| Anthem : Reaper [ 1 ] (The mower)|
|Capital||Barcelona (most populated city)|
|Official language||Castilian , Catalan and occitano aranés [ 1 ]|
| Parliament |
| Parliament of Catalonia |
Pere Aragonés (Interim) [ to ]
4 provinces |
|Surface||Since 6 .º|
|• Total||32 106.5 km² (6,35 %)|
|• Maximum|| Pica d'Estats |
3143 m asl
|Population (2020)||Since two .º|
|• Total||[ 3 ] hab. ( 16.40% )7,780,479|
|• Density||242.28 hab / km²|
|START (nominal)||2nd place|
|• Total||223 139 mill. € (2017)|
|• PIB per cápita||29 936 €|
|IDH (2018)||0.906 ( 4th ) - Very high|
|• in summer||UTC+02:00|
|Patron (a)|| Virgin of Montserrat |
and San Jorge [ 5 ]
|statute||July 20, 2006|
|Official party||Day of Catalonia [ b ]|
|Official Web site|
Catalonia (in Catalan , Catalunya ; in Aranese , Catalonha ) is a Spanish autonomous community , considered a historical nationality . [ 1 ] Located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula , it occupies a territory of about 32,000 km² which is bordered to the north by France and Andorra , to the east by the Mediterranean Sea along a maritime strip of about 580 kilometers, [ 6 ] To the south with the Valencian Community (Castellón ) and to the west with Aragón ( Teruel , Zaragoza and Huesca ). This strategic situation has favored a very intense relationship with the territories of the Mediterranean basin and with continental Europe. Catalonia is made up of the provinces of Barcelona , Gerona , Lleida and Tarragona . Its capital is Barcelona .
In 2019, in the Catalan territory inhabited by 7,675,217 people [ 7 ] in a total of 947 municipalities of which only 64 are above 20 000 inhabitants (in which live more than 70% of the Catalan population). Two thirds of the population live in the metropolitan area of Barcelona . It constitutes a territory with a high population density [ 8 ] and highly industrialized, whose economy is the second among the autonomous communities, generating 19.0% of the Spanish gross domestic product (GDP), only surpassed by the Community of Madrid. Regarding GDP per capita , it is in fourth position, after theCommunity of Madrid , the Basque Country and Navarra . [ 9 ]
According to data from the Valencian Institute of Economic Research for 2007, its human development index (0.958) [ 10 ] is the eighth highest in Spain , behind La Rioja and ahead of Asturias . [ 11 ] The social services development index places it in eighth position, behind Castilla-La Mancha and Cantabria . [ 12 ] In the PISA reportit is in seventh place in reading (500 points), and sixth in mathematics (500 points) and science (504 points), less than 5% away from the first autonomous community ( Castilla y León and Navarra ). [ 13 ]
The origin of the word Catalonia remains uncertain, although there have been several possibilities indicated. The place name as such is found for the first time in written form around 1117 [ 14 ] in the Latin form that appears in the Pisan poem Liber maiolichinus de gestis pisanorum illustribus . [ 15 ] In this text, which describes the deeds that the Pisans perform with the Catalans to tackle the conquest of Mallorca , there are several references to Count Ramón Berenguer III ( Doge Catalanensis , Rector Catalanicus hostes , Catalanicus heros, Christicolas Catalanensesque ) and ethnic references as catalanenses or catalanensis and to the territory of these, Catalania . Later, the expression in Catalonia also appears in some donations that King Alfonso II made to his wife in 1174 , [ 16 ] as well as on various occasions ( Cathalonia ) in the king's will [ 17 ] and in songs by Occitan troubadours. ( Catalonha ). [ 18 ] In the time of his son and successorPeter the Catholic is mentioned again in the declaration of the Assembly of Peace and Truce of 1200 , in which its scope of validity is delimited: Haec est pax quam dominus Petrus (...) constituit per totam Cataloniam, videlicet a Salsis usque ad Ilerdum . [ 19 ] The first time it appears in Catalan is in the Llibre dels fets de Jaime I the Conqueror , in the second half of the 13th century .
However, the reason for this name is unclear. Some postulate that the word comes from Gotholandia (country of the Goths ) through Gothia or Gotia, which was how the Franks also called the Hispanic Brand , due to the presence of the Visigoth population in Septimania and the north of present-day Catalonia after the fall of the Visigothic kingdom , although the phonetic transformation is debatable. Similarly, Gothoalania (country of Goths and Alans is suggested) despite there being no references to this second town in Catalan territory. A medieval historian, Pere Tomic, suggests the existence around the 8th century of a German knight named Otger Cathaló , to whom Charlemagne dedicated his name to the lands of the southern Pyrenees due to his conquest feats . This theory is collected by Pedro de Medina in his Book of greatness and memorable things in Spain published in Seville in 1548.
Another proposal suggests that many fortifications were erected for the defensive needs of the Brand . Its guards were the Castilians who in medieval Low Latin would take the name castlanus from whose voice the Catalan forms castlà , catlà and carlà arise . [ 20 ] In these ways, foreigners who passed through their lands would have begun to name the inhabitants and their territory in this way ( català > Catalonia , Catalaunia ), so Catalonia would mean "land of castles". [ 21 ]However, this explanation has been challenged by phonetic difficulties. Modern authors such as Ronjat ( Grammaire historique des parlers provençaux modernes ) and Grammont ( Sur la métathèse ) defend that the place name comes from an alteration of the Latin referring to the Lacetans ( LACETANI ). The transformation would occur by metathesis between -l and -c : Lacetani > catelanos > Catelans . [ 22 ]This process must have occurred among the popular layers and in remote times, prior to any scholarly influence. Currently, this etymology and the one referring to the Goths are the most widespread. In addition to those discussed there are even more less known etymological proposals. For example, both Catalan and Spanish could derive from a fusion of the Gothic words guta and athala , [ 23 ] meaning "noble Gothic", or "noble Gothic". In this sense, Otger Cathaló could be Otger the noble Gothic .
An interpretation that arose in the 15th century , discarded among others by Antonio Agustín and described as absurd by Félix Torres Amat , aims to derive the name of Catalonia, from the Catalan Fields . [ 24 ] Accordingly, the name would derive from the title "Catalaunicus" of the Visigoth king Turismundo , whose dynasty came to dominate territories on both sides of the Pyrenees . This title has its antecedent in the following events: On June 20, 451, in the Catalan Fields (region of the Gala Catalauni tribe , which may be linked to the Celtic - Belgian tribe of the Catuvellaunos , mentioned by Dion Cassius ) whose terminology gives the name to the city of Châlons ( Chatalan ) and Champagne ( Champs ), a great battle took place between the Huns of Attila ( with his allies Ostrogoths , Gepids and Heruli ), against the Romans of Flavio Aetius (with his allies Visigoths and Alans), where more than twenty thousand warriors died. In this battle, Attila, leading his horsemen, attacked the Alans from the center, and the Ostrogoths attacked the Visigoths from the right, while the Gepids and Heruli attacked the Roman soldiers of Aetius from the left, who dominated a hill. In the combat the Visigothic king Theodoric I perished , so his son Turismundo was appointed king in the middle of the combat, to later provoke the disbandment of the Ostrogoths and incline the combat against the confederation of Attila, which was also forced to withdraw . After the battle, the Visigoth king Turismundo returned to his capital Toulouse , where as a result of that victory, he was titled as King Turismundo "Catalaunicus", which was the germ of the future denominationCatalan and Pyrenean Catalonia . [ 25 ]
After the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire , the county of Barcelona , which had been part of the Hispanic Brand of the Empire, reached a de facto independence at the end of the 10th century and managed to group around it, through family ties or vassalage, a an important part of present-day Catalonia, mainly the counties of Gerona , Osona , Besalú , Cerdaña and Ampurias . In the 12th century , the county of Barcelona and the kingdom of Aragon were dynamically unitedby betrothal agreed between Ramiro II of Aragon and Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1137 , by the Count of Barcelona would contract marriage with the future queen of Aragon Petronila . In the fourteenth century , it had a prominent economic role in the Mediterranean trade . With the decline of the Crown of Aragon , Catalonia declined, which did not prosper again until industrialization .
