|Birth|| May 15 , 1567 |
Cremona ( Spanish Empire )
|Death|| November 29 , 1643(76 years old) |
Venice ( Republic of Venice )
|Grave||Republic of Venice and Basilica of Santa Maria dei Frari|
|Student of||Marc'Antonio Engineers|
|Occupation||Opera composer, choreographer , musicologist , music theorist, violagambist, Catholic priest (since 1630) , classical music composer, musician , singer and composer|
|Movement||Renaissance and Baroque music|
|Gender||Baroque opera and music|
|Instruments||Viola da gamba , viola da gamba and órgano|
Claudio Monteverdi , whose full name was Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi ( Cremona , baptized 15 of maypole of 1567 - Venice , 29 of November of 1643 ) was a composer , viola da gamba player , singer , director of choir and priest Italian. He composed both secular and sacred music and marked the transition between the polyphonic and madrigalist tradition of the 16th century.and the birth of lyrical drama and opera in the seventeenth century . He is a crucial figure in the transition between Renaissance and Baroque music .
Born in Cremona, where he made his first musical studies and compositions, he began his music studies with Marco Antonio Ingegnieri , chapelmaster of the Cathedral of Cremona , and at the age of 16 he published his first works. He developed his career first at the court of Mantua (c. 1590-1613) and then, until his death, in the Republic of Venice . His surviving letters give insight into the life of a professional musician in Italy at the time, including income, patronage, and political issues.
Much of the music production, including many stage works, has been lost . His surviving music includes nine collections of madrigals , in which he shows his mastery of madrigal technique; large-scale religious works, such as his Vespers of the Blessed Virgin of 1610, and three complete operas. In 1599, he married Claudia de Cataneis, who died in 1607, and in that same year The Fable of Orpheus , his first musical drama, was premiered , considered the first opera in history , as it is understood today. His next opera L'Arianna (1608), the music of which has been lost, except for the famous "Lament", consolidated his fame.
In 1613, he was choirmaster and director of the Cathedral of San Marcos in Venice , the city where he composed most of his sacred work. To inaugurate the first theater in this city, he composed more operas. In his religious music he used a great variety of styles, ranging from the polyphony of his Mass of 1610 to the highly virtuosic operatic vocal music and the antiphonal choral compositions of his Vespers of the Blessed Virgin , also from 1610. The work Selva morale e spirituale , published in 1640, is a huge compendium of sacred music. In 1637, he composed a new series of operas, of which only surviveThe return of Ulysses to the homeland (1641) and The coronation of Poppea (1642).
While he worked extensively in the tradition of earlier Renaissance polyphony, as evidenced by his madrigals, he undertook great developments in form and melody and began to employ the Baroque distinctive basso- continuum technique . He combined homophonic and contrapuntal writing , where he freely used harmonies and dissonances . No stranger to controversy, he defended his sometimes novel techniques as elements of a seconda pratica , in contrast to the earlier, more orthodox style that he called prima pratica . Largely forgotten during the 18th centuryAnd for much of the 19th century , his works enjoyed a rediscovery in the early 20th century . He is considered a significant influence on European musical history and as a composer whose works are regularly performed and recorded.
Historical context: Italy at the time
Monteverdi is generally described as an "Italian" composer, although at that time the concept of " Italy " existed only as a geographical entity. Although the inhabitants of the peninsula shared much in common in terms of history, culture and language, in political terms the people experienced various layers of authority and jurisdiction, mostly foreign. In the first instance, they were subject to the local rulers of their City -States , powerful families like the Gonzagas and the Medici . Above them were the imperial powers, in the 16th century mainly Spain , and also the Habsburg authority ofVienna , in their role as Holy Roman Emperors , guardians of the Catholic faith . [ 1 ]
Cremona: childhood and adolescence (1567-1591)
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi was born in Cremona and was baptized in the church of SS Nazaro e Celso on May 15, 1567. His name appears as "Claudio Zuan Antonio", son of "Messer Baldasar Mondeverdo". [ 2 ] His family was humble and he was the first child of the apothecary Baldassare Monteverdi and his first wife Maddalena (née Zignani). They had been married at the beginning of the previous year. Claudio's brother, Giulio Cesare , was also a musician. He had two other brothers and two sisters from Baldassare's marriage to Maddalena and from his father's subsequent marriage in 1576 or 1577. [ 3 ] Cremona was under the jurisdiction of Milan, a Spanish possession, so Monteverdi was technically born as a Spanish subject. [ a ] Cremona was near the border of the Venetian Republic and not far from the lands controlled by Mantua, in the two states that Monteverdi later carried out his career. [ 2 ]
There is no clear record of his early musical training, or evidence that, as is sometimes claimed, he was a member of the Cathedral choir or that he studied at the University of Cremona. His first published work, a set of tripartite motets , Sacrae cantiunculae ( Holy Songs ) for three voices, was published in Venice in 1582, when he was fifteen years old. In this, and in his other initial publications, he described himself as the pupil of Marco Antonio Ingegnieri , who was from 1581 (and possibly from 1576) to 1592 the chapelmaster in the Cathedral. Musicologist Tim Carter deduces that Ingegneri "gave him a solid foundation incounterpoint and composition ”, and that Monteverdi would also have studied the interpretation of instruments of the violin family and singing. [ 3 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ]
His early posts also testify to his connections beyond Cremona, even in his early years. His second published work, Madrigali spirituali ( Spiritual Madrigals , 1583), was printed in Brescia . His next works (his first published secular compositions ) were five-part sets of madrigals, according to his biographer Paolo Fabbri: "the inevitable testing ground for any composer of the second half of the sixteenth century ... the secular genre par excellence." The first book of madrigals (Venice, 1587) was dedicated to Count Marco Verità of Veronaand the second (Venice, 1590) to the President of the Senate of Milan, Giacomo Ricardi, for whom he had played the viola da braccio in 1587. [ 3 ] [ 7 ] [ 9 ]
