South Korea - Corea del Sur

Republic of Basin
대한민국
大韓民國
Daehan Minguk

135x110px
Coat of arms of South Korea.svg

Motto : 홍익 인간 /弘 益 人間
Hong-ik-in-gan
( Korean : "Widely Benefit Humanity" or "Devotion to Human Well-being")
Hymn : 애국가 /愛國 歌
Aegukga
( Korean : "The patriotic song")

Republic of Korea (orthographic projection).svg

Capital
(and most populous city)
Seoul
Seal of Seoul.svg

37 ° 34'N 126 ° 59'E  /  37.56, 126.99 Coordinates: 37 ° 34'N 126 ° 59'E  /  37.56, 126.99 View and modify data on Wikidata
Official language Korean
Demonym South Korean, -na
Korean, -na
Korean, -na South
Form of government Presidential republic
President Moon Jae-in
Prime Minister Kim Boo-kyum
Legislative body National Assembly View and modify data on Wikidata
Formation
Silla
Goguryo
Baekje
Koryo Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Korean Empire
Japanese Korea
Japanese Surrender
Constitution
Democratization

57 a. C. - 935 d. C.
37 a. C. - 668 d. C.
18 a. C. - 660 d. C.
918 - 1392
1392 - 1897
1897 - 1910
1910 - 1945
15 de agosto de 1945
17 de julio de 1948
16 de diciembre de 1987
Surface 108th position
• Total 100 339[1]km²
• Water (%) 0,3 %
Borders 237 km
Coast line 2413 km
Highest point Hallasan View and modify data on Wikidata
Total population 28th position
• Census 51,500,852 [ 2 ] hab.
Density 507 hab./km²
Start ( PPA ) 13th position
• Total (2018) US $ 2,138 trillion [ 3 ]
Per capita US$ 41.388[3]
START (nominal) 12th position
• Total (2018) US $ 1,693 trillion [ 3 ]
• Per capita US$ 32.775[3]
IDH (2020) Increase0.916 ( 23rd ) - Very high
Currency South Korean won
(₩ / 원, KRW)
Time zone UTC+9
ISO code 410 / KOR / KR
Internet domain .kr Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata
Telephone prefix +82
Radio prefix D7A-D9Z, HLA-HLZ, DSA-DTZ, 6KA-6NZ
Country acronym for aircraft H
Country acronym for automobiles YEAR
IOC Code DISEASE View and modify data on Wikidata

The Republic of Korea (in Hangul , 대한민국 ; in Hanja ,大韓民國; revised Romanization of Korean , Daehan Minguk ; McCune-Reischauer , Taehan Min'kuk ), commonly known as South Korea ( 남한 ? ,南韓? , Namhan RR , Namhan MR for South Koreans or 남조선 ? ,南朝鮮? , Namjoseon RR , Namchosŏn MRby North Koreans) to distinguish it from North Korea , [ 4 ] is a sovereign country in East Asia , located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula . It limits the north with North Korea , with which it formed a single country until 1945 . To the east is the Sea of ​​Japan , to the south the Strait of Korea , which separates it from Japan , and to the west the Yellow Sea . Its territory includes the southern half of the Korean peninsula, encompassing some three thousand islands that surround it, among which stand outJeju , Ulleungdo and Dokdo .

Approximately half of the country's population lives in its capital, Seoul , or in its metropolitan area, which is one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world (some sources place it as the second most populous, only behind Tokyo , in Japan ). [ 5 ] Korea is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. [ 6 ]

Archaeological investigations revealed that the peninsula was populated since the Lower Palaeolithic . Over time, the history of Korea has been turbulent with numerous wars, including invasions from both China and Japan . Since the establishment of the modern republic in 1948 , South Korea struggled with the aftermath of previous war conflicts such as the Japanese occupation (1910-1945), in addition to the Korean War.(1950-1953) and the decades of authoritarian governments. While the government officially adopted a Western-style democracy since the founding of the republic, the presidential election processes suffered from major irregularities. It was not until 1987 that the first fair and direct elections were held, which is why, since then, the country has been considered a multiparty democracy .

