Colombia , officially the Republic of Colombia , is a sovereign country located in the northwestern region of South America , which is constituted in a unitary , social and democratic state of law whose form of government is presidential . It is a republic politically organized in 32 decentralized departments and the Capital District of Bogotá , seat of the National Government. [ 12 ]
Including Malpelo Island , Roncador Key, and Serrana Bank , the country covers an area of 1,141,748 km² , [ 3 ] making it the 25th largest country in the world and the seventh largest in the Americas. It claims as territorial sea the area up to 12 nautical miles away, [ 4 ] maintaining a border dispute in this regard with Venezuela and Nicaragua . [ 13 ] [ 14 ] It is bordered to the eastwith Venezuela and Brazil , to the south with Peru and Ecuador and to the west with Panama ; In terms of maritime limits, it borders Panama, Costa Rica , Nicaragua, Honduras , Jamaica , Haiti , the Dominican Republic and Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea , and with Panama, Costa Rica and Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean . [ 15 ]
It is the only nation in South America that has coasts in the Pacific Ocean and access to the Atlantic through the Caribbean Sea , [ 16 ] in which it has several islands such as the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina .
It is the twenty - eighth most populous country in the world , with a population of 51 million, [ 17 ] [ 18 ] also is the second nation with more Spanish speakers , just behind Mexico . [ 19 ] It has a multicultural population, which reflects the influence of large-scale European colonization, native peoples and African labor, with migratory waves from Europe and the Middle East during the 20th century. [ 20 ] The gross domestic product purchasing power parityde Colombia ranks fourth in Latin America and 28th worldwide. The nominal GDP of Colombia is the fourth largest in Latin America and ranks 28th worldwide. [ 21 ]
The human presence in Colombia dates back more than 12,500 years . [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] After thousands of years of cultural training, in the current Colombian territory emerged various pre - Columbian cultures like muiscas , Tairona and Quimbaya . By colonizing these cultures, Spain created the Viceroyalty of New Granada with its capital in Santafé (now Bogotá). In 1810 the War of Independence began, after which the country that is currently known as Colombia emerged. During the 19th and 20th centuries , the country was characterized by its instability and a large number of civil wars ; [ 25 ] the last of these conflicts known as the internal armed conflict , which began in 1960. In 2012, after more than fifty years of conflict, the government of then-president Juan Manuel Santos began peace talks with the FARC-EP . In 2016 a final agreement was reached that despite not being approved in the plebiscite of October 2of the same year, it was implemented with modifications in 2017. To date, the Government of Colombia is advancing the process of implementing the agreements and initiating new conversations with the ELN , which has expressed its intention to contribute to the end of the conflict.
Colombia has a diversified economy and has an important services component. The country's economic production is dominated by its domestic demand and household consumption spending is the largest component of GDP. [ 26 ] The GDP in 2016 was 720 151 million dollars . [ 27 ] The Colombian Human Development Index is 0.747 and its average life expectancy is 75.1 years. [ 7 ] [ 28 ] Colombia is part of the group of CIVETS considered six major emerging markets. It is a member of the OECD [ 29 ] , the UN , the OAS , the Pacific Alliance and other international organizations; it is also the only country in Latin America that is a global partner of NATO . It is the second country with the highest inequality index in Latin America, after Brazil, and tied with Panama, according to the World Bank database. [ 30 ]
It is the second most biodiverse nation in the world, with 54,871 registered species; [ 31 ] however, a study places it among the eight countries responsible for half of the destruction of biodiversity in the world. [ 32 ] On the other hand, it is the Latin American country with the most ecological conflicts between the local population and multinational companies in areas of special environmental protection. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] To protect their environment the country has instruments such as the National Policy on Climate Change and the carbon tax. [ 35 ]Electricity production in Colombia comes mainly from renewable energy sources . 69.97% is obtained from hydroelectric generation . [ 36 ]
The name of Colombia comes from the surname of the 15th century Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus (in Italian : Cristoforo Colombo). It was adopted on February 15, 1819, during the Congress of Angostura , to name the new State that then comprised the territories of Nueva Granada , Quito and the Captaincy General of Venezuela . [ 37 ] The name was invented by Francisco de Miranda and proposed by Simón Bolívar in the Letter of Jamaica . [ 38 ]
In 1830, with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador from Gran Colombia , it was renamed the Republic of New Granada . After the adoption of federalism with the 1858 constitution, it was renamed the Granadina Confederation . In 1863 it adopted the name of the United States of Colombia ; [ 39 ] which in 1886 became the Republic of Colombia. At first this denomination was protested by the congresses of Ecuador and Venezuela for considering it a unilateral usurpation of the common historical heritage, but the discussion was quickly overcome. [ 40 ]
The land of Columbus bathes in the blood of heroes.Rafael Nunez
The study of the first settlers of the territory that today comprises the Nation has been divided into three stages of the pre- Columbian era : the Paleolithic (15,000-7000 BC), the Archaic Andean period (7000 to 2000 BC) , and the formative period 2000 a. Until the 16th century. The first human beings that arrived in the territory date from approximately 10 thousand to 15 thousand years. The hunters and gatherers Nomads this time using artifacts lithic tools and weapons made of stone dating 10 450. C., found in El Abra , where it was found that there were inhabitants in the Bogotá savannain 10,500 BC C. In the XV century there were three great families that populated Colombia. The Caribbean culture was located on the coast of the Caribbean Sea, the Arawak in the Caquetá, Amazon and Putumayo rivers, and the Muiscas in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the highlands of the center of the country. The latter was the one with the most settlers and a significant development in agriculture, the use of the calendar, hieroglyphs, and religious rituals. [ 42 ] [ 43 ]
The chiefdom was the social organization that prevailed before the Christian Era. It was characterized by its social order based on a stratification of society, the tribes were grouped in a similar way as the lordship did . Thus, the chief was the one with the maximum power. Evidence of activities from this time has been found in which funeral practices stand out, evidence of various trades and symbols of command, personal ornaments, temples, statues, irrigation systems and notable advances in agriculture such as cultivation terraces , among others. The cultures San Agustín, Tumaco , Tierradentro , Quimbaya, Zenú , Malagana , Pastos , Quillacingas , Guanes and Pijaos , based their social order on the chiefdom. Many of these had already disappeared or were reduced to the arrival of the Spanish. Cultures more advanced in their social order emerged later in the higher education , whose organization surpassed that of the chiefdom, as it was similar to village federations; Its main representatives were cultures such as the Tairona and the Muiscas . [ 42 ] [ 43 ]
The first expedition that set sail for what is now Colombia was undertaken in 1499 by Alonso de Ojeda accompanied by Juan de la Cosa and Américo Vespucio . [ 45 ] It coasted Africa , passed through the Canary Islands until it reached what is now known as Guyana and Venezuela , from there it left for Trinidad and then to La Guajira , to return to Spain.with a booty made up mainly of enslaved natives. It was the first time that European explorers spotted and mapped the American continental coast. Specifically the Venezuelan and Colombian coast. [ 46 ] On his second trip he founded Santa Cruz in Bahia Honda , the first European colony on the American continent, which did not prosper. [ 46 ]
A trip made by Rodrigo de Bastidas between 1500 and 1501 left from La Guajira to the Gulf of Urabá . During this tour, De Bastidas discovered the mouth of the Magdalena River . For his part, Christopher Columbus , on his last trip to America, could have reached Cape Tiburon , in Chocó . [ 44 ]
In 1508 Ojeda was appointed governor of Nueva Andalucía , a kingdom that was supposed to extend from the Isthmus of Darién to Punta de la Vela. Therefore, he undertook a third expedition starting from Santo Domingo with "two lowlands, two berantines, and three hundred men" among whom was Francisco Pizarro . [ 46 ] He disembarked in what is now Cartagena de Indias Bay where he read the "requirement" to submit to the indigenous people of Turbaco.. His forces were later decimated by the natives for which he had to continue advancing along the coast of the kingdom he was supposed to rule. He tried to found another settlement in the Gulf of Urabá , San Sebastián de Urabá , which was quickly abandoned due to the inclement terrain and the resistance of the local inhabitants. [ 46 ]
In 1510, Vasco Núñez de Balboa founded Santa María la Antigua del Darién and in 1513 he found the Pacific Ocean , with the help of the indigenous people, who guided the conqueror. [ 44 ] The discovery of the Pacific Ocean was reported to Spain, and some time later several ships arrived to explore the area commanded by Pedro Arias Dávila , who was also the governor of the region between Cabo de la Vela and Panama.
