecology, vegetation, and landform have resulted in a wide variety of climates across the country. [ 121 ] Also due to its large size, Canada has more lakes than any other country, so it also contains much of the world's fresh water . [ 122 ]There are also glaciers that contain fresh water in the Rocky Mountains and the Coastal Mountains .
The average temperature in winter and summer varies by location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, especially in the interior provinces and in the prairies, where a continental climate is experienced , with average daily temperatures of -15 ° C, but can reach below -40 ° C . [ 123 ] In regions without coasts, snow can cover the ground for almost six months (more in the north). The coast of British Columbia enjoys a temperate climate, with a warmer, but rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, the average temperatures generally do not exceed 20 ° C, while between the coasts, the maximum average temperature in summer oscillates between 25 and 30 ° C, with occasional heat waves in the interior that exceed 40 ° C. [ 124 ]
Canada is also geologically active, as potentially active earthquakes and volcanoes occur in the country, such as Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex . [ 125 ] In 1775, the volcanic eruption of the Tseax cone caused a catastrophe, killing 2,000 people of the Nisga'a ethnic group and causing the destruction of their village in the Nass River Valley of northern British Columbia; the eruption produced a 22.5-kilometer lava flow, and according to the Nisga'a legend, it blocked the course of the Nass River. [ 126 ]
In June 2019, the government announced the resumption of works to expand the Trans Mountain pipeline to the west coast of Canada. The decision is welcomed by the oil industry , but criticized by environmentalists. Upon completion, the project could lead to an additional 15 million tonnes increase in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions . [ 127 ]
| Alaska |
( United States )
|Arctic Ocean|| Greenland |
( Kingdom of Denmark )
|Pacific Ocean||Atlantic Ocean|
Flora and fauna
Given its enormous size, the country has a varied topography and important climatic differences, which provides a very diverse flora and fauna. A good part of the Canadian territory is covered by forests of timber trees, where pine , cedar and maple stand out ; there are also territories dominated by wide grasslands . The fauna is very similar to that of Northern Europe and Asia , so you can find bears , wolves , coyotes , pumas , among other carnivorous animals. In arctic regions the fauna is typical of the tundraand it is home to a great variety of seals , whales and polar bears , while the flora is dominated by mosses and lichens . Beavers , porcupines , moles and numerous rodents can be seen in some regions . Some areas of Canada are also home to antelope , reindeer, and elk . [ 128 ]
|Exports to||Imports of|
|European Union||5,08||European Union||11,56|
Canada is one of the richest nations in the world, with a high per capita income , and is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the G8 . [ 129 ] The country has a free market economy , ranked higher than the United States in the Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom , where it also outperformed most Western European nations. [ 130 ] The largest importers of Canadian goods are the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. [ 131 ]In 2008, merchandise imported into Canada amounted to more than $ 442.9 billion, of which $ 280.8 billion came from the United States, $ 11.7 billion from Japan and $ 11.3 billion. $ 1 billion came from the UK. [ 131 ]
In October 2009, Canada's unemployment rate was 8.6%. Provincial unemployment rates range from 5.8% in Manitoba to as high as 17% in Newfoundland and Labrador. [ 132 ] In 2008, the country's public debt was the lowest among G8 members. [ 133 ] Between 2008 and 2009, this debt increased $ 6.1 billion to a total of $ 463.7 billion. [ 134 ] In the past century, the growth of manufacturing, mining, and the service sector transformed the nation from a practically rural economy to a more industrial and urban one. Like other nations of the first worldThe Canadian economy is dominated by the tertiary sector , which employs around three-quarters of Canadians. [ 135 ] Among developed countries, the country attaches unusual importance to its primary sector , in which the oil and wood industries are two of the most prominent. [ 136 ]
The idea that Canada is a product of the exploitation of its natural wealth forms a historiographical vision perhaps influenced by the Annales school . In this regard, the work of HA Innis cited by Fohlen [ 137 ] mentions how the commerce of the metropolis founded the lines of communication from raw materials, and how these "forged the political unity" of this country. K. Buckley's work "has argued that staple theory perfectly explained the development of Canada up to about 1920, but that a different explanation was needed for the recent period." [ 137 ]Canada's economic dependence on these products was revealed by the Great Depression of 1929 ; "Most of the national income came from exports, and (…) two thirds of these exports consisted of raw materials." [ 137 ]
Canada is one of the few developed countries that are net exporters of energy. [ 138 ] Atlantic Canada has large deposits of natural gas along its coasts, and Alberta has significant oil and gas reserves. The Athabasca tar sands give the country the third largest oil reserves in the world, behind those of Venezuela and Saudi Arabia . [ 139 ]