In the first third of the 19th century, Spain was invaded by Napoleon Bonaparte . Barcelona is occupied by the French and Tarragona becomes the electoral capital of the Catalan deputies, who are part of the Cortes of Cádiz , and participate in the first constitution of the Spanish nation, in 1812 . [ 26 ] From the second third of the 19th century , the Renaixença developed , a cultural movement to recover Catalan as a language of culture. In the following decades , political Catalanism was taking shape , which was grouped into parties such as the Regionalist League.and later Republican Esquerra . After the first self-government projects that culminated first in the Commonwealth of Catalonia ( 1913 - 1923 ) and then in the restoration of the Generalitat of Catalonia and approval of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia in 1932 during the Second Republic , the Civil War and the period Franco ( 1939 - 1975) meant, both in Catalonia and in the rest of Spain, the annulment of political freedoms, in addition to the prohibition of Catalan in the official and educational sphere, which were not fully recovered until the Democratic Transition and the entry into force of the New Spanish Constitution of 1978 , which recognizes the existence of autonomous communities within Spain. Under the protection of the Constitution, a new Statute of Autonomy was approved in 1979 that regained the official use of Catalan, later replaced by the Statute of 2006 , which after some modifications issued by the Constitutional Court in 2010, due to its unconstitutionality, is currently in force.
Catalonia has a relatively marked geographical diversity, taking into account the relatively small size of its territory. The geography is conditioned by the Mediterranean coastline to the east, with 580 kilometers of coastline, [ 6 ] and the large relief units of the Pyrenees to the north.
The current geological state of Catalonia can begin to be described from the first great changes of the Paleozoic . Initially, the territory was part of an ocean basin in which, due to orogenic rest , fine and clayey sedimentary materials were deposited . The development of Hercynian folds determined a more irregular sedimentation that later produced the emergence (of low height) of several areas of northwest-southeast orientation such as the Ebro massif (current central Catalan depression ) and the Catalan-Balearic massif, which emerged at the end of the was. The sedimented materials of the time were transformed into gneiss, shale and slate that outcrops today in the northern half of the coastal mountain ranges and the axial Pyrenees .
The Mesozoic era once again covered the emerged areas during the previous era, which caused a calm sedimentation under the sea, generating a large amount of calcareous material . Today this material is found in the southern half of the coastal ranges and in the Pre-Pyrenees .
At the beginning of the next era, the Cenozoic , the Eurasian and African tectonic plates make contact and gently begin to rise a back of folds and mountains through alpine orogenesis that will give rise, among others, to the Pyrenees . This push also affects the movement of the Catalan-Balearic massif towards the Southwest, covering the Ebro massif , still submerged, which is generating the deposit of materials that will give rise to the future Catalan central depression . Conglomerates deposited by the rivers accumulate on the coastline and will give rise to the outstanding elevations of the massifs ofMontserrat , Sant Llorenç del Munt , etc. Meanwhile, towards the interior of the basin sands and clays accumulate that will give rise to stoneware . When the massif of the Ebro closed , in the shape of a gulf, a great salty lake originated. Its waters were exposed to intense evaporation that finally gave rise to large saline deposits from which, until recently, salt was still extracted in Súria and Cardona . The second half of the era eroded a large part of the Catalan-Balearic massif by decompression, remaining in a narrow line that forms the pre-coastal depression , the Plain of Cerdanya, Ampurdán , etc. At the end of the period, the alpine movements affect the emergence of volcanoes in the Olot area that will last until the Quaternary period and the glaciers of the Pyrenees end up forming the territory.
The relief of Catalonia presents, broadly speaking, three large general morphostructural units: the Pyrenees , the mountainous formation that connects the Iberian Peninsula with the European mainland and is located to the north of Catalonia; another unit formed by an alternation of elevations and plains in parallel to the Mediterranean coast, called the Catalan Mediterranean System or Catalan Coastal Mountain Ranges and a last structural unit located between the previous ones called the central depression that configures the eastern sector of the Ebro Valley .
The Catalan Pyrenees represents almost half the length of the entire Spanish Pyrenees, as it is distributed over more than 200 kilometers. Traditionally, the Axial Pyrenees, the main one, have been differentiated from the Pre - Pyrenees (southern in the Catalan territory) and which are mountainous formations parallel to the main mountain ranges although they are lower, less steep, and of a different geological formation. Both units are wider in the western sector than in the eastern sector, and that is where they have their highest peaks. The highest elevation in Catalonia, located to the north of the Pallars Sobirá region , is Pica d'Estats at 3,143 m of altitude. Along the border with France it is followed by Puig Pedróswith 2914 m and the Puigmal with 2910 m. The Besiberri massif reaches 3,029 m. From the Pre-Pyrenees there are several mountain ranges and peaks such as the Cadí mountain range (Vulturó, 2,648 m) or Pedraforca (Pollegó Superior, 2,497 m).
The Catalan Mediterranean System is based on two ranges more or less parallel to each other and between the sea following a northeast-southwest orientation and they are the Coastal Range , the closest to the sea, and the Pre-coastal Range behind the previous one. The Coastal Mountain Range is less extensive and of lower altitude (Turó Gros, Sierra del Montnegre , 773 m) while in the Pre-Coastal Range the range is wider and of higher altitude ( Turó de l'Home , 1706 m). Within the system there is a series of flat lands, whose major entities form the Littoral Depression and the pre-littoral depression. The Coastal Depression is located on the edge of the coast and is prior (except for some sectors) to the Coastal Mountain Ranges. The pre-coastal depression is located in the interior, between the two coastal mountain ranges, and constitutes the base of the flat lands of the Vallés and Penedés . Other larger plains are the La Selva Depression and the Llano del Ampurdán , mainly in the regions of La Selva and Ampurdán respectively. Finally, the System also includes the Transversal Cordillera , which are late formations to the north of the Pre-coastal Cordillera and in contact with the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees, thus originating medium and high altitudes.volcanoes in the Garrocha area today extinct.
The central Catalan depression is a plain located between the Pre-Pyrenees and the Pre-coastal Mountain Range. The southern regions of the province of Lleida and the central Barcelona occupy this territory. Its lands are located between 200 and 600 meters of altitude in a continuum from west to east, although it has some intermediate foothills. The plains and the water that comes down from the Pyrenees have transformed this area into large fields of cultivation in which numerous irrigation channels have been built .
Catalonia enjoys a Mediterranean climate , although with great variations in temperature between the coastal coastline, with a mild climate, temperate in winter and very hot in summer; the interior that has a continental Mediterranean climate, with cold winters and very hot summers; and the mountainous areas near the Pyrenees, which have a high mountain climate, with minima below zero and abundant snow in winter, annual rainfall above 1000 mm and less hot summers.
Catalonia belongs almost entirely to the Mediterranean basin. The Catalan hydrographic network has two major hydrographic basins, the Ebro river basin and the internal basins of Catalonia of a similar size over the territory (15,038 km² —46.84% - and 16,513 km² —51.43% - respectively) , pouring both into the Mediterranean, which is accompanied by the Garonne basin which spills its waters over the Atlantic and extends over 554 km², 1.73% of the Catalan territory.
The Ebro basin in Catalonia is mainly served by the Segre river as the largest tributary, whose single basin reaches 7455 km², and to which the Noguera Pallaresa (2811 km²) and Noguera Ribagorzana (1013 km²) basins are added as tributaries . All the rivers follow a Pyrenees- Ebro axis . After the influx of the Segre, the Ebro heads towards the Delta, irrigating through other tributaries a territory of 3,757 km², largely located in the area of the Ebro Lands (Terres del Ebre).
The internal basins of Catalonia are usually divided by those rivers that originate in the Pyrenees and those that do so in the Catalan Coastal Mountain Ranges . The basins that make up the Pyrenees- Mediterranean axis are made up of the Llobregat , Ter , Fluvià , Muga and Tec rivers (which run towards Roussillon ). These basins run through an area of 9622 km². The remaining basins, following the so-called Mediterranean axis, are born both in the Litoral and Pre- littoral Cordillera and in the Empordà Plain.and irrigate its waters for 6890 km². The most important rivers are (from north to south) the Daró , Tordera , Besós , Foix , Gayá , Francolí and Cenia .
The smallest of the Catalan basins, that of the Garona River, runs mainly through the Arán Valley . It receives water from numerous rivers and ravines that run down the slopes of the valley's mountains, and within the Catalan territory its longest tributaries are the Unhòla River , the Nere River and the Varradòs River .
The Ebro basin contributes an average of 18,700 hm³ annually, while the internal basins only have 2020 hm³ per year. The imbalance is caused by the previous contribution of the Ebro (around 6,700 hm³ / year) to which is added the Pyrenean contribution of the Segre (around 12,000 hm³ / year) towards the south of the Lleida province . It is around the regions of the central depression that these waters have been used to build numerous irrigation channels . The Urgel Channels (478 hm³), the Aragón and Catalonia Channel (362 hm³) and the future Segarra-Garrigas Channel stand out.(342 hm³). However, despite its reduced flow, of all the Spanish basins, it is the Internal Basins of Catalonia where water is used the most for human consumption (518 hm³). This imbalance has promoted the use of groundwater in the coastal and eastern regions, of which Catalonia has enough reserves. In any case, it is usual that in periods of low rainfall there are cuts in the supply to populations, even in spring. [ 27 ] For this reason, several river transfer options have been considered. There are 28 reservoirs for water supply , of which ten operate in the Segre basin. The oldest is the Camarasa reservoir , built in1920 , and the largest are those of Canelles (679 hm³, shared with Aragón), Rialb (402.8 hm³), Santa Ana (236.6 hm³, shared with Aragón) and Susqueda (233 hm³).