At first, the Spanish modus operandi was to establish small colonies that were dedicated to subjugating, plundering and enslaving the neighboring indigenous peoples, but as the indigenous people died in large numbers or fled the coast, it became increasingly necessary. establish permanent colonies populated by peninsular emigrants. [ 47 ]
In 1525 Santa Marta would be founded by Rodrigo de Bastidas and, in 1533, Pedro de Heredia founded Cartagena del Poniente . However, the colonization efforts were tough and cities like Santa Marta were plunged into misery and their almost total disappearance. In the midst of despair, faced with the constant state of war with the natives and the first pirate attacks by French corsairs on those coasts, the then governor of Santa Marta Pedro Fernández de Lugo appointed one of his trusted men, the lawyer Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, to organize an expedition that would go up the entire Magdalena River to reach Peru . The expedition consisted of more than 600 men, a number that exceeded the population of Santa Marta at that time. The expedition started on April 6, 1536. [ 48 ]
The intention of reaching Peru was based on the news that had arrived of the fabulous ransom that the Incas had paid to free their leader Atahualpa , which pointed to the enormous wealth of those lands. [ 47 ] Jiménez de Quesada's journey was tortuous, and by the time he reached what is now Bogotá, he had lost at least two-thirds of his men. There he would found the city in 1539 .
New Kingdom of Granada
In 1550 the New Kingdom of Granada was established, territorial division of the Viceroyalty of Peru , and the Royal Audience of Santafé de Bogotá was established , with which this city became the political and administrative center of New Granada.
With the consolidation of the Spanish colonies both on the coast and in the center of the country, it went from a system based on private concessions in which the Crown granted governors to the conquerors (who had financed the expeditions on their own account) to a government system with a strong centralist character in which the King tried to rule directly through the Council of the Indies . [ 49 ] This period was characterized by the imposition of central power from Spain on the native peoples and the colonizers of these lands. An exclusive social, economic and political system was imposed for a large part of those involved. [ 44 ]The institution of the encomienda began to develop around 1549, although late, since this institution had been in decline in Peru and New Spain . Subsequently, the mita would grow in boom as a way of extracting tributes and personal services from the natives by the settlers. [ 50 ]
In 1599 there was a slave rebellion in Cartagena led by Benkos Biohó . Many similar rebellions during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were establishing independent populations of freed slaves, which will contribute to the formation of the Raizal and Afro-Colombian cultures . [ 51 ]
Viceroyalty of New Granada
During almost the entire colonial period, New Granada was a captaincy of the Viceroyalty of Peru . The Captain of Nueva Granada was to govern what is now Colombia, in addition to Venezuela with the exception of Caracas . Cali , Popayán , Nariño and Ecuador were under the authority of the President of Quito , who had functions similar to that of a captaincy. [ 49 ] This organization remained unchanged until 1717 when the New Granada captaincy was promoted to Viceroyalty.. In 1723 the changes were reversed and the territories returned to be part of the viceroyalty of Peru, however, in 1739 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was reestablished. The presidencies of Quito and Panama were assigned to the Viceroyalty of New Granada. In 1777 the Captaincy General of Venezuela was created over which the viceroys of Granada had little control.
The sub-territorial government was advanced by the town councils or municipal councils. These entities were not democratically elected but they were one of the few in which the Creoles could serve and were representative at least in the sense that their members were inhabitants of the territory in question. [ 49 ]
The Caribbean area was the target of attacks by privateers in the service of the British Crown . This culminated in the War of the Seat , during which the siege of Cartagena de Indias occurred . The defeat of the English helped consolidate Spanish rule over New Granada. [ 52 ]
The conflict began to take shape at the end of the 18th century with the insurrection of the comuneros , which was the first manifestation of the Creole identity , as the insurgents marched through the capital to protest against the new government taxes and claim their share of the wealth. national, under the slogan Long live the King down with bad government . [ 53 ]
In 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Iberian peninsula and forced King Carlos IV and the crown prince Ferdinand VII to abdicate the throne and cede the sovereignty of the Spanish empire to José de Bonaparte , Napoleon's brother. As a result, the Supreme Board of Spain and the Indies was created in Valencia , as a stronghold of the Spanish government in opposition to the sudden French invasion . This board sought to govern the empire while Fernando VII was restored to the throne.
With the total collapse of the Spanish resistance in 1810, the New Granada provinces such as Cartagena , Antioquia , Cundinamarca , Venezuela , Panama and many others throughout the region began to form their own government boards, following the example of the Spanish provinces.
Some boards sought to govern provisionally while the Spanish Government was restored but some others, promoted by politicians such as Antonio Nariño and Camilo Torres , declared themselves independent and republican, influenced by the American and French Revolution and inspired by philosophers such as Rousseau and Bentham .
Between 1811 and 1816 the first republican state called United Provinces of federalist court was established, with some provinces such as Santa Marta and Popayán remaining loyal to the Spanish Crown and rejecting the Union. [ 55 ] During this period there was a civil war between centralists, federalists, and royalists, which is why the Patria Boba is called at this time , a name given by Antonio Nariño.
After the restoration of the Spanish Monarchy in 1814, Fernando VII sent an army in 1816 to reconquer the territories that had been declared independent. The resistance to the reconquest was led by Francisco de Paula Santander in Casanare and later joined by Simón Bolívar , who commanded an independence army from Guyana and later from Venezuela, which invaded Colombia from the Eastern Plains with the goal of occupying the Tunja province , crossing the mountain range that separates them. [ 56 ]
The Liberation Army had 1,300 infantry men and 800 cavalry, and with the support of the government of England. Simón Bolívar would meet on June 12 with the troops of General Francisco de Paula Santander among other pro-independence officers. On July 25, the battle of Pantano de Vargas took place . The patriot army took Tunja on August 4. Later, José María Barreiro , in his retreat to Santa Fe, was surprised by Simón Bolívar on the Boyacá bridge, where the homonymous battle took place on August 7, 1819. Three days later they occupied the capital that the viceroyJuan de Sámano had left in retreat. The triumph of Bolívar meant the end of the domination of Spain in the east and center of the country. In the following four years the last royalist nuclei that still resisted the emancipatory project would be defeated. [ 56 ]
Civil wars and internal armed conflict
|Transformations in the political and territorial organization|
|[ 57 ] [ 58 ]|
|United Provinces||1811 - 1816|
|Great Colombia||1819 - 1831|
|Republic of New Granada||1832 - 1858|
|Grenadian Confederation||1858 - 1863|
|United States of Colombia||1863 - 1886|
|Republic of Colombia||since 1886|
Rivalries over the form of government (1828-1886)
After the triumph of Bolívar and the expulsion of the Spanish from America, the political conflict was revived between those who believed that the new nation should be central in character and those who believed that it should be federal . The inconvenience was such that the Ocaña constituent assembly was unable to draft a constitution for the newly created state of Greater Colombia, made up of the current countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Its official name was República de Colombia, but in historiography it is referred to as Gran Colombia to differentiate it from present-day Colombia.
After the failed congress of Ocaña, in 1828 Bolívar issued the Organic Decree of the Dictatorship declaring himself dictator for 2 years until 1830. In September 1828 a group of political dissidents tried to assassinate Bolívar who was with Manuela Sáenz in the Palace of San Carlos . Manuela was severely beaten by the conspirators but survived, while Bolívar escaped by jumping through a window, spending all night hiding under the Puente del Carmen, where the San Agustín river crossed (current 5th street with 6th street) near La Candelaria , during which time he acquires pneumonia . [ 59 ] [ 60 ]As a result Santander was accused of participating in the plot, tried and exiled . These events, coupled with rumors about the efforts made by members of the Liberator's cabinet (according to Bolívar without his approval) to find a European nobleman to assume the role of American King in the style of a constitutional monarchy , culminated in two federalist revolts led by two Republicans, José María Córdova in Antioquia and José María Obando in Cauca. On October 16, 1829, José María Córdova was assassinated. Likewise, on June 4, 1830, Antonio José de Sucre was assassinated.which, together with his chronic illness, led Bolívar to resign in May 1830 to go into exile before the collapse of the Gran Colombia project. Finally dies of being able to embark for England in Santa Marta in December 1830. After the death of Bolívar Santander return to the country becoming president in 1832. [ 61 ]
Subsequently, the centralist Republic of New Granada (1832-1858) was created, made up of the current Colombia and Panama and which was organized in provinces. In this period the supporters of centralism and the union between the Church and the State would lay the foundations for the creation of the Colombian Conservative Party , while the federalists and supporters of the Church-State separation would become the Colombian Liberal Party . Then came the fleeting Confederación Granadina , a federal republic made up of eight federated states that replaced the old New Granada provinces from 1858 to 1863.