In 1590 or 1591, he entered the service of Duke Vicente I Gonzaga of Mantua . He recalled in the dedication to the duke of his third book of madrigals (Venice, 1592) that "the noblest exercise of vivuola opened the fortunate path to his service." [ 10 ] In it, he compared his instrumental performance with "flowers" and his compositions as "fruits", which as they mature "can serve him in a more dignified and perfect way", indicating his intentions to establish himself as a composer. [ 11 ] In the dedication of his second book of madrigals, Monteverdi described himself as an interpreter of the vivuola(which could mean viola da gamba or viola da braccio ). [ 8 ] [ 12 ] [ b ]
The duke was eager to establish his court as a musical center and was seeking to recruit prominent musicians. When Monteverdi arrived in Mantua, the chapelmaster at court was the Flemish musician Giaches de Wert . Other notable musicians at court during this period included composer and violinist Salomone Rossi , Rossi's sister, singer Madama Europa, and Francesco Rasi . [ 14 ] In 1599, he married the court singer Claudia de Cataneis, the daughter of a viola player., With whom he had two sons, Francesco (n. 1601), who was a musician like his father, and Massimiliano (n. 1604), religious Carmelita, and a daughter who died shortly after birth in 1603. [ 8 ] The Monteverdi 's brother, Giulio Cesare , musicians joined the court in 1602. [ 15 ]
When Wert died in 1596, his post was assumed by Benedetto Pallavicino , but the Duke clearly appreciated Monteverdi and accompanied him on his military campaigns in Hungary (1595) and also on a visit to Flanders in 1599. [ 8 ] There in the city from Spa , his brother Giulio Cesare informed him that he had found, and brought back to Italy, the canto alla francese . [ c ] Monteverdi may have been a member of the duke's entourage in Florence in 1600 for the wedding of Maria de Medici and Henry IV of France , in the celebrations he premieredEurydice by Jacopo Peri (the oldest surviving opera). On Pallavicino's death in 1601, Monteverdi was confirmed as the new Chapel Master. [ 16 ]
Dispute with Artusi y second practice
In the early 17th century , Monteverdi found himself at the center of the musical controversy. The influential Bolognese theorist Giovanni Artusi attacked his music, without naming the composer, in his essay L'Artusi, overo Delle imperfettioni della modern musica ( Artusi, or on the imperfections of modern music ) of 1600, followed by a sequel in 1603. Artusi cited excerpts from Monteverdi's works as yet unpublished (later they became part of his fourth and fifth books of madrigals of 1603 and 1605) and condemned his use of harmony and his innovations in the use of musical modes, compared to the practice Orthodox polyphonic of the 16th century . [ 16 ]Artusi attempted to correspond with Monteverdi on these issues. The composer refused to answer, but found a supporter in a partisan pseudonym, "L'Ottuso Academico" ("The obtuse academic"). [ 18 ] Finally, Monteverdi replied in the preface to the fifth book of madrigals that his duties at court prevented him from giving a detailed answer, but in a note to the "studious reader", he stated that he would publish a reply shortly, Seconda pratica, overo Perfettione della Moderna Musica ( The second style or perfection of modern music ). [ 19 ] This work never appeared, but a later publication by Claudio's brother Giulio Cesare made it clear that theThe seconda pratica that Monteverdi defended was not seen by him as a radical change or his own invention, but was an evolution of previous styles ( prima pratica ) that was complementary to them. [ 20 ] Monteverdi defended himself in a writing published in 1607, in which he argued that, while the old style, which he called prima pratica , was suitable for the composition of religious music (and he did so for many years), the second practice, where "words are masters of harmony, not slaves," was more appropriate for madrigals, a composition in which it was vital to be able to express the emotional lines of the text. His great achievement as a composer of operas was to combine the chromaticism of the seconda pratica with the monodic style of vocal writing (a flowery vocal line with a simple harmonic bass) developed by Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini .
In any case, this debate seemed to raise the profile of the composer and led to reprints of his early madrigal books. [ 8 ] Some of his madrigals were published in Copenhagen in 1605 and 1606, and the poet Tommaso Stigliani published an eulogy of him in his 1605 poem "O sirene de 'fiumi". [ 16 ] The composer of madrigal comedies and theorist Adriano Banchieri wrote in 1609: «I must not fail to mention the noblest of composers, Monteverdi ... their expressive qualities really deserve the highest recommendation and we find in them innumerable examples of incomparable declamation … Enhanced by comparable harmonies. ' [21 ] The modern music historian Massimo Ossi has placed the Artusi theme in the context of Monteverdi's artistic development: “If the controversy seems to define Monteverdi's historical position, it also seems to have been about stylistic developments that in 1600 Monteverdi already I had overcome. [ 22 ]
The non-appearance of Monteverdi's promised explanatory treatise may have been a deliberate ploy, since by 1608, by Monteverdi's calculations, Artusi had fully reconciled himself to modern trends in music and the seconda pratica was already well established. Monteverdi had no need to reexamine the subject. [ 23 ] On the other hand, the 1632 letters to Giovanni Battista Doni show that Monteverdi was still preparing a defense of the seconda pratica , in a treatise entitled Melodia, and may still have been working on it at the time of his death, ten years later. [ 24 ]
Opera, conflict and departure
In 1606, the heir of Vincente I, Francisco IV , commissioned him to perform the opera The Fable of Orpheus , with a libretto by the court official of the Duke of Mantua Alessandro Striggio the Younger , for the Carnival season of 1607. Two performances were performed in February and March of that year. Among the singers was Rasi in the lead role and she had sung in the first Eurydice performance witnessed by Vincente I in 1600. It was her first musical drama and marked the transition to Baroque . This opera represents perhaps the most important evolution in the history of the genre, imposing itself as a cultured form of musical and dramatic expression. Through the skillful use of vocal inflections, Monteverdi tried to express all the emotion contained in the actor's speech, achieving a chromatic language of great harmonic freedom. The orchestra, greatly enlarged, was used not only to accompany the singers, but also to establish the different environments of the scenes. Orfeo's score contains fourteen independent orchestral parts. The audience applauded this opera with great enthusiasm and his next opera, L'Arianna (libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini ), from 1608 and intended to celebrate the marriage of Francis IV to Margaret of Savoy.. All the music in this opera was lost, except for "Ariadne's Lament," which became extremely popular. [ d ] The entertainment ballet Il ballo delle ingrate also belongs to this period . [ 16 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ]