In the territory there are few considerable lakes . Most of them are found in the Catalan Pyrenees in the form of small lagoons ( pond ), originated by ancient glacial cirques. Of these, those of the Aigüestortes and San Mauricio Lake National Park are famous , although the largest of all is Lake Banyoles , of karst origin .
The Catalan coast is seen by a generalized line of more than 500 km in length, although in definition it reaches 754.8 km. The coastline tends to be straight without major accidents. The only maritime accidents are configured by the contact of the Pyrenees with the sea, forming Cap de Creus , next to which is the Gulf of Roses . Later and until Blanes appears the Costa Brava , characterized by small cliffs and hidden coves. Then there is a long line of Maresme beaches , parallel to the Cordillera Litoral, and which is only cut by the various commercial and fishing ports. The coast of Barcelona is characterized by artificial beaches and a largecommercial port that extends over more than nine kilometers. The southern part of the port was developed on the plain of the Llobregat delta , which after the port draws a smooth coastline of just over 18 km. Then the Garraf massif articulates the coasts in remarkable cliffs and until after Sitges the coast is no longer rectilinear (except again for numerous ports) and facing south, up to the height of the port of Tarragona . This is the second largest port in Catalonia and stretches for more than five kilometers, before entering Cape Salou . The beaches in this area take the name of Costa Doradain its tourist aspect. To the south the coast is smooth again, and is characterized by less human occupation. The last major geographical feature is determined by the Gulf of San Jorge and the lowlands of the Ebro delta , where islands and peninsulas are found, such as Punta del Falgar to the north and La Banya to the south, which is joined to the delta by the Trabucador beach. The sand on Catalan beaches is generally golden, and with a certain tendency to be grainy in the north and finer in the south.
|Map of Catalonia by land use in 2002|
continental waters sand, snow and other unproductive soils urban and industrial centers and roadsforests, clearings and humid vegetation
Despite the population and the industrialization of Catalonia, a good part of the land remains intact at the hand of man. The forest landscape is distributed over 18 257 km² ( 2002 ), [ 28 ] and is especially appreciated in the mountainous areas of the north and the coast. This includes light and thick forests ( sclerophyllous , deciduous and needle-shaped ) as well as vegetation in humid areas. These forests occupy 56.8% of the Catalan surface. By extension, the next cover is occupied by crops, extending over 32.5% of the territory (10,448 km²). Of these, rainfed agriculture stands out, (7069 km²), spread over many regions and being characteristic of La Segarra , Solsonés , Bages and Anoia among others. The rainfed fruit cultivation extends mainly from the south of Ponent and the Ebro Lands . Regarding the vine , the vines extended that year for 769 km², mainly in the Penedès . Irrigation extension is more restricted (2611 km²) and is distributed mainly by Segriá , Plana de Urgeland surroundings, especially through the many irrigation channels, as well as the Ebro delta , and to a lesser extent, in the Empordà , La Cerdanya and on the coast of Barcelona . The cultivation of fruit trees by irrigation is less extensive, and occurs especially in Segriá and Campo de Tarragona .
The human presence in 2002 had an area of 1520 km² (4.7% of the Catalan territory) and is generally concentrated on the coast, especially in the metropolitan area of Barcelona . The extension of the urbanizations stands out, greater than that of the urban centers, and later the area destined for industrial and commercial use (229 km²).
Finally, the unused or unusable land constituted 5.4% (1740 km²) and was mainly spread over the Pyrenean peaks in the form of bare vegetation or meadow. The surface occupied by the waters (of rivers, lakes or dams) was 150.5 km², only 0.5% of the Catalan surface.
Protection of the Catalan natural environment has grown rapidly in recent years. As of 2006 , the protected land territory amounted to 9,608 km², practically 30% of Catalonia. Spaces differ in degree of protection; In this sense, the park with the highest rank and age is the only national park in Catalonia, the Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici national park , inaugurated in 1955 . However, it was already since 1932 that it was intended to protect some areas of the Pyrenees in the so-called Macià Plan . [ 29 ]
It was not until after the democratic restoration and the autonomic government that it was re-legislated to protect natural spaces. Currently, several administrations (the Ministry of the Environment , the Generalitat of Catalonia and the Barcelona Provincial Council , together with various consortiums of municipalities) are in charge of ensuring, protecting and promoting protected areas. The Generalitat, in addition to co-managing the Aigüestortes Park, manages a network of eleven natural parks , three Paratges Naturals d'Interès Nacional , a natural reserve ( Delta del Llobregat ) and a marine reserve ( Medas Islands ). For its part, the Barcelona Provincial Council has aNetwork of Natural Parks ( Xarxa de Parcs Naturals ) directed by the Natural Spaces Area of the Provincial Council that extends the protected areas by 12 parks with different degrees of protection, some managed together with the Generalitat. In addition to these parks, there is a more extensive network of specific areas protected by less specific laws [ 30 ] whose objective is to combine the diversity of the Catalan territory and its local flora and fauna. This network, called PEIN ( Pla d'Espais d'Interès Natural ) also incorporates the aforementioned natural and national parks that do have specific legislation. As of April 2007, Spaces included in the PEIN amounted to 165. [ 31 ]
The population of Catalonia as of January 1, 2015 was 7,504,008 inhabitants, [ 32 ] with a percentage of people of immigrant origin of 14.49%.
The city of Barcelona is home to more than 1.6 million people in just over 100 km² of surface.
Around the capital there are two and a half million more people residing within a radius of less than 25 km from the capital. In the first metropolitan crown there are the cities of Hospitalet de Llobregat , Badalona , Santa Coloma de Gramanet , and Cornellá . The main towns in the second crown are Tarrasa , Sabadell , Mataró , Moncada and Reixach , Granollers , Martorell , Molins de Rey , San Feliú de Llobregat , Gavá and Casteldefels . AtBarcelona's metropolitan area has a population that exceeds four million inhabitants. The second urban agglomeration in Catalonia is the one formed by the agglomeration of Reus - Tarragona .
The rest of the population of Catalonia is based on the north coast ( Costa Brava ), the south coast ( Costa Dorada ), the Llobregat river valley to Manresa , and the inland cities of Lérida (to the west) and Gerona (to the northeast) .
Several languages are spoken in Catalonia, the main ones being Spanish and Catalan . According to the Statute of Autonomy, both languages, together with Occitan (in its Aranese variant ), are official. [ 1 ] In addition, Catalan is considered the language of Catalonia, while Occitan is considered the language of the Valley of Arán . Catalans are generally bilingual and know the two main languages, although they differ with respect to the language they have as their mother tongue.. According to 2013 data, 99.7% of Catalans can speak Spanish while 80.4% can speak Catalan. [ 33 ] In addition, the use by each speaker of one or another language often depends on the social environment in which it is expressed.
|Understand it||5 832 200||94,3 %||6 452 400||99,8 %|
|Knows how to speak||4 823 400||80,4 %||6 146 800||99,7 %|
|Can read it||5 034 400||82,4 %||6 002 900||97,4 %|
|Can write it||3 807 300||60,4 %||5 891 300||95,9 %|
|Source: Statistical Institute of Catalonia [ 34 ]|
|Catalan in Catalonia a|
|Year 2008||Year 2013|
|Usual language||2 932 000||47.5 %||2 696 200||43.1 %|
|Initial language||2 186 000||35.4 %||2 092 700||33.4 %|
|Identification language||2 838 100||46 %||2 712 700||43.4 %|
|Source: Statistical Institute of Catalonia [ 35 ] [ 36 ]|
- a Figures including both the speakers who consider only Catalan as their habitual, mother tongue or identification language and those who consider both Catalan and Spanish in this way.
Catalan extends beyond the territory of the community, since it is widely spoken in the Valencian Community , the Balearic Islands , the eastern fringe of Aragon , Andorra , the French Eastern Pyrenees and the Sardinian town of Alghero . In Catalonia the two main blocks of the language are spoken. Eastern includes the central dialect , the majority, which is spoken in the northern regions of Tarragona , Barcelona , and Gerona, in whose Pyrenean region features of northern Catalan already appear. The western one is that of the western regions of Catalonia ( Lérida and southern Tarragona) and shows similar features to the Valencian , with which it forms a continuum and at whose intersection is the Tortoise . Catalan is especially prevalent outside the metropolitan area of Barcelona and the Campo de Tarragona . The Generalitat has been developing legislation that promotes and protects the social use of Catalan. In 2008, Catalan was considered the mother tongue of 35.4% of Catalans, [ 37 ] that of 46% [ 38 ]And that of habitual use of 47.6% [ 39 ] (the percentages also include speakers who jointly consider Castilian and Catalan as their mother tongue, their own or commonly used).