In 1854, a political-military coup brought the liberal José María Melo to power for a few months. [ 62 ] After being overthrown in the civil war of that year , the reduction of the army was promoted, an important requirement for the federalism established in 1858 to function. However, during the civil war of 1860-1862 there was a rebellion in the that the State of Cauca led by Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera overthrew the conservative government of Mariano Ospina Rodríguez . [ 63 ] In 1863 the Constitution of Rionegro came into force , with which the country was renamedUnited States of Colombia , a federal republic in which territorial autonomy prevailed. It was characterized by being a country influenced by liberalism that imposed a federal system with the creation of regional armies. In 1876 the Conservatives took up arms in the civil war of 1876 over religious issues in education, but were defeated by the Government.
The presidential elections of 1880 were won by the moderate liberal Rafael Núñez who opposed federalism and supported a greater intervention of the state in the economy and in the regions. As a result, the civil war of 1884-1885 broke out in a failed attempt by radical liberals to overthrow Núñez, who with the help of conservatives proclaimed the 1886 Constitution , which ended federalism and imposed administrative centralism, creating the departments, giving broad powers to the President of the Republic, unifying the army at the national level, allying with the Church and renaming the country to the current name of the Republic of Colombia .
From Regeneration to the Liberal Republic
The Thousand Days War developed between 1899 and 1902 as a reaction to the conservative government during the presidency of Manuel Antonio Sanclemente and José Manuel Marroquín ; The war, the subsequent bankruptcy of the country and the economic interest of the United States unleashed the separation of Panama in 1903. [ 64 ] After the war, Rafael Reyes (1904-1909) was elected, who dissolved Congress in 1905 and replaced it with a Constituent Assembly that gave it dictatorial powers. [ 65 ]During his government, the internal order was normalized, the economy stabilized and a process of industrialization and modernization of the state began. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] In the 1920s presented political violence (such as the Slaughter of the Bananeras in 1928) comes to the country 's aviation and popular movements arise peasants, workers and indigenous [ 68 ] . In 1930, for the first time since 1886, that is 34 years later, a liberal won the presidential election . With Enrique Olaya Herrera (1930-1934) the period in which the Liberals exercised power for 16 continuous years began.[ 69 ] During his government there was thewar against Peru, originating in 1932 when a group of Peruvianstook the city of Leticiain theAmazon. [ 70 ] Although Colombia strengthened its military fleet, the conflict is not resolved on thebattlefieldbut throughdiplomatic channelsthrough theProtocol of Rio de Janeiro (1934)that put an end to the border dispute. [ 71 ] The first government ofAlfonso López Pumarejowas called "the revolution in progress" and was a constant of reforms. 
Violence and the National Front
Between 1946 and 1958, the country was plunged into a social and political crisis, with the resurgence of " Bipartisan Violence ." It was characterized as a period of political persecution in the middle of a war between liberals and conservatives. The conflict caused between 113,000 and 300,000 deaths [ 73 ] and the forced displacement of more than two million people, equivalent to almost a fifth of the total population of Colombia, of approximately 11 million inhabitants. [ 74 ]As a consequence, the country stopped being agrarian to become urban, since in 1959 just over half of the country's population lived in the city. Historically, mostly agricultural lands were acquired at a low price by landowners of the time. The peasant population displaced from their lands became a salaried agrarian labor force. Industrial activity grew, but this was not reflected in the development of the population. [ 75 ]
After liberal internal divisions in 1946 , the Conservatives regained presidential power, not the majorities in Congress. In 1948, with the assassination of the liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán , the Bogotazo began and the resurgence of Violence, a civil war that lasted until the early 1960s. [ 76 ] The conservatives held the presidency until 1953, when the class Politics (made up of the upper classes, who were in the majority of the cases the government posts) led to a coup d'état that gave power to General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla . Most of the liberal guerrillasand communists, attracted by the government's peace proposals, surrendered their weapons, but several of their members were later assassinated. An agreement between the Liberal and Conservative parties ended the dictatorship of Rojas Pinilla , and after the 1957 Plebiscite the National Front was created as a return to formal electoral democracy in which the political parties alternated power, ending the decades of war between liberals and conservatives. [ 77 ]
The National Front marked the end of the bipartisan violence. However they continued the exclusion of other political ideologies, social, economic and political problems. [ 78 ] Communist guerrillas emerged: in 1964 the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army (FARC-EP), on January 7, 1965 the National Liberation Army (ELN), in July 1967 the People's Army of Release (EPL); the nationalist guerrilla in January 1974: the April 19 Movement (M-19), and the first indigenous guerrilla on the continent in 1984: the Quintin Lame Armed Movement (MAQL). [ 79 ]
Internal armed conflict (1960-present) and drug trafficking
Since 1960, the nation's history has been characterized by the internal armed conflict , with several stages of worsening, the largest between 1988 and 2012 [ 83 ] . Among the state against various armed actors ( guerrillas of the extreme left , paramilitaries from extreme right , cartels drug trafficking and organized crime ) generating the report "Enough !: Colombia: memories of war and dignity" (2013) 220,000 deaths the conflict between 1958 -2012. [ 84 ]By 2020, according to the Single Registry of Victims, there are: 8,989,570 victims of the conflict in 11,202,790 events or victimizing events. [ 85 ] Colombia is the country with the highest number of displaced people in the world with 7,816,500 people who have fled the violence according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IMDC) in 2019 [ 86 ] .
During the National Front, four presidents were elected, two by the Liberal Party and two by the Conservative Party . In 1974 the electoral contest between liberals and conservatives was resumed. [ 87 ] Insurgent groups appear such as the FARC-EP, the ELN, the EPL and the M-19, which formed the Simón Bolívar Guerrilla Coordination (CGSB) and paramilitary groups (regional self-defense forces, the Convivir and later AUC) to combat these groups and opposition parties. Peace negotiations were held that culminated successfully in 1990 with the M-19 and in 1991 with 95% of the EPL among other groups. The 1991 Political Constitution is promulgated , which governs the destiny of the nation since the government of César Gaviria (1990-1994). [ 88 ] In the 1970s he presented the marimbera bonanza , and since the 1980s a boom occurred in the drug trafficking of cocaine . The leading drug traffickers of the Cali and Medellín cartels acquired enormous power influencing the ruling classof the country with money from illicit businesses, such as Process 8000 in the electoral campaign of President Ernesto Samper (1994-1998), being an example of the current problems of corruption in Colombia . In the late 1980s and early 1990s the government began to prosecute and extradite drug lords. This unleashed a wave of violence known as narco-terrorism . Drug money also helped finance guerrilla and paramilitary groups that became embroiled in a violent conflict that escalated in the 1990s and 2000s . [ 89 ] [ 90]
After the failure of the Caguán peace talks , the Government of Colombia and the United States implemented Plan Colombia in the government of Andrés Pastrana (1998-2002). [ 91 ] The two presidential terms of Álvaro Uribe (2002-2010) are established as the years with the highest number of victims: 3,633,840 victims according to the Single Registry of Victims. [ 92 ] With the demobilization of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) between 2003 and 2006, the so-called Criminal Gangs (Bacrim) or Organized Armed Groups (GAO)They resumed the illicit activities carried out by the paramilitaries, especially those related to drug trafficking and illegal mining . [ 93 ] [ 94 ] [ 95 ] From 2012 until 2016, the government of Juan Manuel Santos developed a peace process with the FARC-EP in Havana , Cuba , with the aim of finding a political solution to the conflict. On October 2, 2016, after the parties signed a first peace agreement on September 26 of that year, the government called a plebiscite.to endorse the agreements reached with the insurgents, with the NO winning by a narrow margin. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] After a period of negotiation with the promoters of the NO, the government and the FARC-EP agreed the final peace agreements between the government of Juan Manuel Santos and FARC-EP , which was signed on November 24, 2016. [ 98 ] There was a decrease in the intensity of the war. [ 99 ]
Currently, the Colombian State has not fulfilled most of its obligations, such as establishing an integrated presence in rural regions and implementing land restitution programs and substitution of illicit crops. Colombia tops the list of murdered social leaders worldwide. According to the latest report by the Front Line Defenders organization, impunity in these cases is 86%. According to the United Nations , 93% of the cases occurred in places where there is no State presence, which generates a great setback for the implementation of the Peace Agreement, and the murder of former FARC-EP combatants. [ 100 ] [ 101] [ 102 ] The conflict continues with theELN, theorganized armed groupsandDissidences FARC-EP. [ 103 ] There have been social mobilizations such as theprotests in 2019-2020, and theprotests in 2021.