The strain of the hard work that Monteverdi had been putting into these and other compositions was exacerbated by personal tragedies. His wife died in September 1607 and the young singer Caterina Martinelli , destined for the lead role of Ariadna, died of smallpox in March 1608. She also resented her increasingly poor financial treatment by the Gonzagas. He retired to Cremona in 1608 to recover and wrote a bitter letter to Vincente I's minister, Annibale Chieppio, in November of that year seeking (unsuccessfully) "an honorable dismissal." [ 28 ]Although the duke increased his salary and pension, and Monteverdi returned to continue his work at court, he began to seek patronage elsewhere. After publishing his Vespers of the Blessed Virgin in 1610, which were dedicated to Pope Paul V , he visited Rome , apparently hoping to place his son Francesco in a seminary, but apparently also seeking alternative employment. In the same year, he may also have visited Venice, where a large collection of his sacred music was being printed, with a similar intention. [ 16 ] [ 29 ]
Duke Vincente I died on February 18, 1612. When Francisco IV succeeded him, judicial intrigues and cost reduction led to the dismissal of Monteverdi and his brother Giulio Cesare, who returned, almost penniless, to Cremona. Despite the death of Francisco IV own smallpox in December 1612, Monteverdi could not return to favor his successor, his brother, Cardinal Fernando I . In 1613, after the death of Giulio Cesare Martinengo , the composer auditioned for his position as teacher in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, for which he presented music for a mass . He was appointed in August 1613 and was given 50 ducatsfor his expenses (which, along with his other belongings, were stolen from him by bandits in Sanguinetto upon his return to Cremona). [ 16 ] [ 30 ]
Martinengo had been ill for some time before his death and had left the music of San Marcos in a fragile state. The choir had been neglected and the administration ignored. [ 30 ] When Monteverdi arrived to take up his post, his main responsibility was to recruit, train, discipline, and manage the musicians of San Marcos (the capella ), who numbered about 30 singers and six instrumentalists. Numbers could be increased for big events. [ 31 ] Among those recruited for the choir was Francesco Cavalli, who joined in 1616 at the age of 14. He maintained his contact with San Marcos throughout his life and developed a close association with Monteverdi. [ 32 ] He also sought to expand the repertoire, including not only the traditional a cappella repertoire of Roman and Flemish composers, but also examples of the modern style that he favored and which included the use of the basso continuo and other instruments. [ 31 ] Apart from this, of course, he was expected to compose music for all the major church festivals. This included a new mass each year for the Day of the Holy Cross and Christmas Eve ,cantatas honoring the Venetian doge and many other works (many of which were lost). [ 33 ] Monteverdi was also free to earn an income by providing music for other Venetian churches and other patrons and was frequently commissioned to provide music for state banquets. The procuradores of San Marcos, for whom he was directly responsible, showed their satisfaction with his work in 1616 by increasing his annual salary from 300 to 400 ducats. [ 34 ]
The relative freedom granted him by the Republic of Venice, compared to the problems of court politics in Mantua, is reflected in his letters to Striggio, particularly in his letter of March 13, 1620, when he refused an invitation to return. to Mantua, extolling his present position and finances in Venice, and referring to the pension that Mantua still owed him. [ 35 ] However, as a citizen of Mantua, he accepted the commissions of the new Duke Ferdinand, who had formally resigned as cardinal in 1616 to assume the duties of the state. These included the balli Tirsi e Clori (1616) and Apollo (1620), an Andromeda opera (1620), and an intermediate Le nozze di Tetide , for Ferdinand's marriage to Catherine de Medici (1617). Most of these compositions were long delayed in creation, in part, as evidenced by surviving correspondence, because of the composer's unwillingness to prioritize them, and in part because of constantly changing court requirements. [ e ] They are now lost, apart from Tirsi e Clori , which was included in the seventh book of madrigals (published in 1619) and dedicated to Duchess Catherine, for which the composer received a pearl necklace from the Duchess . [ 29 ] [ 34 ] [ 37 ]He completed an important later commission, the opera La feint pazza Licori , with a libretto by Giulio Strozzi , for Vincente II , who succeeded Ferdinand in the duchy in 1626. Due to the latter's illness (he died in 1627), it was never performed. and it was also lost. [ 29 ]
He also received commissions from other Italian states and their communities in Venice. These included, for the Milanese community in 1620, music for the feast of San Carlos Borromeo, and for the Florentine community a requiem mass for Cosimo II de Medici (1621). [ 34 ] Monteverdi acted on behalf of Paolo Giordano II, Duke of Bracciano , to organize the publication of works by the Cremona musician Francesco Petratti . [ 39 ] Among Monteverdi's private Venetian patrons was the nobleman Girolamo Mocenigo, in whose home the dramatic entertainment Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda premiered in 1624based on an episode of liberated Jerusalem by Torquato Tasso . [ 40 ] In 1627, he received an important commission of Eduardo I Farnese , Duke of Parma , by a series of works and obtained the license of the procurators to spend time there during 1627 and 1628. [ 29 ]
Monteverdi's musical direction received the attention of foreign visitors. The Dutch diplomat and musician Constantijn Huygens , who was attending a vespers service at the Church of the SS Giovanni e Lucia, wrote that “I listened to the most perfect music I had ever heard in my life. It was conducted by the famous Claudio Monteverdi… who was also the composer and was accompanied by four theorbas , two cornettos , two bassoons , a large viola basso , organs and other instruments… ». [ 41 ] He wrote a mass and provided other musical entertainment for the crown prince's visit to Venice in 1625.Vladislaus IV of Poland , who may have sought to revive attempts made a few years earlier to lure the composer to Warsaw . [ 34 ] It also provided chamber music for Wolfgang William , Count of the Palatinate-Neuburg , when the latter was making an incognito visit to Venice in July 1625. [ 42 ]
Monteverdi's correspondence in 1625 and 1626 with the Mantua courtier Ercole Marigliani reveals an interest in alchemy , which the composer apparently had taken as a hobby. He discussed the experiments to transform lead into gold, the problems of obtaining mercury, and mentioned the commissioning of special vessels for his experiments at the Murano glass factory . [ 43 ]