It is also one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products: the Canadian prairies are one of the largest producers of wheat , rapeseed and other grains . [ 140 ] It is also the largest producer of zinc and uranium , and is a prime source of many other mineral resources, such as gold , nickel , aluminum, and lead . [ 138 ]Many cities in the north, where agriculture is difficult, are supported by the proximity of mines and sawmills. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector, concentrated in southern Ontario and Quebec, with the automotive and aeronautical industries being the largest. [ 141 ]
Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. This worries several Canadian nationalist groups, who are concerned with cultural and economic autonomy and independence in an age of globalization , as most American goods and media have become ubiquitous throughout the country. [ 142 ] The 1965 Automotive Products Trade Agreement opened the borders to trade within the automotive industry. In the 1970s, speculation about energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors led to the liberal government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, will create the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA). [ 143 ]
In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to "Investment Canada" in order to encourage foreign investment. [ 144 ] The 1988 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement eliminated tariff barriers between the two countries, while in the 1990s, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free trade area. to include Mexico . [ 140 ] In the middle of that decade, the liberal government of Jean Chrétien began to publish the annual budget surpluses and began the payment of the national debt. [ 145 ]The 2008 economic crisis caused the economy to crash into a recession , which could increase the unemployment rate by as much as 10%. [ 146 ]
According to the Research Institute for Contemporary Economics (IRÉC), Canadian assets in the seven main tax havens increased 37.6 times between 1987 and 2014. Between 1999 and 2013, half a dozen bills were introduced to limit or stop the tax evasion, but all were rejected. [ 147 ]
In 2016, the 100 highest-paid Canadian employers earned an average of C $ 10.4 million, more than 200 times the average income of a Canadian worker in 2016. From 2015 to 2016, the average compensation of CEOs increased by 8% . The decline in unionism in Canada would have led to a 15% increase in income inequality. [ 148 ]
Education, science and technology
Each of the provinces and territories are responsible for education ; Each of these systems have similar characteristics, at the same time that they reflect the history, culture and geography of each region. [ 149 ] The age at which children begin their education ranges from 5 to 7 years, [ 149 ] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99%. [ 114 ] The higher educationIt is also administered by the provincial and territorial governments, which provide most of its funding; scholarships, student loans, and additional research grants are awarded by the federal government. In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged 25-64 had a post-secondary education; for those 25 to 34 years of age, the postsecondary education rate reached 51%. [ 150 ]
Canada is an industrial nation , with a highly developed science and technology sector . Almost 1.88% of the national GDP is allocated to research and development (r & d). [ 151 ] 18 Canadians have won a Nobel Prize in physics , chemistry, and medicine . [ 152 ] It is considered the 12th country with the most Internet users in the world, since it has 33 million users, that is, 90.1% of the total population. [ 153 ]
The Canadian Space Agency's main function is space and planetary exploration, aviation research, as well as the development of rockets and satellites. In 1984, Marc Garneau became the first Canadian astronaut, serving as STS-41-G's cargo specialist . Canada is a participant in the International Space Station and a pioneer in the field of space robotics , thanks to the development of the Canadarm , Canadarm 2 and Dextre . It was ranked third out of twenty countries in the space science field. [ 154 ]Since the 1960s, Aerospace Industries of Canada has designed and built ten satellites, including RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, and MOST. [ 155 ] The country also produced one of the most successful probe rockets , the Black Brant ; more than 1,000 of these rockets have been launched since they were initially produced in 1961. [ 156 ]Canadian universities are working on the first national spacecraft landing project: the Northern Light, designed to search for life on Mars and investigate the planet's environment for electromagnetic radiation and atmospheric properties. If Northern Light is successful, Canada will be the third country to land a ship on another planet. [ 157 ]
An estimate for April 2016 put the total population of Canada at 36,155,487, an increase of 0.3% over the previous four-month period. [ 2 ] Population growth is mainly due to immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About 80% of the Canadian population lives within 150 kilometers of the border with the United States. [ 158 ] A similar percentage live in urban areas, concentrated mainly in the cities of Quebec , the Windsor corridor ( Toronto , Montreal and Ottawa ), the Lower Mainland.British Columbia (consisting of the region that surrounds Vancouver ) and the corridor of Calgary - Edmonton in Alberta . [ 159 ]
According to the 2006 census, the largest ethnic group is Anglo-Canadians (21%), followed by French Canadians (15.8%), Scots (15.2%), Irish (13.9%), the Germans (10.2%), the Italians (5%), the Chinese (3.9%), the Ukrainians (3.6%) and descendants of First Nations (3.5%). About a third of those surveyed identified their ethnicity as " Canadian ." [ 160 ] There are 600 recognized First Nations tribes or governments, comprising 1,172,790 people.