Problems of contemporary times
Inequality in Colombia refers to the economic and social inequality that exists in the country. According to World Bank figures , in 2017 Colombia was the second most unequal country in Latin America and the seventh in the world, out of a total of 194 countries on the planet. Despite the sustained economic growth of the gross domestic product, which was between 6.6% between 2006-2014, the inequality index fell during the time of the greatest oil boom. [ 104 ]
The corruption has traditionally been noted by many analysts as one of you major political problems of the country. The Corruption Perception Index 2016 (CPI), from the agency for Transparency International , - which rates from 0 (Very Corrupt) to 100 (Very Transparent) of the levels of corruption perceived by the public sector in 175 countries and territories evaluated - Colombia, in this study obtained a score of 37 points, well below the global average of 43 points, making Colombia one of the most corrupt countries in the world (see graph). Colombia is ranked 98th worldwide, based on New Zealand and DenmarkThey are in position 1 as the least corrupt countries on the planet. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] It is estimated that the annual cost of corruption in Colombia is more than 50 trillion pesos; approximately 17 billion dollars annually, it represents 5% of GDP and 21% of the national budget. [ 107 ] [ 108 ]
The COVID-19 pandemic in Colombia began on March 6, 2020, according to the Ministry of Health and Social Protection . The first confirmed case in the country was that of a 19-year-old woman from Milan , Italy . [ 109 ]
government and politics
Colombia is a democracy in which citizens empower the rulers by voting to represent them and make decisions regarding the country. Colombians can elect their representatives when they are over eighteen years of age and have a citizenship card. In Colombia, going to the polls is not mandatory, since its electoral system is voluntary suffrage . The compulsory voting is permitted in most countries of Latin America . The abstention in the country is one of the highest in America . [ 110 ] [ 111 ]
Branches of public power
The Political Constitution of 1991 determines all the norms, rights and duties of Colombians and the branches of public power. [ 114 ] The Political Constitution of Colombia orders public power in three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. In this way, it seeks to avoid the concentration of power. Each branch fulfills different functions and acts independently but harmoniously according to the constitution. [ 114 ]
Legislative branch : it is responsible for creating laws, it also has the attribute of modifying existing ones. It is represented by the Congress of the Republic. [ 114 ]
Executive branch : it is in charge of enforcing the Constitution and the laws. Its representatives are the president, the vice president, the ministers, the governors, the mayors and the heads of the administrative departments. [ 114 ]
Judicial branch : in charge of administering justice and resolving conflicts of the Colombian population, or between them and the State. Its representatives are the Supreme Court of Justice, the Constitutional Court, the Council of State, the Superior Council of the Judiciary, the courts and the judges. [ 114 ]
Foreign relations are functions of the President of the Republic as head of state, which are delegated to the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Colombia or chancellery. The Foreign Ministry administers diplomatic missions to other countries and representations to multilateral organizations. [ 115 ] In the 20th century, Colombia practiced a foreign policy of unconditional alliance with the United States, a practice that was formulated by former President Marco Fidel Suárez as the doctrine of "respice polum" , look towards the "Polar Star". This policy was complemented in the government of Carlos Lleras Restrepo with the doctrine of "respice similia" or"Look at your peers" , with the purpose of diversifying relations with similar countries, and not only with a privileged actor. [ 116 ] However, the different governments have combined both strategies and the country has participated in the construction and development of international organizations. [ 117 ]
Colombia joined the WTO , through Law 170 of December 1994, and as of April 1, 1995, it began its commitments as an active member of that organization. The entry into force of the WTO and its adherence to it meant that the country accepted all the agreements at the multilateral level except for some reservations in the aircraft agreements . [ 118 ] [ 119 ]
Defense tasks fall to the executive power with the President of the Nation as Commander-in-Chief, who delegates his functions to the Ministry of Defense , counting on the Military Forces of Colombia and the National Police of Colombia for defense and security tasks. [ 120 ] On the other hand, the Administrative Department of Security ( DAS ) was the main intelligence agency in Colombia between 1960 and October 2011, it had the autonomy and attributes of any of the ministries that are part of the government. Due to illegal call interception scandals, the DAS was dissolved in 2011; instead, the National Intelligence Directorate (DNI) was established as the country's new intelligence agency .
According to the constitution and the law, the Colombian Military Forces have a monopoly on coercion, and are made up of the army , navy and air force , also coordinating the joint task forces . [ 121 ] The Colombian Military Forces are considered one of the best prepared armed forces in the world. [ 122 ] They have a public force force of 885,842 personnel (in 2019), [ 123 ]Including 20,651 officers, 45,588 NCOs, 16,170 cadets or students, 214,000 soldiers, and 15,407 civilians. Since September 1981, the army has participated in the Multinational Force for Peace and Observers ( MFO ) in Sinai. [ 124 ]
- Colombian National Army . It has eight divisions, as well as specialized units and training schools. [ 125 ] It maintains a public force force of 214,000 personnel (in 2018), [ 126 ] including 9,663 officers, 32,884 NCOs, 3,644 cadets or students, 169,428 soldiers, and 5,977 civilians, the latter typically in technical roles or specialized professionals, such as Military Medicine and Health. [ 127 ]
- National Navy . It exercises presence and sovereignty over the Caribbean Sea , the Pacific Ocean , river arteries and different land jurisdictions with the purpose of maintaining territorial integrity and constitutional order. In 2012, the National Navy had 34,964 members: 20,596 Marines, 8,748 sailors and NCOs, 2,427 officers, 1,164 cadets, and around 2,029 civilians, assigned to technical or professional specialties. [ 127 ]
- Colombian Air Force . It has six combat air commands (CACOM), a Military Transport Air Command (CATAM) and an Air Maintenance Command (CAMAN), which operate throughout the Colombian territory, in addition to the Caribbean Air Group (GACAR). [ 128 ] It also has three education and training centers: CT Aeronautical Military Institute. José Edmundo Sandoval (IMA), Marco Fidel Suárez Military Aviation School(EMAVI) and the Captain Andrés María Díaz Díaz NCO School (ESUFA). This component of the military forces has approximately 14,195 personnel (2012), including 2,367 officers, 3,441 noncommissioned officers, 1,333 cadets or students, 4,656 soldiers (mainly base security and Military Police), and 2,598 civilians. [ 127 ]
- National Police . It is the police force that operates throughout the national territory, has 165,950 soldiers in 2012 and is in charge of maintaining and guaranteeing theinternal public order of the Nation. Article 2 of Decree number 1355 of 1970. Governed by the DIPON General Directorate with: (6) service support directions (administrative), (8) operational directions, (1) educational level direction and (5) advisory offices. [ 129 ] Deconcentrated in (8) Regional Police, (7) Metropolitan Police and (34) Police Departments. [ 127 ]
|CESCR||CCPR [ 132 ]||CERD [ 133 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 135 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 139 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
According to the 1991 Constitution, Colombia is made up of 32 departments and a capital district . [ 140 ] The departmental governments are divided into three powers: The executive branch, exercised by the departmental governor, elected every four years. Each department has its own departmental assembly, a public corporation of regional popular election that enjoys administrative autonomy and its own budget. [ 141 ] The departmental assemblies are made up of no less than 11 deputies and no more than 50, popularly elected for a period of 4 years. Departmental assemblies issue ordinancesmandatory compliance in your territorial jurisdiction or department. [ 142 ]
The departments are formed by the association between municipalities. Currently there are 1120 municipalities among which are the District Capital , and special districts [ 143 ] Each municipality or district is headed by a mayor, who is elected for a four - year period, according to the electoral calendar of the National Council Electoral. Representing the executive branch at the local level, each municipality elects a Council made up of councilors, elected for four-year terms as well.