The economy of South Korea has grown rapidly since the 1950s . Today, it is the 13th largest economy (by PPP GDP) in the world [ 7 ] and is classified as a developed country by the UN , the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) . [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] also it is among the countries most technologically advanced and best connected; [ 11 ] is thethird largest number of users of Internet of broadband among the countries of the OECD , is also one of the global leaders in production of electronic devices , semiconductor devices and mobile phones . [ 12 ] It also has one of the most advanced infrastructure in the world [ 13 ] and a world leader in the shipbuilding industry , spearheaded by prominent companies such as Hyundai Heavy Industries .

Etymology

In the Korean language , South Korea is called Daehan Minguk [ 14 ] (in Hangul , 대한민국 ), whose characters mean: big (in hanja ,; revised Romanization of Korean , dae ); Han , Chinese name for Korea (in hanja ,; revised romanization of Korean , han ) and people or nation (in hanja ,民國; revised romanization of Korean ,minguk ), literally "The great people of Han or the great nation of Han" .

In its short form, Hanguk (in Hangul , 한국 ), "Country of Han", is used to refer to Korea as a whole or also Namhan (in Hangul , 남한 ; in Hanja ,南韓) "The nation of the south", to refer to South Korea specifically. The North Koreans refer to their southern neighbor as Namchosŏn (in chosŏn'gŭl , 남조선 , in hancha ,南朝鮮; romanization Revised Korean , Namjoseon ), literally " JoseonThe name Han dates from the ancient Samhan Confederations of the era of the three ancient kingdoms of Korea. In Spanish , as in most Western languages, the nation is often referred to as Korea . This word derives of the Goryeo dynasty , which adopted its name in reference to the oldest even Koguryo Kingdom . [ 15 ]

Story

Before the split

The earliest human remains found in Korea date back around 500,000 years. [ 15 ] According to tradition, in the year 2333 BC. C. Tangun founded the kingdom of Joseon [ 16 ] (often referred to as "Gojoseon" to avoid confusion with the 14th century dynasty of the same name; the prefix go means "old" or "former"). After numerous wars, this kingdom disintegrated.

Jikji , the first book printed on a printing press with metal mobiles, in 1377 , 62 years before the Gutenberg Press. [ 17 ]

Ancient Korea became home to a series of city-states in constant warfare, constantly appearing and disappearing. Nonetheless, three kingdoms, Baekje , Koguryŏ, and Silla were strengthened and between the three they dominated the Korean historical scene for more than two hundred years, in the period known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea . [ 18 ] In 676, Silla managed to unify almost all of the Korean territory, with the exception of the kingdom of Balhae . The dominance of these two kingdoms over all Korea and part of Manchuria gave rise to the Period of the North and South States. [ 19 ]

After its decline, in 918 General Wang Geon founded the kingdom of Goryeo (or Koryŏ, from which the name Korea comes ). In the 13th century , the invasion of the Mongols weakened Goryeo: after almost thirty years of war, the kingdom retained dominance over the entire territory of Korea, although in reality it was only one more tributary of the Mongols. [ 16 ] The collapse of the Mongol Empire was followed by a series of political struggles, and after General Yi Seong-gye's rebellion in 1388, the Goryeo dynasty was replaced by the Joseon dynasty . [ 16]

Gyeongbok Palace is the largest of the five great palaces built during the Joseon Dynasty .

Between 1592 and 1598 , the Japanese invaded Korea , after the Joseon refused to give safe passage to the Japanese army, led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi , in their campaign to conquer China . The war ended when the Japanese withdrew after Hideyoshi's death. It is in this war where Admiral Yi Sun-Sin emerged as a national hero and the popularization of the famous " Turtle Ship ". [ 20 ]

In the 17th century , Korea was finally defeated by the Manchu and joined the Qing Empire . During the 19th century, thanks to its isolationist policy, Korea gained the name of the "Hermit Kingdom". [ 15 ] The Joseon dynasty tried to protect itself against Western imperialism , but they were forced to open their doors to trade. After the Sino-Japanese Wars and the Russo-Japanese War , Korea came under Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945). [ 21 ] At the end of theWorld War II , the Japanese surrendered to Soviet and American forces , which occupied the northern and southern halves of Korea , respectively.

After the split

In 1948, as a consequence of the division of the peninsula between the Soviets and the Americans, two new entities emerged: North Korea and South Korea. In the north, an anti-Japanese guerrilla fighter and communist activist, Kim Il-sung , gained power through Soviet support, and in the south, an exiled right-wing political leader, Syngman Rhee , was appointed president. [ 22 ]

The Seoul Olympic Stadium , seen from the Han River ; The 1988 Summer Olympics were held here .