Despite his generally satisfactory situation in Venice, Monteverdi experienced personal problems from time to time. On one occasion, probably due to his extensive network of contacts, he was the subject of an anonymous complaint to the Venetian authorities alleging that he supported the Habsburgs . He was also subject to concerns for his children. His son Francesco, while studying law at Padua in 1619, in the composer's opinion was spending too much time with music and therefore transferred him to the University of Bologna . This did not have the expected result and it seems that he resigned himself to Francesco having a musical career: he joined the choir of San Marcos in 1623. His other son Massimiliano, who graduated in medicine, was arrested by theInquisition in Mantua in 1627 for reading forbidden literature . Monteverdi was forced to sell the necklace he had received from Duchess Caterina to pay for the (eventually successful) defense of his son. He wrote to Striggio at the time seeking his help and fearing that Massimiliano might be subjected to torture. It seems that Striggio's intervention was helpful. Financial concerns at this time also led him to visit Cremona to secure a church canonry . [ 34 ] [ 44 ]
A series of disturbing events disturbed the world of Monteverdi in the period around 1630. Habsburg armies invaded Mantua in 1630, besieged the plague-stricken city , and after its fall in July they plundered its treasures and dispersed the population. artistic community. The plague reached the Mantua ally, Venice, by an embassy led by Monteverdi's confidant, Striggio, and over a 16-month period caused more than 45,000 deaths and left the population of Venice in 1633 at just over 100,000 inhabitants, the lowest level for about 150 years. Among the plague victims were Monteverdi's assistant at San Marcos and a notable composer in his own right, Alessandro Grandi. The plague and the aftermath of the war had an inevitable detrimental effect on the economy and artistic life of Venice. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] His younger brother, Giulio Cesare , also died at this time, probably because of the plague. [ 15 ]
By then Monteverdi was sixty years old and his songwriting rate seemed to have slowed down. He had written an arrangement of Strozzi's Proserpina rapita , which was lost except for a vocal trio, for a Mocenigo wedding in 1630 and produced a mass for the deliverance from the plague of Saint Mark which was performed in November 1631. It was published his ensemble of Scherzi musicali in Venice in 1632. [ 34 ] In 1631, he was admitted to the tonsure and was ordained a deacon , and later a priest, in 1632. Although these ceremonies took place in Venice, he was nominated as a member of the clergy of Cremona. This may imply that you intended to retire there. [ 46 ] [ 47 ]
Last years (1637-1643)
In 1637, the San Cassiano Theater , the first opera house in Europe , was inaugurated , stimulating the musical life of the city [ 47 ] and coinciding with a new explosion of the composer's activity. The year 1638 saw the publication of his eighth book of madrigals and a revision of Il ballo delle ingrate . The eighth book contains a ballo , "Volgendi il ciel," which may have been composed by Emperor Ferdinand III , to whom the book is dedicated. In the years 1640-1641 Selva morale e spirituale was published, a huge compendium of sacred music where the full range of styles used by Monteverdi is once again appreciated. Among other commissions, he wrote music in 1637 and 1638 for Strozzi's "Accademia degli Unisoni" in Venice and in 1641 a ballet , La vittoria d'Amore , for the court of Plasencia . [ 48 ] [ 49 ]
He was not yet completely free of his responsibilities to the San Marcos musicians. He wrote to complain about one of his singers to the procurators, on June 9, 1637: «I, Claudio Monteverdi ... I come humbly ... to explain to you how Domenicato Aldegati ... a bass, yesterday morning ... at the time of the greatest attendance of people ... he pronounced these exact words ... "The Music Director comes from a brood of ferocious bastards, a thief, screwed up, bastard ... and I shit on him and who protects him ..." ». [ 50 ] [ f ]
Monteverdi's contribution to opera in this period is remarkable. He revised his earlier opera L'Arianna in 1640 and wrote three new works for the commercial stage, The Return of Ulysses to the Fatherland of that same year, performed for the first time in Bologna with Venetian singers, Le nozze d'Enea e Lavinia ( 1641, lost music), and The Coronation of Poppea (1643). [ 52 ] The introduction to the printed setting of Le nozze d'Enea , by an unknown author, acknowledges that Monteverdi must be credited for the revival of theatrical music and that it "will be seen in later times, because his compositions will surely survive the ages. ravages of time.[ 53 ] These works, composed at the end of his life, contain scenes of great dramatic intensity where the music reflects the thoughts and emotions of the characters. These scores have influenced many later composers and still remain in the current repertoire.
In his last surviving letter of August 20, 1643, Monteverdi, already ill, still awaited the solution of the long-disputed pension of Mantua and asked the Doge of Venice to intervene on his behalf. [ 54 ] He died on November 29, 1643 in Venice, after making a brief visit to Cremona. After solemn funeral services were held simultaneously in the Cathedral of San Marcos and in the Basilica of Santa María dei Frari , his remains were buried in the latter. He left behind an extensive work that would influence all later music.
Background: from Renaissance to Baroque
There is a consensus among music historians that a period stretching from the mid-15th century to about 1625, characterized in Lewis Lockwood's phrase by 'substantial unity of perspective and language', must be identified as the period of the " Music of the Renaissance ". [ 55 ] Musical literature has also defined the following period (spanning music from approximately 1580 to 1750) as the era of " baroque music ". [ 56 ] It is in the superposition of these periods from the late sixteenth century to the early seventeenththat much of Monteverdi's creativity flourished. He stands out as a transitional figure between the Renaissance and the Baroque. [ 57 ]
In the Renaissance era, music had developed as a formal discipline, a "pure science of relationships," in Lockwood's words. [ 55 ] In the Baroque era, it became a form of aesthetic expression, increasingly used to adorn religious, social and festive celebrations in which, according to Plato's ideal , music was subordinate to the text. [ 58 ] Solo singing with instrumental accompaniment, or monody , acquired greater importance towards the end of the 16th century and replaced polyphony as the main means of dramatic musical expression. [ 59] This was the changing world in which Monteverdi was active. Percy Scholesin his The Oxford Companion to Music describes' new music 'thus:' [Composers] dismissed the choral polyphony of the madrigal style as barbaric and established dialogue or soliloquy for individual voices, more or less imitating the inflections of discourse and accompanying the voice by playing simplesupportingchords. The short choruses were interspersed, but they were alsohomophonicrather than polyphonic. ' [ 60 ]
Claudio Monteverdi's works are usually classified according to the Stattkus catalog ( Claudio Monteverdi: Verzeichnis der erhaltenen Werke ), published in 1985 by the German musicologist Manfred H. Stattkus. In 2007, a second, revised and completed edition was published.