The indigenous territories in Colombia are created in common agreement between the government and the indigenous communities. [ 144 ] In cases in which the indigenous territories include more than one department or municipality, the local governments administer jointly with the indigenous councils, in said territories and as established in articles 329 and 330 of the Constitution of Colombia. Indigenous territories can become a territorial entity when they meet the requirements of the law. [ 144 ] The indigenous territories cover an approximate area of 30,845,231 ha, which are mostly found in the departments of Amazonas, Cauca, La Guajira, Guaviare and Vaupés, among others.
Colombia is located in America , in the extreme northwestern part of South America . The country is crossed by the Andes mountain range and the Amazon plain , it is the only country in South America with coasts on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. [ 16 ] Its latitudinal location corresponds to 12º 27´46 "north and 4º 13´ 30" south latitude, [ 146 ] which corresponds to the intertropical zone . The total area of Colombia is 2 129 748 km² made up of continental territory and maritime waters. [ 147 ]The continental territory of Colombia is 1,141,748 km² [ 3 ] and the maritime territory of 988,000 km² , of which 658,000 km² are in the Caribbean Sea and 330,000 km² in the Pacific Ocean where the Gorgona Islands are located. and Malpelo . [ 148 ]
Colombia has different climatic zones . Below 1000 meters (3281 feet) altitude the climate is hot (hot land), where temperatures are above 24 ° C (75.2 ° F). About 82.5% of the total surface of the country is in a warm climate. [ 149 ]
Most of the country's population lives in the temperate climate (temperate land, between 1000 and 2000 meters high (3284 feet and 6562 feet), where temperatures vary between 17 and 24 ° C (62.6 and 75.2 ° F) and the cold weather (cold ground, 2000 and 3000 meters (6565 and 9843 feet). [ 149 ]
In the "cold land" the average temperatures range between 11 and 17 ° C (53.6 and 62.6 ° F). Beyond the cold land are the alpine conditions of the wooded area and then the treeless grasslands of the moorlands . Above 4,000 meters (13,123 feet), where temperatures are below zero, the land is frozen , an area of perpetual snow and ice. [ 149 ]
The Colombian territory presents variety in its relief: central mountainous system, made up of the three Andean mountain ranges, a mountainous system independent of the Andes, the interior and coastal plains and the inter-Andean valleys. [ 150 ]
- Valleys and plains : The valleys of Magdalena , Cauca and Atrato-San Juan , stand out for their extension between the different inter-Andean valleys of Colombia . Regarding plains stand, the Plain of the Pacific , the Plain Amazon , the Plain of the Caribbean and the Llanos Orientales . [ 150 ]
- Peripheral mountainous system : The peripheral mountainous system is not part of the Andean mountain ranges, the Serranía de la Macarena to the East is part of this system ; and the mountains of María , the mountains of Piojó or Pajuancho, the mountains of Darién , the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the mountains of La Guajira to the west of the Andean Cordilleras. [ 150 ]
- Central mountain system : It is made up of the Western Cordillera , the Central Cordillera and the Eastern Cordillera . The Colombian Andes begin at the Nudo de los Pastos . There you will find the Galeras , Cumbal and Azufral volcanoes . At the Nudo de los Pastos the high plains of Túquerres and Ipiales separate . [ 150 ]
In Colombia there are four hydrographic slopes : the Pacific slope, the Caribbean slope, the Catatumbo slope and the Atlantic slope . The Colombian Massif is of great importance for the country, since the Magdalena , Cauca , Patía and Caquetá rivers are born there . In the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta rivers such as the Don Diego, the Ranchería and the Dibulla are born, which flow into the Caribbean Sea and make up the Caribbean slope. The Atrato River, which is part of this slope, is one of the largest in the world with respect to the size of its basin. [ 151 ]
The rivers that make up the Pacific slope are born in a place known as the Nudo de los Pastos . A characteristic with respect to the other slopes of the Pacific in South America; the San Juan river is the largest, and the Patía river is the longest. The Amazon River and the Orinoco River form the Atlantic Slope, which has an area of 670,000 km² . The rivers that make up the Orinoco River come from the Eastern Plains, its flow varies according to climatic changes. The Amazon Slope is made up of mighty jungle rivers, due to the high rainfall in the area, changes in flow are due to climatic variations. The Catatumbo Slope has an area of 18,500 km² , made up of the Catatumbo River that flows into Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. The Zulia river , the Sardinata river , the Táchira river and the Cucutilla river are part of the Catatumbo slope. [ 151 ] [ 152 ]The swamps and lagoons in Colombia are located in the mountain ranges, where there are flood plains . The largest swamps in the country are found in the Caribbean Plain . [ 152 ]
|Panama||Caribbean Sea||Atlantic Ocean|
Biodiversity, environment and natural regions
|Natural regions of Colombia|
|Amazon Region : it is part of the Amazon River basin and the Amazon Rainforest . It has a high degree of humidity, rainfall. [ 153 ]|
|Andean Region : corresponds to the branches of the Andes including the inter-Andean valleys of the Cauca and Magdalena rivers . [ 153 ]|
|Caribbean Region : includes the Caribbean Plain and mountain groups that do not belong to the Andes . [ 153 ]|
|Insular Region : includes the archipelago of San Andrés and Providencia in the Caribbean Sea and the islands of Malpelo and Gorgona in the Pacific Ocean . [ 153 ]|
|Orinoquía Region : located in the north of the eastern region, it is a flat, low-lying area that is part of the flat basin of the Orinoco River . [ 153 ]|
|Pacific Region : includes the Pacific coastal plains and the mountain groups of the region that do not belong to the Andes . It is a humid region and the one with the highest rainfall on the planet. [ 153 ]|
In Colombia, five natural regions can be seen due to their different reliefs, ecosystems and climates. [ 153 ] Thanks to the different ecosystems that can be found throughout its territory, [ 154 ] the country has the largest number of species per unit area on the planet, being the second most megadiverse country in the world. [ 155 ] In addition, Colombia has approximately 60% of the existing páramos on the planet, and about 31,700 wetlands . [ 156 ]It should be noted that the greatest diversity of flora and fauna within their terrestrial biomes is found in the rainforests , located in the Pacific Region , the Amazon jungle and the Andean forest . [ 157 ]
In 1994, Colombia signed the National Biodiversity Policy that formed the National System of Protected Areas "SINAP", which is in charge of 44 National Natural Parks, 12 Fauna and Flora Sanctuaries, 2 National Natural Reserves, 1 Unique Natural Area, 1 Via Parque and 3 Integrated Management Districts. [ 158 ] These areas are of utmost importance for the protection of ecosystems , biological diversity, and water production. It is estimated that approximately the water produced in these areas supplies 25 million people. [ 159 ]
According to a report by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), about half of the ecosystems that exist in Colombia are in critical condition or in danger. Likewise, of the 1 853 plant species evaluated, 665 (36%) are threatened with extinction , while of the 284 species of terrestrial animals evaluated, 41 are critically endangered , 112 threatened and 131 are vulnerable . According to the WWF, environmental degradation in Colombia is due to the extraction of oil and minerals. [ 160 ] On the other hand, in 2015 illegal mining affected 21 departments of the country, [161 ] causing considerable environmental damage. [ 162 ] Regarding deforestation , it is estimated that 280 thousand hectares of forest are cut down each year.
Although Colombia is not a major emitter of greenhouse gases thanks to its “clean” electricity generation matrix , the country has reiterated its support for the Paris climate agreement . This despite the fact that the country's electricity production comes mainly from renewable energy sources . 69.97% is obtained from hydroelectric generation . [ 36 ] In addition, the government has taken measures to protect its environment such as the National Policy on Climate Change and the carbon tax . [ 35 ]
Flora and fauna
Colombia is a country of intermediate size, despite this it has approximately between 10% or 20% of plant species worldwide, with between 45,000 and 55,000 plant species. [ 163 ] A very high figure for a country of this proportion; Brazil, a country 6.5 times larger than Colombia, has 55,000 and in Africa, specifically south of the Sahara, there are about 30,000 species. [ 163 ] Colombia is the first in variety of orchids , it has more than 50,000 species of flowers and around 50 species of carnivorous plants . [ 164 ] [ 165 ]
The country ranks third in living species and first in bird species with 1 876 species, this is equivalent to 19% of the species in the world and 60% of the species in South America. The national bird of Colombia is the condor of the Andes , which is represented in the coat of arms of Colombia . In the country there are 14 species and 300 families of butterflies, which makes it the second country with the most variety of butterflies and with a variety of more than 250,000 beetles. Worldwide, Colombia is the first in amphibian species, having 15%, 25% of crocodiles, among which C. acutus and C. intermedius stand out., 30% of turtles and 222 species of snakes. The country ranks fourth worldwide in mammals with 456 species discovered and fifth in primate species with 30 species. In Colombia there are approximately 1,600 freshwater species and 1,200 marine species.