Canada's Aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and in the 2006 census 3.8% of Canadians surveyed said they were of indigenous origin. Another 16.2% of the population belonged to visible minorities of foreign origin. [ 162 ] The largest minorities in the country are South Asians (4%), Chinese (3.9%), and African Americans (2.5%). [ 163 ] In 1961, less than 2% of the Canadian population (about 300,000 people ) could be classified as a visible minority and less than 1% as Aboriginal. [ 164 ] In 2006, 51% of the population ofVancouver and 46.9% of Toronto's population were members of these visible minorities. [ 165 ] [ 166 ] Between 2001 and 2006, the population of visible minorities increased by 27.2%. [ 163 ] According to a 2005 forecast by Statistics Canada, the proportion of "minorities" could reach 23% by 2017. In 2007, almost one in five Canadians (19.8%) had born abroad. [ 167 ] About 60% of new immigrants come from Asia (including the Middle East ). [ 167 ]By 2031, one in three Canadians will belong to a "minority." [ 168 ]
Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world, driven by economic policy, the existence of a wide job offer due to the country's low unemployment rate, and family reintegration, and it is believed that in 2010 they will arrive between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents. [ 169 ] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees. Most of the new immigrants settle in the main urban areas such as Toronto and Vancouver, [ 170 ] while immigration from French-speaking countries is concentrated in the French-speaking cities of the country, mostly in Montreal and Quebec .
Like most developed countries, the country is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age of Canadians was 39.5 years. [ 171 ] Census results also indicate that despite an increase in immigration since 2001 (which gave Canada a higher rate of population growth than in the previous intercensal period), the aging of the Canadian population has not it was slower during the same period.
|Religion in Canada (2011) [ 172 ]|
|Catholicism 38.7% Protestantism 28.5% Irreligion 23.9% Islam 3,2 % Hinduism 1.5% Sijismo 1.4% Buddhism 1.1% Judaism 1% Others 0.6%|
Although the country's Constitution does not establish any official state religion , religious pluralism is an important part of Canada's political culture. According to the 2011 census, 67.3% of Canadians identify as Christian (they represented 77.1% in 2001); [ 173 ] of these, Catholics constitute the largest group (38.7% of the population). [ 174 ]
Before European colonization, Aboriginal religions were largely animistic or shamanic, including an intense tribal reverence for spirits and nature. French colonization that began in the 16th century established a Catholic Francophone population in New France, especially Acadia (later Lower Canada, now Nova Scotia and Quebec). British colonization brought waves of Anglicans and other Protestants to Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). The Russian Empire extended Eastern Orthodoxy to a small extent to tribes on the far north and west coasts, particularly among Hyperborean nomads such as the Inuit. Orthodoxy would come to the continent with immigrants from the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, Greece, and elsewhere during the 20th century.