Ingegneri, Monteverdi's first tutor, was a master of the vocal style of reserved music , which involved the use of chromatic progressions and figuralism . [ 61 ] His early Monteverdi compositions were based on this style. [ 3 ] Ingegneri was a traditional Renaissance composer , "somewhat of an anachronism," according to Arnold, [ 62 ] but Monteverdi also studied the work of more "modern" composers such as Luca Marenzio , Luzzasco Luzzaschi, and, somewhat more. late, Wert's Giaches, from whom he would learn the art of expressing passion. [ 63 ] He was a precocious and productive student, as his youth publications of 1582-1583 indicate. Paul Ringer writes that "these adolescent endeavors reveal palpable ambition combined with a compelling mastery of contemporary style," but at this stage they show their creator's competence rather than surprising originality. [ 64 ] Geoffrey Chew classifies them as "not in the most modern line for the period", acceptable, but outdated. [ 65 ] Chew rates the Canzonette collectionof 1584 much more than the earlier juvenile one: "These short three-part pieces are based on the airy, modern style of Marenzio's villanellas , [based on] a substantial vocabulary of text-related madrigalisms ." [ 65 ]
The form of the canzonetta was widely used by composers of the time as a technical exercise and is a prominent element in their first book of madrigals published in 1587. In this book, the playful and pastoral settings again reflect Marenzio's style, while that Luzzaschi's influence is evident in the use of dissonance . [ 65 ] The second book (1590) begins with a Marenzio-inspired setting of a modern verse, "Non si levav 'ancor" by Torquato Tasso , and concludes with a text from 50 years earlier: "Cantai un tempo" by Pietro Bembo . Monteverdi put the latter to music in an archaic style reminiscent of the deceasedCipriano de Rore . Among them is "Ecco mormorar l'onde", strongly influenced by De Wert and acclaimed by Chew as the great masterpiece of the second book. [ 66 ]
A common thread throughout these early works is their use of the imitatio technique , a general practice among composers of the time when material from earlier or contemporary composers was used as a model for their own work. He continued to use this procedure well beyond his apprenticeship years, a factor that in the eyes of some critics has compromised his reputation for originality. [ 67 ]
Monteverdi's first fifteen years of service in Mantua are delimited by his publications of the third book of madrigals in 1592 and the fourth and fifth books in 1603 and 1605. Between 1592 and 1603 he made minor contributions to other anthologies. [ 68 ] How much he composed in this period is a matter of conjecture, as his many duties at the Mantua court may have limited his opportunities, [ 69 ] but several of the madrigals he published in the fourth and fifth books he wrote and were interpreted during the 1590s, some of which figure prominently in the Artusi controversy . [ 70 ]
The third book strongly shows the greatest influence of Wert, [ 70 ] at that time his direct superior as a chapelmaster in Mantua. Two poets dominate the collection: Tasso, whose lyrical poetry figured prominently in the second book, but is represented here through the most epic and heroic verses of Liberated Jerusalem , [ 71 ] and Gian Battista Guarini , whose verses had appeared sporadically in Monteverdi's earlier publications, but they make up about half of the content of the third book. Wert's influence is reflected in Monteverdi's frankly modern approach and his expressive and chromatic configurations of Tasso's verses.[ 70 ] Of Guarini's arrangements, Chew writes: «The epigrammatic style ... coincides closely with a poetic and musical ideal of the time ... [and] often relies onstrong finalcadentialprogressions, with or without the intensification provided by strings. of suspended dissonances ». Chew cites the setting of "Stracciami pur il core" as "an excellent example of Monteverdi's practice of irregular dissonance." [ 70 ] Tasso and Guarini were regular visitors to the court of Mantua. The composer's association with them and his absorption of their ideas may have helped lay the foundation for his own approach tomusical dramasthat he created a decade later. 
As the 1590s progressed, Monteverdi came closer to the form that he would identify in due course as the seconda pratica . Claude V. Palisca cites the madrigal " Ohimè, be so much love, " published in the fourth book, but written before 1600 and one of the works attacked by Artusi, as a typical example of the composer's developing powers of invention. In this madrigal, Monteverdi once again departs from the established practice of the use of dissonance, through a vocal ornament that Palisca describes as échappé . Monteverdi's daring use of this device is, according to Palisca, "like a forbidden pleasure." [ 72 ]In this and other settings, the poet's images were supreme, even at the expense of musical consistency. [ 73 ]
The fourth book includes madrigals that Artusi opposed for their "modernism." Yet Ossi describes it as "an anthology of disparate works firmly rooted in the sixteenth century, " [ 74 ] closer in nature to the third book than the fifth. In addition to Tasso and Guarini, Monteverdi performed musical verses by Rinuccini , Maurizio Moro ("Sì ch'io vorrei morire") and Ridolfo Arlotti ("Luci serene e chiare"). [ 75 ] There is evidence of the composer's familiarity with the works of Carlo Gesualdo and with composers from the Ferrara schoollike Luzzaschi. The book was dedicated to a musical society in Ferrara, the Accademici Intrepidi . [ 76 ]
The fifth book looks more to the future. For example, it employs the concertato style with basso continuo (a device that would become a typical feature of the emerging Baroque era) and includes a symphony ( instrumental interlude ) in the final piece. He presents his music through complex counterpoints and daring harmonies , although he sometimes combines the expressive possibilities of new music with traditional polyphony. [ 74 ] Aquilino Coppini took much of the music for his infraction weresacra of 1608 from the third, fourth and fifth books of Monteverdi's madrigals. Writing to a friend in 1609, Coppini commented that the pieces «require, during their execution, more flexible rests and measures that are not strictly regular, now advancing or abandoning themselves to slow down […] In them there is a truly wonderful ability to move the affections ». [ 77 ]
During his years in Venice, he published his sixth (1614), seventh (1619), and eighth (1638) madrigal books. The sixth book consists of works written before the departure of the composer from Mantua. [ 78 ] Hans Redlich sees it as a transitional work, containing the latest madrigals compositions of Monteverdi in the manner of the Pratica bonus , along with music that is typical of the new style of expression that had exhibited in the plays of 1607-1608. [ 79 ] The central theme of the collection is loss. The best known work is the five-voice version of the " Lamento d'Arianna", Which, says Massimo Ossi, gives" an objective lesson on the close relationship between the monodic recitative and the counterpoint ". [ 80 ] The book contains the composer's first arrangements of verses by Giambattista Marino and two arrangements by Petrarca which Ossi considers the most extraordinary pieces in volume and which provide some "impressive musical moments." [ 80 ]
While Monteverdi had looked back at the sixth book, he advanced in the seventh book from the traditional concept of the madrigal and from monody, in favor of chamber duets . There are exceptions, such as the two lettere amorose (love letters) "Se i languidi miei sguardi" and "Se pur dest e vole", written to be interpreted genere representative , both performed and sung. Of the duets that are the main characteristics of the volume, Chew highlights "Ohimé, dov'è il mio ben, dov'è il mio core", a romanesca in which two high voices express dissonances above a repeating pattern of the bass . [ 78 ]The book also contains large-scale ensemble works and the ballet Tirsi e Clori . [ 81 ] This was the height of Monteverdi's "Marine period". Six of the pieces in the book are scenes from the poet's verses. [ 82 ] As Carter puts it, Monteverdi "embraced Marino's madrigal kisses and love bites with ... the typical enthusiasm of the time." [ 83 ] Some commentators have opined that the composer should have had better poetic taste. [ 83 ]