On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea with military action that triggered the Korean War . At that time, the delegate of the Soviet Union to the UN Security Council was absent in protest at the refusal to admit the People's Republic of China into the body. [ 22 ] This allowed the United Nations, led by the US military, to intervene to stop the invasion. For their part, the Soviet Union and China decided to support North Korea, sending troops and supplies to their troops. After the massive losses of North and South Korean civilians, the war finally came to a standstill. [ 22] Thearmistice of 1953divided the peninsula along theKorean demilitarized zone, close to the original demarcation line. No peace treaty was signed, so technically the two countries continued at war. At least 2.5 million people died during the conflict. [ 23 ]

In 1960, a student movement led to the resignation of President Syngman Rhee. This event was followed by a period of political instability, which a year later would end with the coup by General Park Chung-hee (the " 5-16 coup d 'état "). [ 24 ] Park was harshly criticized as a ruthless dictator and for the political repression that existed during his tenure; However, it made the Korean economy develop significantly as it encouraged rapid economic growth by boosting exports. Park was president until his assassination in 1979. [ 24]

The years that followed Park's assassination were once again marked by political upheaval, as leaders of the previously repressed opposition made multiple attempts to gain access to the presidential seat. [ 24 ] In 1980, another coup was carried out , this time by General Chun Doo-hwan against the transitional government of Choi Kyu-hah , who served as prime minister during Park's tenure. Chun's assumption of the presidency sparked nationwide protests demanding democracy and legality in the elections. [ 24 ] During theGwangju Massacre in May 1980, hundreds, if not thousands, of protesters, students and trade unionists are killed by the repression of the South Korean regime. [ 25 ]

Chun and his government kept Korea under a despotic regime until 1987, when demonstrations by workers and opposition groups broke out across the country. [ 24 ] Finally, Chun's political party, the Democratic Justice Party , and its leader, Roh Tae-woo , released the June 29 Declaration, which included a call for direct elections to elect a new president. . Roh won the elections by a narrow margin against the two leaders of the main opposition parties, Kim Dae-Jung and Kim Young-Sam . [ 24 ]

The city of Seoul experienced rapid urban growth during the 1980s and 1990s.

In 1988, Seoul successfully hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics , [ 26 ] and in 1996 its continued economic development led to the country's entry into the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). [ 27 ] Like most of its Asian neighbors, the national economy was affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis , yet the country was able to recover and continue its economic growth.

In June 2000, as part of the " Policy of the Sun " of President Kim Dae-jung it held the Summit Inter - Korean , which took place in Pyongyang , the capital of North Korea. [ 28 ] Later that same year, Kim received the Nobel Prize of Peace "for his work for democracy and human rights in Korea of the South and east Asia in general , and for peace and reconciliation with Korea of the North in particular ". [ 29 ] In 2002, South Korea and Japan hosted the 2002 Soccer World Cup.However, later the relations between both nations deteriorated, due to the conflict over the possession of the Rocks of Liancourt ( Dokdo in Korean). [ 30 ]

The sinking of the Sewol ferry in 2014 killed 293 people. [ 31 ]

In 2010, the South Korean corvette ROKS Cheonan (PCC-772) was sunk in an action that blamed its neighbor to the north. [ 32 ] In December 2012, with almost all of the votes counted, the National Electoral Commission gave Park Geun-hye 51.6% of the vote, compared to 48% for his rival, Moon Jae-in . Park, daughter of the dictator Park Chung-hee , has made history by becoming the first woman to become South Korean president. [ 33 ] In April 2014, due to the tragic sinking of the Sewol , Prime Minister Chung Hong-won resigned, [ 34 ]He stated that it would be too great a burden for the administration. By March 2017, President Park Geun-hye is removed from office and it is the first time that a president has been removed from office in the country. [ 35 ] On May 9, 2017, electoral day was celebrated, with Mr. Moon Jae-in being the winner of the electoral contest, who took a protest on May 10. [ 36 ]

It came up with the inter - Korean summit between South Korean President Moon Jae-in and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, 27 April 2018. [ 37 ]

government and politics

The National Assembly of South Korea.