In Catalonia, Catalan remained the usual language in absolute terms between 1980 and 2008, instead of regressing as in the Valencian Community or Roussillon. The decline in relative terms that occurred in the period 2003-2008 is due to the significant arrival of immigrants to Catalonia, more than half a million in that period, 36% of whom have Spanish as their mother tongue. [ 40 ] Other studies, such as The Second Generation in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Study (March 2009), [ 41 ] applied to the Barcelona metropolitan area, indicate that approximately 80% of immigrants in the study area considered prefer use Spanish, [ 42 ]A higher percentage than those who speak it by origin. The authors believe that this is the case because immigrants have settled in neighborhoods where Spanish is more common.
Regarding territorial distribution (data from 2013), the use of Catalan (exclusive, not counting those who also speak regularly in Spanish) is predominant in the functional areas of the Girona Comarcas (51.5%), Tierras del Ebro ( 73.8%), Poniente (61.9%), Central Catalonia (63.0%) and Alto Pirineo and Arán (61.3%), where Catalan as the usual (exclusive) language is used by more than 50% of the population. The lowest grades of exclusive use are in Campo de Tarragona (38.6%) and the metropolitan area of Barcelona (27.8%). [ 43 ]With respect to the 2003 data, a percentage decline in exclusive habitual speakers of Catalan is observed in all areas, ranging from 8.8% in Poniente to 16.5 in Campo de Tarragona. [ 44 ]
The Government of Catalonia has carried out work to promote and enhance the use of Catalan as the priority language in Catalonia. Both the Statute of Autonomy of 1979 and that of 2006 define Catalan as the language of Catalonia. The 2006 Statute also states that: [ 1 ]
Catalonia's own language is Catalan. As such, Catalan is the language of normal
and preferreduse [ note 1 ] of the public administrations and the public media of Catalonia, and it is also the language normally used as a vehicle and for learning in teaching.Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, article 6.1.
|First language used, Demographic Survey 2007 [ 46 ] [ 47 ]|
|Español||3 542 200 (50,2%)|
|Catalan||2 266 700 (32,2%)|
|Both languages||519 700 (7,4%)|
|Other languages||717 300 (10,2%)|
|Arab||119 400 (1,7%)|
|Romanian||102 400 (1,5%)|
|Berber||87 500 (1,2%)|
|French||46 700 (0,7%)|
|Portuguese||44 700 (0,6%)|
|Galician||36 600 (0,5%)|
|English||33 800 (0,5%)|
|Russian||29 200 (0,4%)|
|German||27 400 (0,4%)|
|Chino||16 700 (0,2%)|
|Italiano||13 400 (0,2%)|
|Others||159 500 (2,3%)|
|Total population over 2 years||7 049 900 (100,%)|
In 2013, Spanish was the most widely spoken language in Catalonia, surpassing Catalan not only as a habitual language, but also as a mother tongue and identification language, [ 36 ] both in relative and absolute figures. The Castilian of Catalonia tends to predominate in urban areas, especially in the metropolitan area of Barcelona and the Camp de Tarragona, while Catalan predominates in the rest of Catalonia. The variation of these data with respect to previous measurements is partly determined by the significant increase in immigration of foreign population in the period 2001-2008. In 2007, the number of residents born abroad, of which a considerable number came from Latin American countries, represented 16.4% of the resident population in Catalonia. [ 48 ]The Castilian that is spoken in Catalonia has disparate features, without showing a specific dialect. Some Spanish speakers who are native to other regions of Spain show phonetic and dialect features typical of their land of origin, while others neutralized these features, either at will, by contact with Catalan speakers, by the influence of the media, etc. Catalan speakers who speak Spanish show some influences from their mother tongue [ 49 ] and their features are, at times, stereotyped as those typical of Catalans when speaking in the Spanish language. In 2008, Spanish was the mother tongue of 58.8% of Catalans, [ 37 ] their own for 55.3% [ 38] And the usual 57.9% [ 39 ] (the percentages also include speakers who jointly consider Spanish and Catalan as their mother tongue, their own or commonly used).
Aranese is the mother tongue of 22.4% of the population of the Aran Valley, 27.1% of the population and the usual 23.4%. [ 50 ]
The immigrant or foreign community installed in Catalonia often maintains their mother tongue to communicate with their relatives or speakers of the same language who also reside in the territory. Apart from the Spanish spoken by immigrants from Latin America, Arabic and Romanian stand out above all , although their number extends considerably in cities that, such as Barcelona, with inhabitants of up to 131 nationalities, [ 51 ] show a wide linguistic repertoire , of which in addition to those mentioned, French , Portuguese , German and English stand out . The statistical survey of linguistic uses of theGeneralidad carried out in 2003 also revealed the significant presence of Galician speakers . [ 48 ]
In the current Catalan territory, several languages have existed during history. The first known, or partially known, is the Iberian language , which is the etymological origin of several place names, in the same way that in the northeast of the region there are place names whose origin is in Aquitanian (Proto-Euskera) ; [ 53 ] although the linguistic habits of its speakers are not exactly known. The study of the Greek colonization and implantation of the Empordà shows the use of Ionic Greekas a local language; the settlers perhaps had a certain bilingualism in Iberian to carry out their commercial exchanges. There is also a good number of Celtic place names, presumably of a variety related to the Gaulish one ( Besalú < Bisuldunum , Verdú < Virodunum , etc.). The arrival and establishment of the Romans is clearer and the implantation of Latin more evident, especially in ceramics and toponymics. The conquest of Hispania and the victory of the Romans was only possible after the victory over the Carthaginians , although the brief presence of this Phoenician peopleHe did not leave notable influences in present-day Catalonia. For a time it was believed that Barcelona was a Carthaginian foundation, with the establishment of a population of that ethnic group, although it was later dismissed and this is believed to be a Roman establishment on a previous indigenous population. The Romanization , already initiated in Century II a. C. penetrated deeply into the Iberians who gradually left their language to adopt Latin , although in some Pyrenean areas some form of Basque continued to be spoken for a few more centuries, it is believed that at least until the 9th century on the basis of toponymy . Arrival of Jewish, Hebrew- speaking communities possible, established in Barcelona or other cities as early as the 4th century . [ citation required ]
Later, with the arrival of the Germanic peoples, a population of Gothic language was established that occupied the power strata, although they progressively adopted some Roman customs and their language, which had already evolved to the late stage and showed some differences between the provinces . However, the manifestation of substantial differences did not arrive until the 9th century , after the entry of the Muslims into the Iberian Peninsula. This population, of Arab and Berber origin, was not very numerous but they assumed the power spaces of the Visigoths and gradually they were expanding their culture and their Arabic language.. Its presence in the current Catalan territory was greater in the south (the so-called New Catalonia ) where there are some place names and a greater Muslim archaeological presence. The Christian Reconquest was taking territories from the Emirate of Córdoba first and the Taifa of Lérida and Tortosa later, in whose territories the local population was sometimes assumed, more Arabized or repopulated with inhabitants of the Catalan counties . This ethnographic mix was generally peaceful, although at times the rulers promoted the Christianization of society; eventually took precedence language of Christians, and for the century XIthe social elite already used the Catalan romance in their literary and legal texts. Catalan is the language of the Crown, the literary expression of which reached its period of splendor in the Middle Ages. The use of the Castilian language in Catalonia seems to begin with the election in 1412 of Ferdinand I as king, [ 54 ] of Castilian origin, whose court adopted that language, and which would gain international prestige due to the Castilian demographic and cultural weight.
In the following centuries, merchants, writers and the upper classes of society gradually adopted the Castilian language, whose economic interests and cultural references were oriented towards the Peninsula and America, while the lower and rural classes continued to maintain family and popular use. from Catalan. [ 54 ] The evolution of this process increased in intensity due to the political imposition that followed the defeat of the Austracist side (whose greatest support within Spain was the Crown of Aragon ) in the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714 and the Decrees of New Plantof 1716, which considered Catalonia a conquered territory and which caused the suppression of its privileges. The prevailing Bourbon policy led to the unification of the State in all its aspects, of which the language was no exception. Catalan was relegated in favor of Castilian in the administration, the army, religion, history, justice, education, commerce and the arts through legislative imposition. [ 55 ] However, Catalan continued to be the family language. The political and cultural situation of the 19th century allowed the emergence of the cultural movement of the Renaissance("Renaissance") that motivated many writers to adopt the Catalan language again for their literature; This movement promoted the prestige of the language. Later, Catalanism would defend Catalan from a political front, and already into the twentieth century , Catalan had a wide variety of media. However, political tensions had an impact on the language ban on several occasions, such as with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera . [ 56 ] During the Second Spanish Republic , the co-officiality of Catalan introduced by the statute of autonomy of Cataloniaallowed the use of both languages in the administration and Catalan was allowed in teaching; However, the Civil War and the Franco dictatorship gave way to the prohibition of its public dissemination and its teaching; This, together with the migratory movement of the 1960s and 1970s from other regions of Spain, put obstacles to the presence of the Catalan language in Catalonia. The democratic transition introduced into the Constitution the possibility of adopting co-official languages, which in the Catalan statute meant the co-officiality of Catalan together with Spanish for the autonomy of Catalonia.