The eighth book, subtitled Madrigali guerrieri, et amorosi… is divided into two symmetrical halves, one for "war" and the other for "love." Each half begins with a six-voice setup, followed by a full-scale Petrarch setup, then a series of duets primarily for tenor voices , and concludes with a theatrical number and a final ballet. [ 78 ] Half the "war" contains several pieces written as a tribute to Emperor Ferdinand III , who had acceded to the Habsburg throne in 1637. [ 84 ] Many of Monteverdi - Strozzi's regular poets, Rinuccini, Tasso, Marino, Guarini— are represented in the composition. [ 85 ]
It is difficult to assess when many of the pieces were composed, although the ballet Mascherata dell 'ingrate , which ends the book, dates from 1608 and the celebration of the Gonzaga-Savoy marriage. [ 84 ] Il Tancredi e Clorinda di combattimento , centerpiece of the scenes of "war" was written and performed in Venice in 1624. [ 86 ] In its publication in the eighth book, Monteverdi explicitly linked with his concept of genera concitato (or stile concitato, 'Excited style') that would 'suitably imitate the expression and accents of a brave man in warfare' and implied that since it originated this style, others had begun to copy it. [ 87 ] The work first employed instructions for the use of pizzicato string chords and also evocations of fanfare and other combat sounds. [ 88 ]Critic Andrew Clements describes the eighth book as "a statement of artistic principles and compositional authority," in which Monteverdi "formed and expanded the madrigal form to accommodate what he wanted to do ... the pieces assembled in Book Eight form a treasure trove of what music in the first half of the seventeenth century could express ». [ 89 ]
The ninth posthumous book of madrigals was published in 1651, a mixture dating from the early 1630s and some items are repetitions of previously published pieces, such as the popular duet "O sia il mare tranquillo" of 1638. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] The book includes a trio for three sopranos , "Come dolce oggi l'auretta", which is the only surviving music from the lost 1630 opera Proserpina rapita . [ 78 ]
In the last five years of Monteverdi's service in Mantua, he completed the operas The Fable of Orpheus (1607) and L'Arianna (1608). He retained emotional and political attachments to the Mantua court and wrote for it, or undertook to write, large amounts of stage music, including at least four operas . The ballet Tirsi e Clori survives through its inclusion in the seventh book of madrigals, but the rest of Mantua's dramatic music was lost. Many of the lost manuscripts may have disappeared in the wars that took place in Mantua in 1630. [ 92 ]The most significant aspect of his loss, according to Carter, is the extent to which they could have provided musical links between his early Mantuan operas and those he wrote in Venice after 1638: “Without these links… it is difficult to produce a coherent description. of his development as a composer for the stage ». [ 93 ] Similarly, Janet Beat laments that the 30-year gap hampers the study of how opera orchestration developed during those critical early years. [ 94 ]
The last years of his life were very busy with opera for the Venetian stage. Richard Taruskin , in his Oxford History of Western Music , gives his chapter on this subject the title "Opera from Monteverdi to Monteverdi." Taruskin seriously interprets this wording, originally humorously proposed by the Italian music historian Nino Pirrotta , indicating that Monteverdi was significantly responsible for the transformation of the opera genre from a private nobility entertainment (as with Orpheus in 1607), to which became an important commercial genre, as exemplified by his opera The Coronation of Poppea (1643). [ 95 ]Arnold regards his two surviving operatic works from this period, The Return of Ulysses to the Fatherland and The Coronation of Poppea , as the first "modern" operas. [ 96 ] The return is the first Venetian opera from what Ellen Rosand calls "the mythological pastoral." [ 97 ] However, David Johnson in The North American Review cautions the public not to expect an immediate affinity with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Giuseppe Verdi, or Giacomo Puccini.: "You have to submit to a much slower rhythm, to a much more chaste conception of the melody, to a style of voice that at first is simply like a dry declamation and only in repeated audiences does it begin to assume extraordinary eloquence." [ 98 ]
According to Carter, The Return is clearly influenced by his previous works. Penelope's lament in Act I has a character close to L'Arianna's lament, while the martial episodes recall Il combattimento . The stile concitato is prominent in the fight scenes and in the murder of Penelope's suitors. In The Coronation , the composer represents states of mind and situations through specific musical devices: the triple meter represents the language of love; the arpeggios show conflict; the stile concitato represents rage. [ 99 ]The debate continues as to how much of the existing music in La coronoción is original by Monteverdi and how much is the work of others (there are, for example, traces of music by Francesco Cavalli ). [ 32 ] [ 100 ]
Monteverdi wrote a great deal of sacred music , including the Messa in illo tempore (1610) and also the collection known as Vespers of the Blessed Virgin , which is often referred to as "Vespers of Monteverdi" (1610). He also published Scherzi musicale a tre voci (1607), verse scenes composed since 1599 and dedicated to the Gonzaga heir, Francisco . The vocal trio on the Scherzi consists of two sopranos and a bass, accompanied by simple instrumental ritornellos . According to Bowers, the music "reflected the modesty of the prince's resources; however, it was the first publication to associate voices and instruments in this particular way. 
During the period of his Venetian residence, he composed quantities of sacred music. Numerous motets and other short works that local publishers such as Giulio Cesare Bianchi (a former student of his) and Lorenzo Calvi included in anthologies and others were published elsewhere in Italy and Austria. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] [ 104 ] The range of styles in motetes is wide, from simple ary estróficas accompanied by ropes to recitations scale with a final aleluya. [ 102 ]
Selva morale e spirituale from 1641 and the posthumous Messa et salmi published in 1650 (which was edited by Cavalli), are selections of his sacred music that he wrote for Saint Mark during his 30-year tenure. He probably wrote a lot more, but it wasn't published. [ 32 ] [ 105 ] The volume of the Selva morale begins with a series of madrigals scenarios moral texts, which address issues such as "the transient nature of love, earthly rank and achievement, even existence itself." [ 106 ] They are followed by a mass in conservative style ( stile antico ), the culminating point of which is a 'Gloria »spread out of seven voices. Scholars believe that it could have been written to celebrate the end of the plague of 1631 . The rest of the volume is made up of numerous arrangements of psalms , two magnificats and three Salve Regina . [ 107 ] The volume Messa et salmi includes a mass of stile antico for four voices, a polyphonic setting of the psalm "Laetatus Sum" and a version of the Litany of Loreto that Monteverdi was originally published in 1620. [ 105 ] [ 108 ]
Besides the madrigal books, the only published collection of the composer during his stay in Venice was the volume of Scherzi musicale in 1632. For unknown reasons, his name does not appear on the inscription and the dedication is signed by the Venetian printer Bartolemeo Magni. Carter surmises that the recently ordained Monteverdi may have wished to steer clear of this secular collection . [ 83 ] He mixes continuous verse songs for lead vocals with more complex works that employ continuous variation over repeating bass patterns. Chew selects the chaconnefor two tenors, «Zefiro torna e di soavi accenti», as an outstanding element in the collection: «The great part of this piece consists of repetitions of a bass pattern that ensures the tonal unity of a simple type, because it is framed as a simple cadence in a G major tonal type : throughout these repetitions, ingenious variations on the virtuous work of passage develop ». [ 78 ]