The government is defined as a representative democracy . Like many democracies, the country is divided into executive , judicial and legislative powers . [ 38 ] The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also perform local functions. The provincial governments are semi-autonomous and have their own legislative bodies. The judicial branch operates both at the national and local levels.

The head of state is the president , elected by direct popular vote for a single five-year term. In addition to being the highest representative of the republic and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces , the president also appoints the prime minister (after being approved by parliament) and presides over the Council of State. The prime minister is the head of government of the country, and performs many of the functions of the executive branch. The Korean unicameral parliament is called the National Assembly , or Gukhoe (국회; 國會). Its members serve four-year terms. TheThe legislature currently has 300 seats, of which 246 are elected by regional vote and the remainder are distributed by proportional representation . The highest judicial institution is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the president with the consent of parliament.

The structure of the South Korean government is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea . This document has undergone several modifications since 1948, when it was promulgated, shortly after independence. However, the constitution has retained many of its general features and, with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea , the country has always had a presidential system with an executive branch leader independent of the president. [ 39 ] The first direct elections were held in 1948. Although South Korea suffered a series of military dictatorships from the 1960s to the 1980s, the country managed to become a liberal democracy.. Today, The World Factbook describes South Korean democracy as a "fully functional modern democracy." [ 28 ]

External relationships

Former President Park Geun-hye with former US President Barack Obama at the bilateral summit in 2013.

South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with approximately 170 countries. The country has also been part of the United Nations (UN) since 1991, when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea. On May 1, 2007, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ban Ki-moon , assumed the position of Secretary General of the UN . The country has also developed ties with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations , as an observer member of the ANSA + 3 group, and with the East Asia Summit (EAS).

Since May 2007, South Korea and the European Union have been negotiating a free trade agreement to reduce trade barriers between the two entities. [ 40 ] In addition, it is also negotiating a free trade agreement with Canada , [ 41 ] and another with New Zealand . [ 42 ] In November 2009, the nation was admitted to the OECD Development Assistance Committee , the first time that a country that received aid from this body became a full member of it. In 2010, Seoul hosted the Summit of the G-20 .

China

Historically, Korea has had relatively close relations with China . Before the division of the peninsula, several Korean independence fighters worked with Chinese soldiers during the Japanese occupation. However, after World War II, the People's Republic of China adopted Maoism , while South Korea sought to improve its relations with the United States. In addition, during the Korean War, China provided assistance and supplies to the North Korean military., which resulted in the almost complete cessation of diplomatic relations with China. These relations gradually thawed and on August 24, 1992 both countries re-established formal diplomatic relations. The two nations managed to overcome the forty-year trade embargo they had experienced, [ 43 ] causing trade between them to improve steadily since 1992. [ 43 ] However, in order to establish official relations with the People's Republic of China, The country had to sever its official relations with the ROC . [ 28 ]

Sovereignty over the Liancourt Rocks triggered a series of frictions with Japan.
Japan

Although there were no formal diplomatic conflicts between South Korea and Japan after the end of World War II, in 1965 they signed the "Treaty on the basis of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea" to establish diplomatic relations. There is strong anti-Japanese sentiment in the country due to the large number of disputes between the Japanese and Koreans, many of which stem from the time of Japanese occupation . During the war, more than 100,000 Koreans were forced to serve in the Imperial Japanese Army . [ 44 ] [ 45 ]Many Korean women were brought to the war front to serve the Imperial Japanese Army as sex slaves, called comfort women . [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ]

After more than four decades, in an attempt to improve relations between the two countries and to encourage soccer practice , FIFA decided to host the 2002 Soccer World Cup . According to a survey, 74.6% of Japanese and 60.9% of South Koreans thought that this event would improve the situation between the two nations. [ 50 ] Currently, although the conflict of sovereignty over the Dokdo has complicated the rapprochement of both nations, [ 51 ] Japan and South Korea are important trading partners for their respective economies, in addition to the fact that there is a phenomenon of cultural exchange among them.[52]

North Korea
Image of the Korean Demilitarized Zone, the most guarded border in the world.