The legal consideration of languages has changed substantially since the Democratic Transition. The 1978 Constitution mentions in its third article Castilian as "the official Spanish language of the State", as well as the other Spanish languages "official in the respective Autonomous Communities according to their Statutes". [ 57 ] Accordingly, the 1979 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia makes Spanish and Catalan official as official languages (Catalan of Catalonia, and Castilian as it is the official language of the Spanish State). [ 1 ] The 2006 StatuteIt also ensures that "all people have the right to use both and the citizens of Catalonia have the right and the duty to know them." [ 1 ] The same article specifies that the language of Catalonia is Catalan, and «as such, Catalan is the language of normal and preferred use of the public administrations and public media of Catalonia, and it is also the language normally used as a vehicle and for learning in teaching ». [ 1 ] Finally, Aranese (name given to the Occitan language in the Aran Valley) is considered since 2006 as the language of that territory and official also in Catalonia. The same Statute of Autonomy dedicates a chapter (Title I, Chapter II: Of linguistic rights and duties ) that determines the right not to be discriminated against for linguistic reasons and guarantees the validity and uses of both languages in the Public Administration and other official institutions . [ 1 ]
Catalonia, organized as an autonomous community, is defined as a nationality in its Statute of Autonomy , under the provisions of the second article of the Spanish Constitution , which recognizes and guarantees the right to autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
In Catalonia there are four public administrations present, with different levels of responsibility and political powers: the General State Administration , the Generalitat of Catalonia , the provincial councils , and the town councils .
The General State Administration deals with different issues such as security (armed forces), justice, port and airport management, RENFE trains , and coasts, among the most prominent competences. Over the last few years, the National Police Corps and the Civil Guard, within the framework of transfer of powers, have been relieved in most of their powers by the progressive deployment over the territory of the Mozos de Escuadra , autonomous police . The State Administration in Catalonia is coordinated from the headquarters of the Government Delegation . The Government Delegate is appointed directly by the Government of Spain by decree.
The Government of Catalonia, the institutional system in which the self-government of Catalonia is politically organized, has broad powers and manages different areas, such as: education , social affairs , transit, determination of economic and trade policies, etc. The Generalitat is also responsible for the construction of public facilities such as hospitals, primary and secondary schools, universities, residences for the elderly, among others. [ 1 ]
Catalonia, like other Spanish autonomous regions, has extensive powers transferred by the State. Currently, the Generalitat has powers in matters such as culture, tourism or housing. In other areas, such as credit management, banking and insurance, it is responsible for the legislative development and the execution of the basic legislation of the State. Finally, in matters such as intellectual and industrial property, it is responsible for the execution of state legislation.
Catalonia has its own autonomous police, called Mozos de Escuadra (in Catalan: Mossos d'Esquadra-Policia de la Generalitat ), under the provisions of the Law on Security Forces and Bodies. The Mozos de Escuadra were gradually replacing the State security forces and bodies , the Civil Guard and the National Police Corps , which depend directly on the Ministry of the Interior, with the Catalan autonomous police assuming the responsibilities in public security, [ 58 ] which include some of the functions that both the Civil Guard and the National Police had been performing until now, mainly in matters ofcitizen security and traffic. The State maintains in Catalonia, once the deployment is completed, a limited number of agents to exercise the functions attributed exclusively to the General State Administration such as terrorism and drug trafficking, the surveillance of ports, airports, coasts and borders, customs, control of entry and exit from the national territory, general immigration regime, extradition and expulsion, emigration and immigration, official identity documents, arms and explosives trafficking, State tax protection, contraband and tax fraud and the other functions that the Constitution and the law establishes.
Unlike the Basque Country and Navarra, whose tax relations with the State are regulated through their respective traditional regional systems, and the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla, for which the organic law provided for in article 157.3 of the Constitution, of financing of the autonomous communities, establishes peculiarities, Catalonia, like the remaining communities, lacks a special fiscal autonomy. Most taxes are collected by the State Tax Administration Agency, so its income depends on the transfers it receives from the central Administration.
In 1931 the first establishment of a self-government for Catalonia took place, which disappeared after the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. Later, in 1977, with the approval of the Spanish Constitution, Catalonia was granted the capacity for self-government in some matters. As of that date, the Parliament of the Generalitat, the Presidency of the Generalitat and the Government of the Generalitat, which are its main institutions of self-government, as well as by the rest of the bodies created by law of the Catalan Parliament are created.
- Executive branch of Catalonia
In Catalonia, in addition to the Spanish Government, its executive powers the Catalan government consists of the president of the Generalitat, the First Minister , if applicable, and counselors. It exercises the executive function and regulatory power.
- Legislative power of Catalonia
The Parliament of Catalonia is made up of one hundred thirty-five deputies, elected for a term of four years by universal, free, equal, direct and secret suffrage. Parliament exercises legislative power, approves the Generalitat's budgets and controls and promotes political and government action.
- Judicial power in Catalonia
Under the provisions of the Statute of Autonomy , Catalonia is governed by Catalan civil law, whose conservation, modification and development is the exclusive competence of the Generalitat. Likewise, in accordance with article 35 of the Statute of Autonomy, a law of Parliament regulates the figure of the Ombudsman ( Síndic de Greuges in Catalan, equivalent to the Ombudsman ), which ensures the defense of fundamental rights and freedoms public relations of citizens in their relations with public administrations.
- The Citizens Party-Citizenship Party , born from the civic and cultural platform Ciutadans de Catalunya ;
- The joint list Junts per Catalunya ('Together for Catalonia'), made up of the Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCat) and the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC).
- The Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya-Catalunya Sì coalition ('Izquierda Republicana de Cataluña-Cataluña Sí'), made up of Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), Reagrupament Independentista (RI) and Catalunya Sí (CAT-SÍ).
- The Party of Socialists of Catalonia , an independent party associated with the Spanish Socialist Workers Party , formed after the merger of the three regional socialist parties that existed during the Transition: Partit Socialista de Catalunya-Congrés , Partit Socialista de Catalunya-Reagrupament and the Catalan Federation of the PSOE ;
- The Catalonia en Comú-Podem coalition ('Catalunya en Común-Podemos'), made up of Catalunya en Comú , Barcelona en Comú , Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds , Esquerra Unida i Alternativa , Podemos and Equo ;
- The Candidacy of Popular Unity-Called Constituent Coalition , of which the Candidacy of Popular Unity , Colectivo Drassanes, Constituents for the Rupture, Internationalist Struggle , En Lucha, Corriente Roja , Els Verds-Alternativa Verda, Endavant , Poble Lliure , Arran , are members. Union of Students of the Catalan Countries , Coordinadora Obrera Sindical and various local parties;
- The Catalan Popular Party ('Catalan People's Party'), the Popular Party delegation in the Catalan autonomous community.
The controversy of Catalonia as a nation
In the proposal of the Statute of Autonomy approved in 2006 and currently in force, the Parliament of Catalonia approved the definition of Catalonia as a nation . [ 1 ] However, exercising its superior powers, the Congress of Deputies amended this proposal and excluded the definition of nationof the articles of the new Statute - although a reference is maintained in the preamble to what the Catalan Parliament approved in its day, as follows: "The Spanish Constitution, in the second article, recognizes the national reality of Catalonia as a nationality". Likewise, the Catalan legislators introduced another reference to the national character of Catalonia, protected by the current legal system, which is found in article 8.1 of the 2006 Statute, by stating that Catalonia, defined as nationality in article 1, has as “symbols nationals »the flag, the party and the anthem.
In the opinion of the Government of the Nation , [ 60 ] and the ruling party that supported its approval, [ 61 ] the text of the preamble has only declarative and not legal value. In the opinion of the spokesman for the Socialist Parliamentary Group, in his speech, on behalf of the ruling party, during the debate in the Congress of Deputies on the Statute, the preamble has "political, legal and interpretative importance." [ 62 ] The Popular Party , at that time the main opposition party, presented an appeal to the Constitutional Court on July 31, 2006.against the new Statute for the possible unconstitutional use of the term "nation" in the preamble —among many other aspects—, which was admitted for processing by the High Court and which was resolved by declaring the Statute partially unconstitutional. [ 63 ] The Ombudsman did the same on September 19 of the same year. [ 64 ] The modifications of the courts were not subject to a popular vote.