The Colombian waters in the Caribbean Sea have a great diversity of coral reefs, seagrass meadows, mangroves, soft bottoms, beaches and estuaries that feed hundreds of species of fauna and flora.
The Colombian Biodiversity Information System SIBC, based on the primer of the Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute , estimates that the number of bird species in the country is 1,885, with a record of 197 migratory species, without However, the number of known species is changing, as new species are discovered regularly. [ 166 ]
The demography is studied by the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE). According to the 2018 national census data , the country has a population of 48,258,494 [ 167 ] which constitutes it as the fourth most populous country in America after the United States, Brazil and Mexico. Of them, 51.2% are women and 48.8% are men. [ 168 ] Most of the populationIt is found in the center (Andean region) and north (Caribbean region) of the country, while to the east and south (the eastern plains region and the Amazon, respectively) there are quite extensive areas without large and generally unpopulated populations. The ten eastern lowland departments (approximately 54% of the total area) have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer. [ 169 ]
The movement of the rural population to urban areas and emigration outside the country have been significant. The urban population increased from 28% of the total population in 1938, to 75% in 2005; however, in absolute terms, the rural population increased from 6 to 10 million in that period. Regarding emigration, DANE estimates that around 3,331,107 Colombians live abroad, mainly in the United States, Spain, Venezuela and Canada. Those most likely to emigrate are those from the interior of the country and some urban centers, standing out an important contingent of intellectuals and talented people who are part of the phenomenon called brain drain . [ 170 ]
According to the Human Development Index , Colombia ranked 91st worldwide according to the 2012 report with an HDI of 0.719. However, not all regions of Colombia present the same level of development. The main area of high development corresponds to the Andean Region in cities such as Bogotá , Medellín and Cali , which constitute the so-called "Golden Triangle" and the city of Bucaramanga in the northeastern Andean region , the Caribbean Region and its main cities such as Barranquilla , Cartagena and Santa Martathey constitute the second largest development pole at the national level, standing out notably for its extensive tourist and port industry, as well as its wide population diversity. [ 171 ]
The Census carried out by DANE in 2005 showed that 86% of the population is not considered part of an ethnic minority, a figure divided into 49% of Mestizos and 37% of Whites, [ 20 ] 10.6% of Afro - Colombians. [ 174 ] They represent the fourth largest black population in America, after the United States, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. Indigenous people make up 3.4% of the national population and gypsies 0.01%. [ 174 ]The ethnic diversity in Colombia is the result of the mixture between Spaniards, Amerindians and Afro-descendants. The few indigenous peoples that remain in the country are commonly forgotten and their customs are slowly disappearing. [ 175 ] Genetic studies provide proportions that average between 61.0% to 63.0% of European contribution, [ 176 ] 26.0% to 29.0% of Amerindian contribution, [ 176 ] and from 10% to 11% of African contribution. [ 176 ]
Colombia is the country with the largest immigrant population of Venezuelan origin in the world, with 1,626,000 people in 2019. [ 177 ] Among immigrants, who were not many compared to other more open to migration (such as Argentina, Brazil or Mexico) Latin American countries, the largest groups are from Spain, [ 178 ] United States , United Kingdom , The Netherlands and Germany , as well as Jews and Gypsies. At the end of the 19th century, Barranquilla received a large number of European and Middle Eastern immigrants (Lebanon, Syria and Palestine), as well as Americans, Cubans and Chinese, among others, who were dispersed throughout the national geography. Although a large part of the migration from the Middle East was Christian (this, due to the Colombian migration policies of the early twentieth century), in Maicao (Guajira), there is the largest Muslim community in Colombia. Descendants of Levantine immigrants also have a strong presence in the department of Córdoba, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, Bogotá and Valle del Cauca. Immigrants from other Latin American countries such as Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Argentina, Peru and the Antilles, among others, they also have a presence, although minimal, in Colombia, [ 179 ] however there is currently a significant migratory trend of Venezuelans in the country, mainly due to the economic and insecurity situation in their country. [ 180 ] [ 181 ] [ 182 ]
|Main cities of Colombia|
| ||Town||Department||Population||Town||Department||Population|| |
|1||Bogota||Cundinamarca||7 715 778||11||Villavicencio||Meta||502 047|
|2||Medellin||Antioquia||2 490 164||12||Ibague||Tolima||501 991|
|3||Cali||Cauca's Valley||2 205 680||13||Santa Marta||Magdalena||484 025|
|4||Barranquilla||Atlantic||1 273 646||14||Valledupar||Cesar||468 165|
|5||Cartagena de Indias||Bolivar||914 552||15||Manizales||Caldas||420 933|
|6||Soacha||Cundinamarca||749 034||16||Pereira||Risaralda||399 283|
|7||Cucuta||North of Santander||748 948||17||Hunting||Córdoba||395 184|
|8||Soledad||Atlantic||664 141||18||Neiva||Huila||340 512|
|9||Bucaramanga||Santander||597 316||19||Meal||Narino||305 360|
|10||Bello||Antioquia||536 427||20||Armenia||Quindío||297 052|
|2020 projection - DANE|
Approximately 75% of the population lives in urban areas, a percentage above the world average, which in 2010 stood at 51.3% according to the United Nations. Bogotá is the most populated city and the main economic center of the country. Colombia has large urban agglomerations throughout its territory, Medellín and Cali have a population of more than two million inhabitants and Barranquilla of more than one million. Twenty-five other cities have more than two hundred thousand inhabitants. [ 170 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ]
The Colombian educational system is regulated by the State through the Colombian Ministry of Education . The educational system is divided into preschool (for those who are less than six years old), basic education (duration of nine years includes primary and secondary school), secondary education (duration of two years, includes grades 10 and 11), and higher education ( university ). Basic and secondary education is evaluated through national exams called Saber Tests ( ICFES ) in grades 3, 5, 9 and 11. [ 185 ]
Higher education is taught at two levels: undergraduate and graduate. The undergraduate level has, in turn, three levels of training: professional technical level (related to professional technical programs), technological level (related to technological programs), professional level (related to university professional programs). At the postgraduate level, specializations, masters and doctorates are recognized. [ 185 ] Higher education is evaluated through the Saber Tests (ICFES): the Saber T & T Tests evaluate generic competencies and common specific competencies of students of technical and technological programs who have passed 75% of academic credits. [ 186 ]The Saber Pro Tests is an exam that tests the competencies of students who are in the last year of undergraduate academic programs at Higher Education institutions (universities). [ 187 ] [ 185 ]
The total adult literacy rate in 2016 was approximately 94.65%, with the rate for men being 94.4% and for women 94.89%. [ 188 ] Colombia was ranked 59 among 72 nations evaluated in tests PISA 2015. [ 189 ]
The ICETEX is a state funding agency for access to higher education through the "granting of student loans and collection, with its own resources or third parties, the population with fewer economic opportunities and good academic performance." [ 190 ]
The National University of Colombia is the largest university in the nation, with about 53,879 students. Universities are normally divided into faculties . [ 191 ] On the other hand, the National Learning Service (SENA) is an entity that offers free training with technical, technological and complementary programs. [ 192 ]
According to the ranking: Webometrics Ranking of World Universities of 2021 [ 193 ] prepared by the Spanish Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), which measures the impact of scientific research at different world universities; The ten Colombian universities that perform better in the academic world are the following:
|National Ranking||World ranking||college||Logo||Website||Headquarters|
|1||558||University of the Andes (Colombia)||UNIANDES (Private)||Bogota Cartagena|
|2||1071||Pontifical Javeriana University||PUJ (Private)||Bogota Cali|
|3||1143||National university of Colombia||UNAL (State)||Bogota|
|4||1442||Rosario University||www.urosario.edu.co (Private)||Bogota|
|5||1452||University of the North (Colombia)||UNINORTE (Private)||Barranquilla|
|6||1464||University of Antioquia||UDEA (Private)||Medellin|
|7||1700||ICESI University||ICESI (Private)||Cali|
|8||1834||Savannah College||www.unisabana.edu.co (Private)||Chia|
|9||2078||University Antonio Narino||UAN (Private)||Bogota|
Colombia is the nation with the highest universal health care in Latin America , exceeding 95% of its population in 2019. [ 195 ] According to the WHO , Colombia ranks 22nd worldwide among 191 countries in terms of functioning general of your health system. [ 196 ] The Colombian health system is characterized by being made up of two coexisting systems: the contributory scheme (private) and the subsidized scheme (free) through Sisbén . Both regimes provide universal coverage, equal access to medicines, surgical procedures, medical and dental services. 