On the other hand, the two Koreas claim their sovereignty over the entire peninsula and its outlying islands. Following hostilities during the Korean War from 1950 to 1953, the two Koreas signed an armistice, but never a peace agreement. [ 53 ] On October 4, 2007, Roh Moo-hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il signed an eight-point agreement on permanent peace issues, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of air and rail services. and roads, in addition to forming a single Olympic delegation. [ 53 ]

Despite sunny politics and reconciliation efforts, progress was hampered by North Korea's missile tests in 1993, 1998, 2006, and 2009. In early 2009, relations between the two countries were tense; the North Koreans were reported to have deployed several missiles, [ 54 ] breaking previous agreements, [ 55 ] in addition to threatening South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a planned satellite launch . [ 56 ] After various conflicts and misunderstandings, including the sinking of a South Korean corvette in March 2010 and thebombing the South Korean island of Yeonpyeong , the climate between the two nations has become tense. Despite the intervention of other countries and international organizations, both Koreas claim to be ready for war. [ 57 ] As of 2010, the two Koreas are still technically at war and share the most fortified border in the world. [ 58 ]

On March 8, 2013, North Korea ended the armistice due to the tension between the Koreas and the intervention of the United States in the region, [ 59 ] declaring total war against South Korea on March 30 , 2013. anus. [ 60 ]

Armed forces

A long history of invasions by its neighbors and unresolved tension with North Korea have caused the nation to allocate 2.6% of its GDP and 15% of its annual budget to its military, while maintaining the Compulsory military service for all males only. [ 61 ] Thus, South Korea has the sixth largest number of active troops in the world, [ 62 ] the second largest military reserve. [ 62 ]And the twelfth highest defense budget. The country, with an average of 3.7 million military personnel out of a total population of 50 million people, has the second highest rate of soldiers per capita in the world, [ 62 ] only after North Korea. [ 63 ]

"Sejong the Great", a missile destroyer of the Republic of Korea navy .

The Armed Forces of the Republic of Korea are the Army of the Republic of Korea (ROKA), the Navy of the Republic of Korea (ROKN), the Air Force of the Republic of Korea (ROKAF), the Marine Corps of the Republic of Korea (ROKMC) and the Reserve Forces. [ 64 ] Of these forces, nearly two million are concentrated near the Korean demilitarized zone . [ 65 ]All South Korean males are constitutionally obligated to serve in the military, normally for a period of two years. However, there have been debates about reducing the length of compulsory military service and even about its elimination. Recently, the government exempted several students from its service to allow them to further deepen their fields of research. Additionally, Koreans of foreign descent are exempt from military service. [ 66 ] Along with the soldiers, some Koreans are selected to serve two years in the KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) program. [ 67 ]

The South Korean army has more than 2,300 tanks in operation, [ 68 ] while the navy has the sixth largest destroyer fleet in the world. [ 69 ] The South Korean air force is the ninth largest of its kind, [ 70 ] and primarily employs American fighters such as the F-15K , KF-16, and the KAI T-50 Golden Eagle . [ 71 ]

Since the Korean War, the United States has had a large contingent of troops stationed on South Korean territory to defend the country in the event of a North Korean attack. These military personnel amount to more than 29,000 soldiers. [ 72 ] In early 2007, the United States Secretary of Defense and the South Korean Minister of National Defense determined that the South Koreans will regain operational control of their forces on April 17, 2012. The United States Army United stationed in the country will be transformed into a new war command, tentatively described as "Korea Command" (KORCOM). [ 73 ]

Human rights

Regarding human rights , regarding membership of the seven bodies of the International Bill of Human Rights , which include the Human Rights Committee (HRC), the Republic of Korea has signed or ratified:

UN emblem blue.svgStatus of major international instruments of human rights [ 74 ]
Flag of South Korea
Republic of Korea
International deals
CESCR[75] CCPR [ 76 ] CERD [ 77 ] CED[78] CEDAW [ 79 ] CAT[80] CRC[81] MWC[82] EARL [ 83 ]
CESCR CESCR OP CCPR CCPR-OP1 CCPR-OP2-DP CEDAW CEDAW-OP CAT CAT-OP CRC CRC-OP-AC CRC-OP-SC CRPD CRPD-OP
Belonging Yes check.svgSouth Korea has recognized the competence to receive and process individual communications by the competent bodies. Neither signed nor ratified. Yes check.svgSouth Korea has recognized the competence to receive and process individual communications by the competent bodies. Yes check.svgSouth Korea has recognized the competence to receive and process individual communications by the competent bodies. Neither signed nor ratified. Signed and ratified. Neither signed nor ratified. Signed and ratified. Yes check.svgSouth Korea has recognized the competence to receive and process individual communications by the competent bodies. Yes check.svgSouth Korea has recognized the competence to receive and process individual communications by the competent bodies. Neither signed nor ratified. Signed and ratified. Signed and ratified. Signed and ratified. Neither signed nor ratified. Signed and ratified. Neither signed nor ratified.
Yes check.svg Signed and ratified, Check.svg signed, but not ratified, X mark.svg neither signed nor ratified, Symbol comment vote.svg No information, Sign 101 - danger point, StVO 1970.svg has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.