Unilateral Declaration of Independence (DUI)
On October 27, 2017, the Parliament of Catalonia proceeds to the vote to convert Catalonia into a Republic, in a secret vote and with the absence of the 53 deputies of the parties opposed to the independence process - PP, PSC and Citizens - by consider that the Spanish Constitution does not allow it. [ 65 ] It was a vote against the decisions of the Constitutional Court and of the Parliament's own lawyers, who previously warned the Bureau that they could not formalize any resolution in this regard in accordance with current legislation and the opinions of the Constitutional Court . The motion goes ahead by seventy votes in favor, ten against and two blank, [ 66 ]But said declaration of independence was provisionally suspended by the Constitutional Court on October 31 [ 67 ] after a request in this regard from the PSC.
On October 27 in the afternoon, the Senate approved the Government's request to activate Article 155 of the Constitution [ 68 ] by 214 votes in favor, 47 against and one abstention, [ 69 ]Alleging the repeated violation of the Catalan Government of the laws in force in its sovereignty wishes. The Spanish Government dismisses the Catalan Government, calling elections for December 21, 2017, and passing the tasks of the ministries to those of the corresponding ministries. All political parties end up accepting the call for elections, even the Catalan nationalists despite their initial reluctance. He also takes control of the Mozos de Escuadra, the Catalan autonomous police, dismissing Major Trapero for his legal problems, and puts his number two in command. The decision is accepted without incident by the members of the autonomous police force.
On October 30, the State Attorney General requested that the Bureau of Parliament and the Government of the Generalitat be charged with sedition, rebellion and embezzlement. [ 70 ] The latter, supposedly for embezzling public funds to finance the referendum declared illegal by the Constitutional Court that took place on October 1 of the same year.
The former president of the Generalitat, Carles Puigdemont , fled to Belgium together with four former councilors with the intention of internationalizing the problem, [ citation needed ] After accepting the complaint from the State Attorney General, the judge of the National Court, Carmen Lamela , summons the dismissed members of the Catalan Government for November 2. Due [ citation required ] to the flight of Puigdemont and other councilors, after appearing in court, they declare unconditional imprisonment for the Catalan vice president Oriol Junqueras and seven other former councilors. [ 69 ]For crimes of sedition, rebellion and embezzlement. [ 71 ] The complaint to the Bureau of Parliament is presented to the Supreme Court for being registered members and is accepted, but their declaration is postponed from November 2 to November 9 of the same month.
Finally, Judge Lamela refers the open case to the Supreme Court when assessing that her defendants are part of the same investigation instructed by Judge Pablo Llarena in the High Court, [ 72 ] but retains the investigation on the development of the independence referendum of the October 1, 2017 , also considered unconstitutional.
Catalonia is territorially organized into counties, municipalities and provinces. Historically, it has also been organized in regions and veguerías , the latter name recovered with the new Statute of Autonomy.
The provinces are the oldest administrative division still in force in Catalonia. They start from the grouping of municipalities and take the name of their capitals. The Judicial Power starts from the provincial division to establish the judicial parties grouping the municipalities that are adjudicated under the same judicial seat. [ 73 ] The autonomous community of Catalonia emerged through the formal union of four provinces:
The Generalitat of Catalonia established an administrative division into forty-one regions , the governing bodies of which are the County Councils . The regional division of Catalonia has its origin in a decree of the Republican Generalitat of 1936 , which was in force until the end of the Civil War . The county division was again adopted by law of Parliament in 1987 . This division was based on geographic and local market criteria, which largely coincides with previous territorial entities with a great tradition. There are only four regions ( Bergadá , Cerdaña , Osonaand Selva ) that include municipalities belonging to two provinces, while the rest do so fully maintaining the same municipal boundaries.
The Arán Valley (in Aranese , Val d'Aran ) deserves special attention since, although it is included within the regional organization, it enjoys greater autonomy, in accordance with Law 16/1990, on the special regime of the Arán Valley , approved by the Parliament of Catalonia.
The municipality is the territorial base of Catalonia where there are 947, of which as of 2017 ( INE ), 488 had less than 1000 inhabitants. 121 exceed the population to be considered a city , and 64 exceed 20,000 inhabitants (in which more than 70% of the Catalan population lives).
Catalonia is a territory with an industrial tradition since the 19th century . At present , industry , tourism and services are the main economic sectors in Catalonia. The average annual growth in the period 1995 - 2004 in real terms was lower than the Spanish average. In 2014 , the Catalan economy grew by 1.4%, the same percentage as the Spanish average and above the European average. According to the same official sources, Catalonia is in fourth place in the classification of communities according to GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Parities and is the one that contributes the most to total Spanish GDP (18.7%, year 2014).
The unemployment rate in Catalonia, at the end of 2014, was 19.9%: 20.2 in men and 19.6 in women.
Industry, construction, tourism and services are the main economic sectors in Catalonia.
Catalonia is the number one tourist destination in Spain: the 16.7 million tourists it received between January and December 2014 represent 25.8% of the total arrivals registered throughout Spain, and represent an increase of 7.2% compared to to the same period of the previous year. The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona , the beaches of Girona's Costa Brava and Tarragona's Costa Dorada (where the PortAventura World tourist complex is also located ), and the Pyrenean area, where there are 10 ski resorts: Baqueira Beret , La Molina , Espot Ski , La Masella , Port Ainé, Vall de Núria , Boí Taüll , Port del Comte , Rasos de Peguera , Tavascan and Vallter 2000 .
Housing is the biggest source of indebtedness for Catalans. In this sense, it should be noted that Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second community in Spain where the price of housing is more expensive: an average of 3,397 euros per square meter are paid, according to data from the Appraisal Society as of December 31, 2005. By cities, however, Barcelona is the most expensive city in Spain, with an average price of 3,700 euros per square meter.
From a financial point of view, it is worth noting the great establishment and tradition that savings banks have in Catalonia , even greater than private banks. An example is that of the 46 Spanish savings banks , 10 are Catalan. Especially noteworthy are the Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona , known as "La Caixa", which is the leading savings bank in Europe, and Caixa Catalunya . In terms of banks, the most important in Catalonia is Banco Sabadell , the fourth largest Spanish banking group.
The Barcelona Stock Exchange , which in 2014 traded almost 212,825 million euros, is the second most important in Spain after the Madrid Stock Exchange . In 2018, the contracting volume was 166,994 million euros.
For its part, the Barcelona Fair organizes all kinds of international exhibitions and conferences on various sectors of the economy.
Fossil fuel power plants
|Thermal power plant of the Port of Barcelona||Barcelona||Barcelona||c. combined||2||850 MW||Natural gas Fenosa [ 75 ]|
|Besós V thermal power plant||San Adrián de Besós||Barcelona||c. combined||2||873 MW||Endesa [ 76 ]|
|Besós combined cycle plant||San Adrián de Besós||Barcelona||c. combined||2||800 MW||Natural gas Fenosa / Endesa [ 77 ]|
|Foix thermal power plant||Cubellas||Barcelona||conventional||1||520 MW||Endesa|
|Tarragona thermal power plant||Tarragona||Tarragona||c. combined||1||410 MW||E. [ 78 ]|
|Tarragona Power Thermal Power Plant||The Canon||Tarragona||c. combined||1||424 MW||Iberdrola|
|Plana del Vent thermal power plant||Vandellós||Tarragona||c. combined||2||800 MW||Gas Natural Fenosa / Alpiq|
* : Closing planned for 2013
Nuclear power plants
- Ascó nuclear power plant , in Ascó , Tarragona.
- Vandellós nuclear power plant , in Vandellós , Tarragona.
Transport and mobility
The integrated fare system used in public transport in all its provinces should be highlighted for transport in Catalonia . The T-Mobilitat will be the last advance in transport integration, allowing the citizens of Catalonia to use a single ticket for all the adhered modes of transport that are currently divided into four different integrated systems. [ 80 ]
Congresses and exhibition halls
In Catalonia, a large number of congresses and exhibition halls are organized which, only at the Fira Barcelona located in Barcelona and Hospitalet de Llobregat , are visited by more than 3 million people.
Scientific and technological research has been one of the pillars of the development of Catalonia. Among the most famous Catalan scientists it is worth mentioning Narciso Monturiol , the astronomer José Comas y Solá , the climatologist Eduard Fontserè , or the biochemist Joan Oró .