The Ministry of Health and Social Protection is responsible for developing health policies, as well as the one in charge of regulating health in the country. The health promoting entity (EPS) are regional health companies that are in charge of implementing the objectives set by the Ministry of Health, developing the guidelines and their protocols, and also supervising the performance of health care. To fulfill their responsibilities, the EPS must form a network of services for which any health promoting entity can contract clinics, hospitals or a health provider institute.(IPS) independently and autonomously or they can guarantee access to services with their own network. They must also contract a certain minimum percentage with institutions that provide public services. [ 197 ]
The Colombian health system is decentralized, the sources of health financing are mainly from the General Participation System (SGP), the contributions of employers and workers to the contributory regime that are administered by the Resource Administrator of the General Social Security System In Health (ADRES), [ 198 ] and the resources obtained in the games of luck and chance administered by Coljuegos, there are also other smaller sources of financing. [ 199 ]
Most Colombians die of chronic diseases . The main cause of death is ischemic heart diseases (heart attacks) in 16.3% of deaths, followed by cerebrovascular diseases, the third cause is lung diseases due to cigarette smoking. [ 200 ]
Science and Technology
Science and technology in Colombia began to be projected in an important way at the beginning of the 20th century, a time in which small inventions of the country began, although much earlier, great creations from other parts of the world had already entered. Colombia is recognized worldwide for its quality in medicine , specifically aesthetic medicine , which has positioned it as a powerhouse in health tourism . [ 202 ] [ 203 ] [ 202 ] [ 204 ] [ 205 ] Among the medicalmost recognized in Colombia are the neurophysiologist Rodolfo Llinás who has contributed in the search for a cure against Alzheimer's disease [ 206 ] and who enunciated the Law of Llinás , and also the immunologist Manuel Elkin Patarroyo , who discovered the first synthetic vaccine against malaria . [ 207 ]
Other great inventions related to medicine have been produced in the country, such as the pacemaker , created by the electronic engineer Jorge Reynolds , which has been of great importance to those suffering from heart failure . In the same way, LASIK , one of the most used techniques for the correction of spherocylindrical ametropia with laser in the world, the Hakim Valve , among others that have not only contributed to national medicine, but to world level. [ 208 ]In February 2013, Colombia was the first country in Latin America to practice robotic surgery in pediatric urology, in the world only 10 procedures of this type have been performed. [ 209 ] [ 210 ]
The problems that the nation has experienced in the face of violence, has allowed it to innovate in military or war technology, for its army and even for other armies in the world. One of the most striking inventions was the 'Arcadio' robot , which is designed to detect explosive devices underground and deactivate them, such as antipersonnel mines . [ 211 ] [ 212 ] have also been created for the first time in the country aircraft , specifically training [ 213 ]And other materials such as the security cartridge, in order to reduce the rates of deaths and injuries due to accidental firing. [ 214 ] [ 215 ] [ 216 ]
Colombia is one of the eight Latin American countries to have objects in orbit. On April 7, 2007, the Libertad I picosatellite (designed by the Sergio Arboleda University of Bogotá) was put into orbit in one of the launches made from the Baikonur Cosmodrome . The Libertad I orbit around the planet and according to projections it will continue to do so for 5 or 6 years. In 1955 Colombia signed a treaty with the United States for the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and in 1960 it was admitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries to have a nuclear reactor in operation, the IAN-R1, manufactured in the United States, its function is the production of neutrons for research purposes. [ 217 ]
In recent years the country has decided to implement new ways of innovating in technology, being advised by countries such as the United States, Russia , South Korea , among others, since it is estimated that Colombia only uses less than 0.10% of the national GDP , for the science and technology sector, and 0.19% of GDP in research and development, precisely because of the need to invest more money in the defense and security sector. [ 218 ] In 2006 the Law of Science, Technology and Innovation was approved, in order to create companies and industries based on technology. [ 219 ]
Colombia is an emerging economy and an economic powerhouse in the region. [ 221 ] [ 222 ] Also part of the block of emerging countries CIVETS , the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) . Its GDP PPP ranks fourth in Latin America behind Argentina , Mexico and Brazil , in addition to being 28 globally. The nominal GDP of Colombia is the fourth highest in Latin Americaafter those of Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, and ranks 29th worldwide. The financial sector in the nation has grown 6.7% between 2005-2010, due to the favorable liquidity of the Colombian economy. [ 223 ] In 2012 the service sector represented 55.1% of Colombia's GDP, while 68% of 23.08 million Colombians were part of the labor force in this sector. [ 224 ]
Colombia's economy has experienced an average annual growth of 5.5% since 2002. [ 225 ] In 2012, 23.8 million Colombians served as the labor force in the economy, with an average income of US $ 10,700, producing US $ 500,000 million for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. However, inequality in the distribution of wealth keeps 29.3% (2014) of Colombians living below the national poverty line , [ 226 ] to which is added the deficient pension system. Since 2011 unemployment has marked one digit, (9.2% in November 2011) [ 227 ] and underemployment 32.7% (November 2011).
The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit defines, formulates and executes the economic policy of the country. The national currency is the Colombian peso . The Banco de la República is an independent body that controls the amount of money and foreign exchange control that circulates in the economy to avoid recessions and unemployment due to inflation , in addition to controlling interbank credit. Together, the MHCP and the BRC regulate the functioning of the economy at the national level with the support of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism (MCIT). [ 228 ] [ 229 ]The business sector of Colombia is a member of the National Association of Industrialists ( ANDI ), which tries to maintain groups of companies from the same economic sector so that they can act in common agreement for development. [ 230 ]
Agriculture and Livestock
Agriculture is regulated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development , which plans the development of agriculture and fishing in company with the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit for the economic development of the country and the support of the population. [ 231 ] Agriculture is characterized by technified crops by region of sugar cane , coffee , flowers , cotton , plantain , banana , sorghum , corn , rice , African palm, potato , yucca , among others. Due to the great variety of climates and terrain, Colombia presents a great variety of species of fauna and flora for consumption or use by humans. [ 232 ] Colombian farmers are members of the Sociedad de Agricultores de Colombia (SAC). [ 233 ]
The coffee of Colombia is a protected geographical indication , by the European Union since 27 September 2007. [ 234 ] This designation is given to coffee 100% Arabica ( Coffea arabica ) produced in the regions coffee of Colombia, delimited between North latitude 1 ° to 11 ° 15, West longitude 72 ° to 78 ° and specific ranges of altitude that can exceed 2000 meters above sea level. The term Colombian coffee is also a certification mark registered in the United States on July 7, 1981, [ 235 ] and in Canada on July 6, 1990. [ 236 ]Likewise, it is recognized as a Protected Designation of Origin in other countries of the world, [ 237 ] such as Ecuador, [ 238 ] Bolivia [ 239 ] and Peru. [ 240 ] Worldwide, Colombia is the fourth coffee producing country [ 241 ] and the largest producer of mild coffee in the world. [ 242 ] The main importing countries of Colombian coffee are the United States, Germany, Japan , the Netherlands and Sweden .