The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada, of Presbyterian rite (made up of 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5%) and Baptists (1.9%). The remaining percentage belonged to other Christian currents. [ 174 ] About 23.9% of Canadians declared they have no religious affiliation (they represented 16.5% in 2001) and the remaining 8.8% are affiliated with non-Christian religions (figure that was 6 , 3% in 2001), of which the most important are Islam (3.2%) and Hinduism (1.5%). [ 174 ]
The two official languages of Canada are English and French . The bilingualism official is defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , the Law on Official Languages and the Official Language Rules, which are applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts, in parliament, and in all federal institutions. The Canadian citizensthey have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in English or French, and the official languages of minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories. [ 175 ]
English and French are the mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population, respectively, [ 176 ] and the languages most spoken at home by 68.3% and 22.3% of the population, respectively. [ 177 ] 98.5% of Canadians speak English or French (67.5% speak only English, 13.3% speak only French, and 17.7% both). [ 178 ]
- The main French-speaking regions are:
- The main English-speaking regions are:
- The main regions of Inuit languages
The Charter of the French language establishes French as the official language in Quebec. [ 179 ] Despite the fact that more than 85% of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are significant concentrations in Ontario, Alberta, and southern Manitoba, with Ontario being the province with the largest French-speaking population outside of Quebec. [ 180 ] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority , constituting 33% of the population. There are also groups of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and in the central and western part of Prince Edward Island. [ 181 ]
Other provinces do not have official languages as such, but in addition to English, French is used as a language of instruction in courts and for other government services. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow English and French to be used in provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, the French has some legal status, but it is not fully co-official. [ 182 ]
There are eleven groups of Aboriginal languages, made up of more than 65 different dialects. [ 183 ] Of these, only Cree , Inuktitut, and Ojibwa have a population of fluent speakers large enough to be considered capable of long-term survival. [ 184 ] Several Aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest Territories . [ 185 ] The Eskimo is the language of most residents of Nunavut and one of the three official languages in the territory. [ 186 ]
More than six million people in Canada have an unofficial language as their mother tongue. Among the non-official languages most widely spoken in the country are: Chinese (mainly Cantonese ; 1,012,065 speakers as mother tongue), Italian (455,040), German (450,570), Punjabi (367,505) and Spanish (345 345). [ 176 ]
|Major cities Canada (including its metropolitan area)|
| ||N°||Town||province||Have||N°||Town||province||Have|| |
|1||Toronto||Ontario||5 052 522||11||London||Ontario||363 448|
|2||Montreal||Quebec||3 430 917||12||Victoria||British columbia||316 911|
|3||Vancouver||British columbia||2 044 298||13||St. Catharines-Niagara||Ontario||314 644|
|4||Calgary||Alberta||1 078 793||14||Oshawa||Ontario||291 959|
|5||Edmonton||Alberta||928 760||15||Windsor||Ontario||288 743|
|6||Ottawa||Ontario||879 364||16||Halifax||New Scotland||287 082|
|7||Quebec city||Quebec||676 875||17||Saskatoon||Saskatchewan||205 697|
|8||Hamilton||Ontario||667 977||18||Barrie||Ontario||189 468|
|9||Winnipeg||Manitoba||649 227||19||Regina||Saskatchewan||178 809|
|10||Kitchener||Ontario||450 917||20||Saint John of Newfoundland||Newfoundland and Labrador||153 820|
|Estimate for 2010 [ 187 ]|
Historically, Canadian culture has been influenced by the traditions and customs of British , French, and Indigenous cultures . Throughout the national territory, you can find various forms of cultural, linguistic, artistic and musical expressions distinctive of each region. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] Many words, inventions and games Native Americans have become part of everyday life of Canadians. The canoe , the snowshoe , trail sled , the LaCrosse , the tug of war , theMaple syrup and tobacco are examples of such products, inventions, and games. [ 190 ] Some words of indigenous origin are barbecue, caribou, tamias, woodchuck, hammock, skunk, mahogany, hurricane, and elk. [ 191 ] Many areas, cities and rivers have names of indigenous origin. The name of the province of Saskatchewan is derived from the Cree language name for the Saskatchewan River , Sipi Kisiskatchewani . [ 192 ] Another example is the name of the capital of Canada, Ottawa , which comes from the Algonquin adawe, which means "to trade." [ 192 ] National Aboriginal Day recognizes the cultures and contributions of Canadian Aboriginal peoples. [ 193 ]