Currently, a large economic investment is being made by public administrations and private entities to maximize scientific and technological research, not only in university centers but also in private institutions. The work of institutions such as the Higher Council for Scientific Research in Catalonia stands out in this area .
In this sense, it is worth highlighting the forthcoming inauguration of the Biomedical Research Park that is being built in Barcelona, and which will be the most important in Europe in the biomedical field; the 22 @ neighborhood project in Barcelona, which encourages the installation of all kinds of leading companies in the European technological field; and the launch with the inauguration by the presidents Montilla, Zapatero and the Minister of Science and Innovation, Cristina Garmendia of the synchrotron in Sardañola del Vallés . [ 81 ] In Tarrasa you can visit the Museum of Science and Technology of Catalonia , and in Barcelona the CosmoCaixa , formerly called the Science Museum.
The most internationally renowned Catalan painters are Salvador Dalí , Joan Miró and Antoni Tàpies , all of them from the 20th century. Also closely linked to the pictorial environment of Catalonia was Pablo Picasso from Malaga , who lived his youth in Barcelona , where he trained as an artist and began Cubism by painting, among other works, The Young Ladies of Avignon . Other Catalans who have also made their mark in the world of visual arts are Ramón Casas , Josep Maria Subirachs and Mariano Fortuny .
The most relevant pictorial museums in Catalonia are the Dalí Theater-Museum , in Figueras (Gerona) , the Picasso Museum in Barcelona , the Antoni Tàpies Foundation , and the Joan Miró Foundation , both in Barcelona, where the National Museum of Art is also notable. of Catalonia (MNAC), the Museum of Contemporary Art of Barcelona (MACBA), the Center of Contemporary Culture of Barcelona (CCCB), and CaixaForum Barcelona .
Dalí Theater-Museum , in Figueras.
Music is one of the most vigorous sectors of the cultural industry in Catalonia, both due to the number of musical activities and events that take place throughout the year, as well as the network of music venues, and the number of producers, composers , performers and groups of different genres that emerged in Catalonia.
- Composers : The Catalan composers with the greatest international dimension are Pau Casals , Isaac Albéniz and Enrique Granados , although also, in the 20th century, artists such as Xavier Cugat , Leonora Milà , Xavier Montsalvatge , Tete Montoliu and Federico Mompou , among others , stood out .
- Singer-songwriters : They proliferated especially in the second half of the 20th century, and especially in the field of music in the Catalan language, on the occasion of the Nova Cançó movement . Artists such as Lluís Llach , Joan Manuel Serrat , Maria del Mar Bonet , or Francesc Pí de la Serra stand out in this area . In the Spanish language, Serrat himself (who combines works in Catalan and Spanish) and Manolo García have stood out . Currently in the alternative scene is Carlos Sadness as an exponent
- Performers and musical ensembles : The cellist Pau Casals and the pianist Alicia de Larrocha are the most prestigious classical music performers in Catalan music. From the field of opera, the sopranos Montserrat Caballé and Victoria de los Ángeles and the tenors José Carreras and Jaume Aragall stand out . In the field of pop and rock, since the second half of the 20th century, numerous interpreters have emerged in Catalonia, especially in the Spanish language: Los Sírex , Santabárbara , Loquillo y Los Trogloditas , El Último de la Fila , Jarabe de Palo, Los Rebeldes , Sergio Dalma or Mónica Naranjo are the greatest exponents. In the 1990s the phenomenon of Catalan rock took place , in which groups such as Els Pets , Sopa de Cabra or Sau and singers such as Quimi Portet stood out , revitalizing pop rock in the Catalan language. Artists such as El Pescaílla , Peret , Gato Pérez , Los Manolos and, lately, Estopa have stood out with the Catalan rumba, which has merged rumba with pop-rock.
- Music venues : The most important stages in Catalonia are located in the city of Barcelona . Especially noteworthy are the Lyceum , the Palace of Catalan Music , the Auditorium (official headquarters of the Symphony Orchestra of Barcelona and the National of Catalonia (OBC) ", and the National Theater of Catalonia . The most massive pop and rock concerts are usually held at held at the Palau Sant Jordi , the Palau dels Esports de Barcelona , and even in stadiums such as the Lluís Companys Olympic Stadium or the Camp Nou .
- Musical activities : Apart from the frequent concerts and musical activities that are programmed in the main Barcelona stages, various international music festivals take place in Catalonia on an annual basis. In Barcelona, the " Primavera Sound " Festival of electronic music stands out, which is held in May for three days, the " Sónar Festival " in June for electronic and multimedia music, and the " Grec Festival ", much more Eclectic, which during the month of July offers varied proposals in different scenarios of the city. Outside of Barcelona, the " Mercat de Música Viva de Vic , the" Festival de Peralada ", theTarrasa Jazz Festival , the Tarragona International Dixieland Festival  and the Pau Casals de El Vendrell International Music Festival . Another notable annual event is the International Record Fair of Catalonia.
One of the best known manifestations of Catalan popular culture is the castellers : the raising of human castles by collas castelleras (peñas) that rival each other. This practice, originally from the lands of Tarragona, specifically the city of Valls , spread throughout Catalonia and in recent years has received a great social boost thanks to television broadcasts and the creation of new collas .
Musically speaking , habaneras are characteristic of Catalonia , especially in the seaside towns of the Costa Brava . In the summer months, popular outdoor songs proliferate, always accompanied by the tasting of burnt rum. The Catalan rumba is also very representative of popular culture .
On the designated dates or major festivals, other elements of Catalan popular culture are always present: the parades of giants and big heads and correfocs with devils and firecrackers. One of the most traditional festivals in Catalonia is La Patum  in Berga, declared by Unesco Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 25, 2005.
The tradition of Tió de Nadal is also significant , on Christmas Day or, depending on the house, on the eve the Tió is put on fire and made to "shit". Now the Tió is no longer burned, he is only forced to repeatedly "shit" gifts for the little ones by continuously lashing out with the cane accompanied by the so-called Tió songs.
In addition to the manifestations of traditional Catalan culture, in Catalonia you can also enjoy cultural events typical of other Spanish regions as a result of the great immigration that the territory has received in the last century and a half. In this sense, the activities of the population of Andalusian origin are especially notable , and that have their maximum expression in the organization of the April Fair of Catalonia.
The gastronomy of Catalonia has a great culinary tradition. Its culinary processes have already been documented in documents since the 15th century. It offers a wide variety of products from both the sea, the mountains and the garden. On some occasions, the mixture of both is characteristic, as is the case of the mar i muntanya . Catalan cuisine has provided a whole series of typical dishes of the region with fish stews such as suquets or zarzuela , escudella (a kind of stew ), calçotada , and salvitxada . The pa amb tomàquet is typical of Catalonia, bread with tomato that accompanies many meat dishes or sausages, and with which sandwiches are made. Sauces such as aioli and romesco are the most characteristic sauces of Catalan cuisine.
Catalonia is also distinguished by its great winemaking tradition. The Penedés , Alella , El Priorato and Segre areas are great producers of a great variety of wines. The best known and most exported is the Penedés cava , whose production is led by family companies such as Freixenet and Codorníu .
It should be noted that Catalonia offers a wide variety of restaurants with cuisine from all Spanish regions, as well as international cuisine. Although Barcelona is the city with the largest number and variety of restaurants, the most prestigious, and distinguished with the most Michelin stars in 2012 are Sant Pau de Carme Ruscalleda located in San Pol de Mar and El Celler de Can Roca in Gerona . [ 82 ] Other gastronomic references have been "El Bulli" by Ferran Adrià , which was in Rosas ( Gerona ), closed on July 30, 2011; [ 83] And the "Can Fabes" restaurant inSanti Santamaria, located inSan Celoni.
Catalonia is, together with the Community of Madrid , the Spanish community with the largest number of media, both audiovisual and written. There are a large number of media in both Catalan and Spanish, and even a large number of bilingual media.
Televisió de Catalunya , a public company owned by the Catalan Audiovisual Media Corporation, has six channels that broadcast entirely in Catalan: the generalist TV3 , the one with marked cultural content El 33 , the news 3/24 , the sports Esport3 , the one dedicated to the public Children's Channel Super3 and the international TV3CAT . TV3 competes in audiences with the national televisions that broadcast in Catalonia in Spanish : both those owned by Televisión Española —that from its production center in San Cugat del Vallésproduces content in the Catalan language—, such as the private Antena 3 , Cuatro , Telecinco and La Sexta . The latter has one of its headquarters in Barcelona, while the other three private channels, with headquarters in Madrid, have production centers in Catalonia, from where they broadcast various programs.
Other televisions with a lower audience, although with a notable presence, are 8tv , the private television of the Godó Group that broadcasts in Catalan, Canal Català de Televisió , Barça TV , and local televisions, whose main exponent is Barcelona Televisió , which also broadcast in Catalan.
