It is normally performed by a single vocalist , but it can also be sung by a duet , trio, or more voices . The lyrics of the songs are usually poetic and rhyming in nature , although they can be religious verses or free prose. There are several types of songs [ 2 ] that can be classified according to different criteria. A typical division is between lyrical song, folk song, and popular song. [ 1 ]
Sometimes, although it is incorrect, the word song is used colloquially to refer to any not very extensive musical composition, including those without singing, of an instrumental nature . [ 3 ] In European classical music and music in general, "song" should only be used to describe a composition for the human voice, with some exceptions, such as wordless songs from the romantic period, written pieces by composers like Mendelssohn or Tchaikovsky who are not for human voice, but for some instrument (usually piano ), and even so they are considered songs. 
Also known as artistic song or concert song, they are songs from the field of classical music that were created to be performed according to the singer's attributes, generally with piano accompaniment - although it may have other types of accompaniment such as orchestra or quartet of strings - and written on sheet music. They are generally interpreted with a lyrical timbre that requires training of the voice for an acceptable literal performance. The lyrics are often not written by the composer but by a poet or lyricist , in stanza form. [ 4 ]
The folksongs , also known as traditional folk songs, couplets are usually anonymous origin (or are public domain ) that are transmitted orally from generation to generation. They are not the vehicle of expression of an individual person or artist but of a community. They frequently deal with national aspects or cultural identity . Folk songs exist in almost all cultures, with usually different features in each one of them, and have served as an inspiration at times for authors of cultured music, especially during the nationalist period .
The popular song or modern song is the type of song most listened to in the world today, and it is transmitted through recordings and media to large audiences all over the world. It took shape in European and American cities in the 19th and 20th centuries, originating both in the songs of scholarly music and in the folk songs of various cultures. The voice is usually accompanied in performance and recording by a musical group.. They are not anonymous creations, they have known authors, who can record and perform the songs themselves or work for other artists who will incorporate them into their repertoire. Frequently, but not always, the authors write the musical notes or transcribe them after they have been recorded and they tend to be created in collaboration with the entire musical group, although the text of the song is usually written by one person, usually the Main singer. Popular songs are often about individuals and cultural identity. Singers generally do not have a decisive vocal education, but the most recognized tend to use highly stylized vocal techniques.
How to build a popular song
Popular songs almost always have a well-defined structure . The song is usually structured using three to five separate musical sections, which are then used together to form a complete song. A structural analysis of a typical popular song, [ 5 ] can be in this order:
This mentioned structure is a very common form of modern popular song. This includes songs from pop , rock , heavy metal, and virtually all genres of popular songs, as well as pieces of classical music. This simple structure can be made more complex in many ways by adding two refrains instead of a single chorus, or instead of ending with a repeat of the chorus, adding a specific part for the ending. This part is sometimes called coda. There may be a chorus that alternates with other verses that are not repeated. The structure should not be too complicated so as not to destroy the balance between repetitions and alterations of a theme. The musical bridge usually presents a variation in musical harmony and in many musical genres, mainly rock or heavy metal, it usually includes a solo. Generally, this solo is usually electric guitar although it can be played by other musical instruments.
With the exception of the last two forms (thirty-two-bar form and twelve bar blues), and canon and fugue, none of the others are musical forms, but it would be more appropriate to refer to them as simple 'styles' of songs. For their part, the canon and the fugue can be both vocal and instrumental, and have all the characteristics of a musical form, therefore, it will only be correct to call them a song, if the work in question has a vocal part. If they are exclusively instrumental, this term does not apply to them, and even in the first case, it is preferable to call them fugue, or canon, as the case may be, rather than refer to them as song.
- Aria and recitative ( Opera )
- School song
- Light song
- Melodic song
- Romantic song
- Festival song
- Work song
- Spiritual song
- Patriotic song
- Pop song
- Popular song
- Protest song
- Canon and Fugue
- Medieval song
- I sing
- Sacred choral singing
- Company song
- Folk singing
- Funeral song
- Gregorian chant and liturgical chants
- Lied ' (plural: lieder )
- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. EUA: Oxford University Press. 1993. pp. 2947. ISBN 0198612710.
- How to write songs and compose music? . AR: Ed. Escribcanciones.com.ar. 2015. p. 217. ISBN 9789873352942 .
- Luise Eitel Peake (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 17 (6 edición). Londres: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 1-56159-174-2.
- Kamien, Roger (1997). Music: An Appreciation (3 edición). McGraw-Hill. p. 217. ISBN 0072902000.
- , article on the website Write Songs.
- Wiktionary has definitions and other information about song .
- Wikimedia Commons hosts a multimedia category about song .
- Rafael Saavedra, "The question of the national song in choral organizations: A study carried out in six countries on two continents" , "Aesthetic Magazine, Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela), n ° 21 (2013), p. 77-87.