In his life, Monteverdi enjoyed considerable status among musicians and the public. This is evidenced by the scale of their funeral rites: «[With] truly royal pomp, a catafalque was erected in the Chiesa de Padrini Minori de Frari, all decorated in mourning, but surrounded by so many candles that the church looked like a luminous night sky with stars ». [ 109 ] This glorification was temporary. Carter writes that at that time, music rarely survived beyond the circumstances of its initial performance and was quickly forgotten along with its creator. [ 110 ]In this sense, Monteverdi fared better than most. His operatic works were reinterpreted in various cities in the decade following his death. [ 111 ] As Severo Bonini wrote in 1651, every musical home in Italy owned a copy of the "Lamento d'Arianna." [ 112 ]
The German composer Heinrich Schütz , who had studied in Venice with Giovanni Gabrieli shortly before Monteverdi's arrival, owned a copy of Il combattimento and himself took elements of the stile concitato . On his second visit to Venice in 1628-1629, Arnold believes that Schütz absorbed the concepts of basso continuo and expressiveness from word establishment, but he is of the opinion that Schütz was more directly influenced by the style of the younger generation of Venetian composers, including Grandi and Giovanni Rovetta (Monteverdi's successor at San Marcos). [ 113 ] Schütz published a first book on Symphoniae sacrae, arrangements of biblical texts in the style of the seconda pratica , in Venice in 1629. Es steh Gott auf , from his Symphoniae sacrae II , published in Dresden in 1647, contains specific quotes from Monteverdi. [ 114 ]
After the 1650s, Monteverdi's name quickly disappeared from contemporary accounts, his music was generally forgotten, except for "Lamento", the prototype of a genre that would last until the 18th century . [ 111 ]
Interest in Monteverdi revived in the late 18th and early 19th centuries among music scholars in Germany and Italy, although it was still considered essentially a historical curiosity. [ 110 ] The greatest interest in his music began in 1881, when Robert Eitner published an abridged version of Orpheus's score . [ 115 ] Around this time, Kurt Vogel made the scores of the madrigals from the original manuscripts, but there was a more critical interest in operas, following the discovery of the manuscript of The Coronation in 1888 and that ofThe return in 1904. [ 116 ] Largely through the efforts of Vincent d'Indy , the three operas were performed in one form or another, during the first quarter of the 19th century : The Fable of Orpheus in May 1911 , [ 117 ] The coronation in February 1913 and the return in May 1925. [ 118 ]
The Italian nationalist poet Gabriele D'Annunzio praised Monteverdi and in his novel Il fuoco (1900) wrote about " il divino Claudio ... what a heroic soul, purely Italian in its essence!" His view of the composer as the true founder of Italian musical lyricism was embraced by musicians who worked with the Benito Mussolini regime (1922-1945), including Francesco Malipiero , Luigi Dallapiccola, and Mario Labroca , who contrasted Monteverdi with the decline of music by Richard Strauss , Claude Debussy and Igor Stravinsky . 
In the years after World War II , his operas began to be performed in major opera houses and eventually established themselves in the general repertoire. [ 120 ] The recovery of his sacred music took longer. He did not benefit from the Renaissance music revival of the Catholic Church in the 19th century in the way that Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina did, perhaps as Carter suggests, because Monteverdi was seen primarily as a secular composer. [ 110 ] It was not until 1932 that Vespersof 1610 they were published in a modern edition, followed by Redlich's revision two years later. Modern editions of the volumes of Selva morale and Missa and Salmi were published respectively in 1940 and 1942. [ 121 ]
The resurgence of public interest in his music accelerated in the second half of the twentieth century , reaching a full peak in the general early music revival of the 1970s, during which the emphasis turned increasingly to performance. authentic 'using historical instruments. [ 122 ] The magazine Gramophone says more than 30 recordings of Vespers between 1976 and 2011, and 27 Il Tancredi e Clorinda di combattimento between 1971 and 2013. [ 123 ] [ 124 ]Monteverdi's surviving operas are performed regularly today. The Operabase website looks at 555 performances of the operas in 149 productions worldwide in the 2011-2016 seasons, ranking Monteverdi 30th for all composers and 8th for Italian opera composers. [ 125 ] In 1985, Manfred H. Stattkus published an index to Monteverdi's works, the Stattkus Catalog (Stattkus-Verzeichnis), revised in 2006, giving each composition an "SV" number, for cataloging and reference. [ 126 ]
Monteverdi is praised by modern critics as "the most important composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque Italy "; [ 127 ] "one of the leading composers in the history of Western music"; [ 128 ] and routinely as the first great opera composer . [ 129 ] These evaluations reflect a contemporary perspective, as his music was largely unknown to the composers who followed him for an extensive period, spanning more than two centuries after his death. They are, as Redlich and others have pointed out, the composers of the 20th century.and XXI who have rediscovered it and sought to make their music a base for theirs. [ 130 ] [ 131 ] Perhaps, as suggested by Chew, are attracted to Monteverdi's reputation as "a modern, rule - breaker against the Ancients, those who differed with the former authority" [ 131 ] though the composer was essentially a pragmatist, "displaying what can only be described as an opportunistic and eclectic disposition to use whatever is at hand for that purpose." [ 131 ]In a letter dated October 16, 1633, Monteverdi seems to endorse his view as "modern": "I would rather be moderately praised for the new style than praised for the ordinary." [ 132 ] However, Chew, in his final summary, sees the composer historically as pitted both ways, willing to use modern techniques, but at the same time protective of his status as a competent composer in the antico style.. Thus, says Chew, "his achievement was both retrospective and progressive." Monteverdi represents the late Renaissance era and at the same time summarizes much of the early Baroque. "And in one particular respect, his achievement was lasting: the effective projection of human emotions in music, in a way suitable for both theater and chamber music." [ 131 ]
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Notes and references
- The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis , signed between France and Spain in April 1559, recognized Spanish sovereignty over various Italian possessions, including the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples . [ 4 ] Monteverdi found later connections with Spain during his twenty years at the court of Mantua . According to musicologist Anthony Pryer, the extent to which these Spanish connections affected Monteverdi's music has not yet been the subject of academic study. [ 5 ]
- The viola da gamba (literally "viola on the leg"), was held upright between the knees, while the viola da braccio ("viola on the arm"), like the modern violin , was held under the chin. [ 13 ]
- The meaning of this, literally "French-style song", is debatable, but it may refer to Gabriello Chiabrera's French-influenced poetry , part of which was created by Monteverdi in his Scherzi musicali , and how it comes from Italian traditional 9 or 11 syllable line style. [ 16 ] [ 17 ]
- As early as 1932, the composer Francesco Malipiero commented that of all Monteverdi's works, "only the" Lament of Ariadna "has prevented us from completely forgetting the most famous composer of the 17th century . [ 25 ]
- Monteverdi's letters provide a detailed description of the various delays and delays. [ 36 ]
- Denis Stevens points out, in his edition of Monteverdi's letters: "It is strange that these words, once unfairly applied to the composer, can now be used with some justification to describe the most rebellious among his interpreters." [ 51 ]
- Pryer, 2007, pp. 3-4.
- Fabbri, 2007 , p. 6.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §1.
- Setton, 1984, pp. 708-109.
- Pryer, 2007, pp. 6-7.
- Carter, 2002, p. 1.