Apart from indigenous people, Canadian culture has been greatly influenced by immigrants from all over the world, which is why most people perceive Canada as a multicultural nation . [ 61 ] However, the country's culture also has many characteristics of American culture , due in large part to its proximity and the high rate of migration between the two countries. Between 1755 and 1815, the vast majority of English-speaking immigrants came from the United States; during and after the Thirteen Colonies War of Independence , 46,000 Americans loyal to the British Crown settled in the country.[ 194 ] Between 1785 and 1812, a new wave of American immigrants came to the country in response to promises of land. [ 195 ]
In this way, the American media and celebrities became very popular, if not dominant, in Anglo-Saxon Canada; on the contrary, many of the Canadian cultural products and artists are successful in the United States and other parts of the world. [ 196 ] Many of these are traded to a unified or global North American market. The creation and preservation of Canadian culture is clearly consistent with federal government programs, laws, and institutions, such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada, and the Radio and Telecommunications Commission and Canadian Television . [ 197 ]
Canadian visual arts have been dominated by Tom Thomson (one of the most famous Canadian painters) and the Group of Seven . Thomson's brief career painting Canadian landscapes spanned only a decade until his death in 1917, when he was 39 years old. [ 198 ] The Group of Seven were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic approach, who exhibited their distinctive works for the first time in May 1920. Although their name indicates that there were seven members, five artists ( Lawren Harris , AY Jackson , Arthur Lismer , JEH MacDonald and Federico Varley) were responsible for the articulation of the group's ideas. They were briefly joined by Frank Johnston and commercial artist Franklin Carmichael . AJ Casson became part of the group in 1926. [ 199 ] Another prominent Canadian artist who had connections with the group was Emily Carr , known for her landscapes and portraits of the indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast. [ 200 ]
Canada has developed a music industry and infrastructure , with broadcasting regulated by the Canadian Radio and Television and Telecommunications Commission. [ 201 ] [ 202 ] The Canadian music industry has produced composers, musicians and internationally renowned groups at the time the Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences administers the awards in the music industry in Canada, the Juno Awards , which began in 1970. [ 203 ] The national anthem O Canada , adopted in 1980, was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, Théodore Robitaille, For the ceremony of the Day of San Juan Bautista , 1880. [ 204 ] Calixa Lavallée composed the music, which was an accompaniment for a patriotic poem written by poet and Judge Adolphe-Basile Routhier . The lyrics were originally written in French, and in 1906 it was translated into English. [ 205 ]
The national symbols refer to natural, historical and indigenous elements that are identified to the country. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is represented on the previous and current national flags , on the coins and on the coat of arms . [ 206 ] Other important symbols are the beaver , the Canadian goose , the totem pole , the inukshuk , the great loon , the Crown, and the RCMP . 
Officially, the national sports are ice hockey in the winter and lacrosse in the summer. [ 208 ] Hockey is a national pastime and the most popular spectator sport in the country. It is also the sport most practiced by Canadians, since in 2004 there were more than 1.65 million hockey players. [ 209 ] Seven of the largest metropolitan areas in Canada (Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg) have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL), while Quebec had a franchise until 1995 this moved to Denver, and the majority (54%) of the players in this league are of Canadian origin. Other popular spectator sports are curling and Canadian soccer ; the latter has a professional league, the Canadian Football League (CFL). [ 209 ]
Canada has franchises in the many American professional leagues: Major League Baseball ( Toronto Blue Jays ), National Basketball Association ( Toronto Raptors ) and Major League Soccer ( Toronto FC , Vancouver Whitecaps and Montreal Impact ). The golf , the baseball , the skiing , the soccer , the volleyball and basketball are beginning to take hold among youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not widespread. [ 209 ]
At the Olympics, Canada is particularly successful in winter sports (hockey, long and short track skating, figure skating, acrobatic skiing, curling). This phenomenon is observed both in the male category and in the female category. Canada has hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics , the Olympic Games in Calgary 1988 and the Olympic Games of Vancouver 2010 , as well as other various events international sports such as the Pan American Games of 1967, 1999 and 2015, the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula 1 , the IndyCar Series Toronto Grand Prix , theMontreal Grand Prix and the Grand Prix of Quebec cycling the UCI World Tour , the Canadian Open Golf the PGA Tour , the World Cup U-20, 2007 , [ 210 ] the FIFA Women's World Cup Sub- 20 of 2014 and the 2015 Women's Soccer World Cup . [ 211 ]
- Portal: Canada . Content related to Canada .
- Canadian Mounted Police
- Cities of Canada
- Gastronomy of Canada
- Religion in Canada
- Canadian Walk of Fame
- Canadian - DRAE
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