For its part, cattle ranching acquired importance from the mid- 19th century , when the first copies of Durham cattle were introduced to the country. As the century of livestock progressed, it was consolidated as the second most important line in the economy and gave rise to a large dairy industry. [ 243 ] The country has the largest cattle herd in Latin America with a bovine inventory of 26.9 million head in 2008. [ 244 ] The Colombian Brahman, ideal for meat production under tropical conditions, stands out for having high quality genetics in the world. [ 244 ]
Industry, construction, mining and energy
The industrial sector has had sustained growth in recent years. In 2000, manufacturing production was US $ 29,240 million, in 2010 it reached approximately US $ 80,000 million. The production of medium and high technology goods stands out in this period, which went from 31.7% in 2000 to 34.6% in 2010. The economic opening to foreign markets has favored exports of high and medium technology products. These went from US $ 2,251 million to US $ 4,868 in 2010, which represents 35% of the industry's exports. [ 246 ]
On the other hand, the construction sector in Colombia had an approximate growth of 7.9% in the first decade. In contrast to the GDP of the Colombian economy, which grew by 5.9% in 2011. [ 247 ] In the first half of the 2000s, buildings grew by 8.3%. In the years 2009, 2010 and for 2011 there was a growth of 6.2% in the first three months of this year. Civil works have grown during the first decade, at an average of 8.0%, this growth is associated with the country's infrastructure needs. [ 248 ]
One of the fastest growing sectors has been the mining-energy sector, which is made up of the mining, oil, gas and energy subsectors. In the last decade, this sector went from US $ 8,300 million in 2000, to more than US $ 40,000 million in 2011. [ 249 ]The oil sector in Colombia has had a growth of 3.4% in the last decade. In recent years, exploratory activity has increased, in 2008 it was 15.4%, in 2009 it was 15.4%; 2010 16.9% and the first three months of 2011 a growth of 17.7%. In this period there has been a strengthening of the National Hydrocarbons Agency. As for the energy sector, it registers a growth of 3.0. The mining and quarrying sector has grown by 6.5%. The contribution to GDP from mining, oil and electricity production would be equivalent to 12.5% of total GDP. But the weight of different subsectors is different. The oil sector contributes 7.1% to total GDP, mining 2.7%, electricity 2.3% and gas production 0.5%. [ 249 ]
The electricity sector is mostly dominated by hydraulic power generation (67% of production) and thermal generation (27.4%) in 2010, the generation of electric power in this year was 56,877.6 GWH. However, the country's potential in new renewable energy technologies (mainly wind , solar and biomass ) has hardly been explored. The country has significant small hydro, wind, and solar resources that remain largely untapped. According to a study by the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, the exploitation of the country's great wind potential could cover more than all of its current energy needs. 80% of the installed capacity in Colombia for electricity production comes from renewable energies . [ 250 ] [ 251 ] [ 252 ]
As for mining, the most exploited minerals are gold , silver , emeralds , platinum , copper , nickel , and coal . One of the most important extractions is the Cerrejón coal mine in La Guajira , which is the largest open pit coal mine in Latin America . [ 253 ] The exploitation of gold and copper dates from pre-Columbian times and developed in the Andean area of the country, with ethnic groups such as the Muiscas , the Quimbaya , theTayrona and the Zénues , which are still highly exploited by hand, with a large amount of illegality, [ 254 ] and multinational companies have started to be part of this business for some years. Worldwide it is the main producer of emeralds , concentrating its exploitation in the interior of the country, in departments such as Boyacá and Cundinamarca . [ 255 ] [ 256 ] Meanwhile, oil is exploited mostly by Ecopetrol . In BarrancabermejaIt is the largest oil refinery in the country. [ 257 ] [ 258 ]
In 2012, agriculture in Colombia contributed 6.8% to the national GDP and 18% of the workforce was dedicated to agriculture, livestock and fishing. [ 224 ] However, Colombia's main export product is oil, whose estimated reserves are 2,377 million barrels in 2012, [ 259 ] which are developed by Ecopetrol . In March 2013, 1,013,481 barrels were produced. of oil per day. [ 260 ]
Likewise, the stands textile industry , [ 261 ] food, [ 224 ] Automotive [ 262 ] and petrochemistry. [ 263 ] Also, food processing, the production of coffee, oil, beverages, cement, gold, coal, emeralds , nickel, cut flowers, bananas, among others. [ 224 ] Colombia's exports amounted to US $ 59.96 billion in 2012, [ 224 ]The foreign trade sector, comprised of the country's imports and exports, has grown by more than 30% in 2011. In recent years the country has signed different trade agreements with other countries, several of them currently in force. [ 264 ]
The presence of tourists went from half a million in 2003 to 1.3 million in 2007, which earned Colombia several international awards. In 2006, one of the best travel guide publishers in the world, Lonely Planet , chose Colombia as one of its top 10 world destinations of 2006. The country's security improvements were recognized in November 2008 with a review of travel advice on Colombia issued by the British Foreign Office . In 2013, 3,747,945 tourists entered the country, [ 265 ] the majority from America and Europe. [ 266 ]Meanwhile, domestic tourism had an increase of 10.3% in 2012 compared to 2011. [ 267 ] [ 268 ]
Among the tourist attractions are the historic Candelaria neighborhood in Bogotá , the walled city and the beaches of Cartagena de Indias , the Rosario Islands, the beaches and the historic center of Santa Marta, the Tayrona National Park , the desert and the beaches of La Guajira, the colonial cities of Santa Fe de Antioquia , Popayán , Tunja , Villa de Leyva and Santa Cruz de Mompox (especially during Holy Week), the Cathedral of Las Lajas in Nariño and the Cathedral of Sal de Zipaquirá . Tourists visit the country during numerous festivals, fairs and carnivals such as theFlower Fair in Medellín , the National Folklore Festival of Ibague , the Carnival of Barranquilla , the Fair of Cali , the Fair of Manizales , the Carnival of Blacks and Whites of Pasto , the Festival of the Vallenata Legend of Valledupar, the Fiestas from January 20, Sincelejo, the Santa Marta Sea Festivities, the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá , the National Reign of Beauty in Cartagena, among others.
The great variety of Colombia's geography, flora and fauna has led to the development of an ecotourism industry that is concentrated in the country's national parks. Among the most important ecotourism destinations are Tayrona Park and Cabo de la Vela on the La Guajira peninsula (on the Caribbean coast), the Nevado del Ruiz volcano , the Chicamocha canyon and the Tatacoa desert (in the Andean Region), the Amacayacu national park in the Amazon River basin , and the islands of Malpelo and GorgonaIn the pacific. Colombia has seven sites declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO .
Colombia has a backwardness in road, oil, mining and technological infrastructure. There are deficiencies or deficiencies in bridges, airports, seaports, river transport and railways. [ 271 ] In response to this situation and in the face of economic growth and open trade, efforts have been made to improve the country's infrastructure, increasing investment in large projects. Among them, it is worth highlighting the Ruta del Sol , a highway that will optimize the connection between the center of the country and the Caribbean coast; [ 272 ] the Bogotá-Buenaventura Trunk , [ 273 ] which includes the longest vehicular tunnel in America[ 274 ] and will connect the capital with the main port on thePacific; and theTransversal de Las Américas, [ 275 ] on the Caribbean coast, among other major works. Colombia is the country in the region that invests the most in infrastructure, second only to Brazil. [ 276 ]
The government delegates aqueduct and sewerage services to suppliers . Aqueduct infrastructure in Colombia covers 93% of the country, while sewerage coverage 86%, [ 277 ] with an average continuity of 86% recorded in 2003. [ 278 ] Average urban water use (l / c / d) in 2006 was 59% according to the SSPD, consuming 1,188 million cubic meters, of which 80% was used for domestic consumption. [ 279 ] In 2006, the average urban water and sewerage rate was US $ 11.40 per month. [ 279 ]The percentage share of wastewater collected and treated was 25%, [ 279 ] while the annual investment in water and sanitation was US $ 10 per capita. The percentage of self-financing by public service companies was 26%. [ 280 ]
Transportation in Colombia is regulated within the functions of the Ministry of Transportation and entities such as the National Institute of Roads ( INVÍAS ) in charge of the National Road Network (13,000 km), [ 281 ] the Aerocivil , in charge of civil air transport and airports, [ 282 ] the General Maritime Directorate (DIMAR), [ 283 ] among others and under the supervision of the Superintendency of Ports and Transportation. [ 284 ]
The Colombian port system, privatized in the 1990s, is made up of approximately 122 facilities. There are the regional port societies of Buenaventura (main maritime port of Colombia), Barranquilla, Tumaco , Cartagena and Santa Marta. There are nine other port companies for public service, seven private port companies, forty-four approved docks and ten piers for small boats, among other minor ones. [ 286 ]
Urban mass transportation systems were first developed in Medellín , Bogotá, and Pereira . Traffic congestion in Bogotá has been aggravated by the lack of rail transport. However, this problem has been partially alleviated by the development of TransMilenio since 2000 and a vehicle restriction system based on license plate numbers called Pico y Placa [