- Whenham, 2007b, p. xv.
- Arnold, 1980a, p. 515.
- Fabbri, 2007, p. 15.
- Holman, 1993, p. 577.
- Fabbri, 2007, pp. 27-28.
- Bates, 2000, p. 53.
- Holman, n.d..
- Stevens, 1995, p. 20.
- Arnold, 1980b, pp. 534-535.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §2.
- Vartolo , Sergio (nd). «Monteverdi: Three-Voice Musical Jokes» . Naxos Records (Media notes). 8.553317 .
- Bowers, 2007, p. 59.
- Bowers, 2007, p. 63.
- Bowers, 2007, p. 66.
- Stevens, 1995, p. 214.
- Ossi, 2007, p. 100.
- Chrissochoidis , Ilias (March 27, 2015). "The" Artusi-Monteverdi "controversy: Background, content, and modern interpretations" . British Postgraduate Musicology ( King's College, London) 6 . Retrieved July 9, 2017 .
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 420-422.
- Malipiero, 1932, p. 383.
- Whenham, 2007b, p. xvii.
- Pryer, 2007, p. 12.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 46-54.
- Arnold, 1980a, p. 516.
- Stevens, 1995 , pp. 83-85.
- Fabbri, 2007 , pp. 128-129.
- Walker y Alm, n.d..
- Fabbri, 2007, pp. 134-135.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §3.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 188-194.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 106-150.
- Arnold, 1980a, p. 531.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 370-373.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 151-153.
- Carter, 2007a, p. 29.
- Wistreich, 2007, p. 261.
- Stevens, 1995, p. 345.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 289-301.
- Stevens, 1995, p. 402.
- Norwich, 1983, pp. 537-540.
- Whenham, 2007b, p. xx.
- Arnold, 1980c, p. 617.
- Whenham, 2007b, p. xxi.
- Arnold, 1980a, p. 530.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 431-432.
- Stevens, 1995, p. 432, nota k.
- Arnold, 1980a, p. 517..
- Stevens, 1995, p. 434.
- Stevens, 1995, pp. 435-436.
- Lockwood, n.d..
- Palisca, n.d..
- Cruice, 1997, p. 38.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §4.
- Cruice, 1997, p. 37.
- Ward, 1978, p. 704.
- Fabbri, 2007, p. 8.
- Beat, 1968, p. 93.
- Beat, 1968, p. 108.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 4.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §7.
- Chew, 2007, pp. 39-43.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §6.
- Bowers, 2007, p. 58.
- Ossi, 2007, p. 97.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §8.
- Ossi, 2007, p. 98.
- Palisca, 1980, pp. 10-11.
- Palisca, 1980, p. 12.
- Ossi, 2007 , pp. 102-103.
- Fabbri, 2007, p. 58.
- Tomlinson, 1990, pp. 101-105.
- Fabbri, 2007, pp. 104-105.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §9.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 76.
- Ossi, 2007 , pp. 107-108.
- Carter, 2007b, p. 181.
- Beat, 1968, p. 240.
- Carter, 2007b, pp. 183-184.
- Fenlon , Ian. "Monteverdi Madrigals, Book 8» (in English) . Gramophone . Retrieved July 13, 2017 .
- Whenham, 2007d, pp. 331-332.
- Stevens, 1995, p. 229.
- Carter, 2007b, p. 185.
- Wistreich, 2007, p. 275.
- Clements , Andrew (November 4, 2005). "Review: Monteverdi: Madrigals, Book 8, La Venexiana" . The Guardian (English) . Retrieved July 13, 2017 .
- Whenham, 2007d, pp. 334-335.
- Carter, 2007b, p. 192.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 144.
- Carter, 2002, p. 197.
- Beat, 1968, p. 281.
- Taruskin, 2010, pp. 1-2.
- Arnold , Denis . "Claudio Monteverdi: Three decades in Venice" (in English) . Britannica Online . Retrieved February 21, 2010 .
- Rosand, 2007, p. 230.
- Johnson , David (May 1965). "For the Record." The North American Review 250 (2): 63-64. JSTOR 25116167 . (requires subscription) .
- Carter, 2002, p. 250.
- Rosand, 1991, p. 220.
- Bowers, 2007, p. 65.
- Whenham, 2007c, pp. 200-201.
- Whenham, 2007d, pp. 324-330.
- Stevens, 1995, p. 79.
- Clements , Andrew (March 24, 2016). "Monteverdi: Messa a Quattro Voci et Salmi of 1650: CD review" . The Guardian (English) . Retrieved July 15, 2017 .
- Whenham, 2007c, p. 204.
- Whenham, 2007c, pp. 205-206.
- Whenham, 2007c, pp. 202-203.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 308.
- Carter, 2002, p. 4.
- Redlich, 1952, pp. 145-148.
- Pryer, 2007, p. 15.
- Arnold, 1985, pp. 359, 362-365, 367-374.
- Drebes, 1992, p. 54.
- Fortune, 1986, pp. 80-81.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 146.
- Fortune y Whenham, 1986, pp. 173-181.
- Carter, 2002, p. 6.
- Dell'Antonio, 1996 , pp. 272, 274-275, 278-280.
- Abbate y Parker, 2012 , p. 54.
- Redlich, 1952, pp. 147-148.
- Wistreich, 2007, pp. 278-279.
- Kemp, Lindsay (9 de febrero de 2015). «Monteverdi's Vespers - which recording is best?». Gramophone (in English) . Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
- Kemp, Lindsay (8 de abril de 2016). «Monteverdi's Combattimento - which recording is best?». Gramophone (in English) . Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
- "Opera statistics: Composers" . Operabase (in English) . Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
- Stattkus , Manfred H. "Claudio Monteverdi: List of surviving works (SV)» (en inglés) . Consultado el 18 de agosto de 2017 .
- Carter, 2002 , p. you.
- Grout and Palisca, 1981 , p. 239.
- Ringer, 2006 , p. ix.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 149.
- Carter y Chew, n.d., §10.
- Pryer, 2007, p. 18.
- Abbate, Carolyn; Parker, Roger (2012). A History of Opera: The Last 400 años. Londres: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-713-99633-3.
- Arnold, Denis (1980a). «Monteverdi [Monteverde], Claudio Giovanni [Zuan] Antonio». En Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 12. Londres: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-0-333-23111-1.
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- Arnold, Denis (1985). «The Second Venetian Visit of Heinrich Schütz». The Musical Quarterly 71 (3): 359-374. JSTOR 948160. doi:10.1093/mq/lxxi.3.359. (requiere suscripción).
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- Cruice, Valerie (1997). When Do I Clap?: A Slightly Irreverent Guide to Classical Music and Concert Hall Conduct. Darien, CT: Two Bytes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-881907-13-8.
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