Historically, the two main Catalan publishing groups for newspapers and magazines have been the Godó Group and the Zeta Group . Each of the groups has a great variety of headlines, both for general information and sports newspapers, and for magazines. In recent years there has been a significant crisis in this type of press in Spain to the point that groups such as Grupo Zeta have had to close down some of their most historic journalistic headlines (such as Interviú magazine ).
The two main Catalan general information newspapers are El Periódico de Catalunya , by Grupo Zeta, and La Vanguardia , by Grupo Godó, both with editions in Catalan and Spanish. They are the two newspapers with the largest circulation and distribution in Catalonia, ahead of national newspapers such as El País and El Mundo , which also have branches in Catalonia. Also noteworthy are the newspapers published only in Catalan El Punt Avui and Ara . In the provinces of Barcelona, Tarragona, Gerona and Lérida there are numerous regional newspapers written in Catalan, and of a more local scope. The most prominent are El 9 Nou , Segre ,La Mañana , Regió7 , Diari de Girona and Diari de Tarragona .
The radio with the largest audience in Catalonia is Catalunya Ràdio , the public radio belonging to the Catalan Radio and Television Corporation . According to the latest General Media Study , it has an audience of 570,000 listeners , making it the fifth-largest radio station in Spain despite only broadcasting in Catalonia and in the Catalan language. The corporation also has a 24-hour news station, Catalunya Informació . The second channel with the most listeners is RAC 1 (Grupo Godó), which also broadcasts entirely in Catalan, and the third is Cadena SER , which has on Radio Barcelona(the first radio station to be founded in Spain) to its flagship. The rest of the stations are located at a greater distance in number of listeners: three that broadcast entirely in Catalan, COM Ràdio (public radio belonging to the Diputación de Barcelona ,), Ràdio 4 , and Onda Rambla ; and the state channels that broadcast in Spanish: Radio Nacional de España , Cadena COPE , Onda Cero and Punto Radio .
Communication groups and producers
Catalonia is home to strong communication groups that operate both in the audiovisual sector and in the press, publishing books and magazines, and film production. The most relevant are the Godó Group , the Planeta Group , and the Zeta Group . Also very notable, especially in the audiovisual field, are the Gestmusic , El Terrat and Mediapro production companies . It is also worth noting the Catalan Audiovisual Media Corporation , a public company of the Catalan autonomous administration, which is the head of Televisión de Cataluña and Catalunya Ràdio , among other media.
Catalonia is a community with a great sports tradition, especially since the end of the 19th century, when great clubs were founded in all areas that, in some cases, were the first to be founded in Spain in their discipline. Sport and physical activity are deeply rooted in Catalonia, where there is a large network of sports centers and facilities, both public and private.
The most popular sports among Catalans are soccer, basketball and tennis. There is also a fondness for athletics, handball, roller hockey, water polo, cycling, motor racing, motorcycling, golf and skiing. It is worth mentioning the large number of ski resorts located in the Catalan Pyrenees , and in neighboring Andorra , to which many Catalans travel. Water sports are also popular and can be practiced on any of the coastal beaches.
Catalonia's sporting tradition has resulted in the organization of the most important international sporting events. As it has been the scene of the only Olympic Games held to date in Spain , in 1992 ( Barcelona 92 ), the Mediterranean Games of 1955 , the world athletics and swimming championships, and the Eurobasket held twice. Catalonia also hosted, in 1982 , various matches corresponding to the Soccer World Cup that was held throughout Spain. In 2018 it hosts the XVIII Mediterranean Games .
Soccer is the king of sports. The most important clubs are Fútbol Club Barcelona and RCD Espanyol , which are active in the first division of Spanish football . The first being currently considered one of the best soccer teams in the world, winning 26 times the Spanish league champion title , and five times the Champions League , in addition to other important titles; Although other historical ones such as the Gimnàstic de Tarragona Club , the Lleida Esportiu Club , the Sabadell Futbol Club Esports Center , the Esportiu Europa Club , the Girona Fútbol Club or theTerrassa Football Club .
In the discipline of rallies , the Rally Catalonia stands out, the most emblematic event in Spain and the only one scoring for the World Rally Championship and the Rally Costa Brava , which was scored for the European Rally Championship and in 2010 it became a test for historic vehicles . Other tests that were outstanding scoring for the Championship Rally Spain are: the Rally of Osona , the Rally Salou-Costa Daurada , the Rally Playa de Aro , the Rally of Lana , the Rally Girona , theRally de las Dos Cataluñas , the Criterium Montseny-Guilleries , the Rally de las Cavas , the Rally Baix Ebre or the Rally Barcelona-Andorra .
Catalan national teams
In Spain, the only recognized official teams are those belonging to the Spanish federation of each sport discipline and are those that compete in official international competitions. However, some Catalan sports federations have achieved official recognition by the international federations of their respective disciplines. These federations have teams in fourteen sports disciplines, none of them Olympic, that participate at an international level officially representing Catalonia, which for this reason is nominated as a " sports country ".
Currently, the fourteen official Catalan national teams at the international level are those of futsal , corfbol , pitch & putt , Australian football , bodybuilding , taekwondo , twirling , kickboxing , karate , icestock , racquetball , mountain races , ski mountaineering , climbing and bowling .
In the rest of the sports disciplines, the Catalan teams officially participate in Spanish regional competitions or in international friendly events.
The three main festivities in Catalonia are the following:
- Saint George (April 23). Pattern of Catalonia. Laborable day. The festivity is celebrated with the tradition of the gift of roses and books to loved ones whose purchase is made especially in the stalls selling roses and books in the streets.
- San Juan (June 24). Holiday. The party, in fact, is celebrated the night before, with the tradition of organizing large festivals with which summer is welcomed, lighting bonfires and throwing firecrackers. The shortest night of the year is, in turn, the most festive, along with the end of the year. It is a tradition to finish dinner eating coca de San Juan and toasting with cava .
- Catalonia Day (September 11), official holiday of the community. Holiday. The fall of Barcelona before the troops of Felipe V is remembered on September 11, 1714, which caused the abolition of the laws and institutions of the Principality . The Parliament declared "national party" in his first law after its restoration in 1980. [ 87 ] The seminar is prolific in symbolic acts and demonstrations of a political nature.
Catalonia has 15 public holidays throughout the year: nine days set by the General State Administration , five set by the Generalitat of Catalonia , and one set by each municipality in honor of its patron. The 14 non-working days, except for the festivity of each municipality, are:
Catalonia boasts several symbols more or less widespread among its inhabitants, some of which have been made official. Article 8 of the current Statute of Autonomy defines the flag, the party and the anthem as national symbols. [ 1 ] Several Catalan laws also declare these symbols as nationals: [ 89 ]
- The flag is "the traditional one with four red bars on a yellow background", whose origin is in the royal banner of the kings of the Crown of Aragon , holders of the Principality of Catalonia .
- The festival is September 11th , also known as Catalonia Day or Diada, which commemorates the fall of Barcelona in front of the Bourbon troops.
- The anthem is Els Segadors (lit. 'The Reapers'), whose original lyrics are from 1899, although it is based on a popular romance from the 17th century , during the Uprising of Catalonia .
In addition, it has other unofficial symbols, such as the shield .
The Catalan donkey is a bet of a nationalist citizen sector that arises in response to the Osborne bull . [ 90 ] In the cultural field, the Catalan language and the arts are representative of Catalonia , as well as in folklore, the sardana , the devil dance and the correfocs , the giants and big heads and the castells stand out .
The autonomous government has also made official its own symbol, called the emblem of the Generalitat of Catalonia , which is used in all institutional representation.
Given its size, Unesco's plan for the protection of cultural and natural assets known as a World Heritage Site has classified numerous works found in Catalonia as such. The first assignment was several works by Antoni Gaudí in 1984 for his contribution to modernist architecture, to which some more were added in 2005 and grouped under the same entity. These works are the Park Güell , the Güell Palace , the Casa Milá , the Nativity facade and the crypt of the Sagrada Familia , the Casa Vicens , the Casa Batlló and the Colonia Güell. In 1991 the Monastery of Poblet was added to the list , where numerous monarchs of the Crown of Aragon rest. Seven years later, the Rock Art of the Mediterranean Arc of the Iberian Peninsula , which extends along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula , was added under the same title , in which Catalonia contributes with numerous samples. In 2007 the Palace of Catalan Music and the Hospital de San Pablo were declared as such in the same entity, both modernist works by Lluís Domènech i Montaner . In 2000, two ensembles were added to the list: the one formed by the Romanesque Churches of Valle de Bohí and the Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco. The latest addition was that of the Patum de Berga , in 2005, categorized as Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
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