Territorial organization

South Korea is subdivided into 9 provinces, a special city and six metropolitan cities:

Name Hangul Hanja
Special cities ( Teukbyeolsi )
1 Seoul Seoul Seoul
2 Busan Busan Busan Metropolitan City
3 Daegu Daegu Metropolitan City Daegu Metropolitan City
4 Incheon Incheon Metropolitan City Incheon Metropolitan City
5 Gwangju Gwangju Gwangju Metropolitan City
6 Daejeon Daejeon Daejeon Metropolitan City
7 Ulsan Ulsan Metropolitan City Ulsan Metropolitan City
Special Autonomous City ( Teukbyeoljachisi ) | -
8 Sejong Sejong Special Self-Governing City Sejong Special Self-Governing City
Provinces
9 Gyeonggi Gyeonggi-do Gyeonggi Province
10 Gangwon Gangwon-do Gangwon-do
11 North Chungcheong Chung-cheong bukdo Chungcheongbuk-do
12 South Chungcheong Chungcheongnam-do Chungcheongnam-do
13 North Jeolla Jeollabuk do Jeollabuk-do
14 South Jeolla Jeollanam-do Jeollanam-do
15 North Gyeongsang Gyeongsangbuk-do Gyeongsangbuk-do
16 South Gyeongsang Gyeongsangnam-do Qingshui South Road
Special Autonomous Province ( Teukbyeoljachi-do )
17 Jeju Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Jeju Special Self-Governing Province

Geography

Boseong tea fields .
The mountains of Seorak National Park
Hallasan, the highest point in South Korea.

South Korea occupies the southern part of the Korean peninsula , which stretches about 1,100 km from the Asian continent. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west and the Sea of ​​Japan to the east. In the extreme south is the Korean Strait and the East China Sea . The total area of ​​the country amounts to 100,363 km² . [ 1 ] The national territory can be divided into four general regions: the eastern region of high mountains and coastal plains.narrow; the western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and hills; the southwestern region with mountains and valleys; and the south-eastern region where the broad Nakdong River basin predominates . [ 84 ] The relief is mainly mountainous, so most of the soil is not arable. The lowlands , located mainly in the west and southeast, constitute only 30% of the total land area. [ 85 ]

Some three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the west and south coasts. Jeju -do is located about 100 kilometers from the south coast. It is the largest island in the country, with an area of ​​1845 km². In Jeju is the highest point in South Korea: Hallasan , an extinct volcano , with 1975 meters above sea level. [ 28 ] The easternmost islands include Ulleungdo and the Liancourt Rocks ( Dokdo), while Marado and Socotra Rock are the southernmost islands of the country. There are about twenty national parks, and some natural sites are very popular with tourists, such as the Boseong Tea Field and the Suncheon Bay Ecological Park in South Jeolla Province . [ 86 ] The main rivers are the Han and the Nakdong , which originate in the Taebaek mountain system. The Han heads towards the west coast to empty into the Yellow Sea after 514 km and pass through Seoul, while the longer Naktong (525 km) circulates in a southerly direction until it reaches the waters of the Korean Strait .[87]

Weather

Types of weather in South Korea

The country tends to have a humid continental climate and a humid subtropical climate and is affected by the East Asian monsoon , with more abundant rainfall in summer during a short rainy season called jangma (장마), which begins in late June and ends at the end of July. [ 88 ] Winters can be very cold, with minimum temperatures approaching –20 ° C in the northernmost part of the country. In Seoul, the average temperature range in January is –7 ° C to 1 ° C, while in August it rises from 22 ° C to 30 ° C. [ 89 ]Winter temperatures are high along the southern coast and considerably low in the mountainous interior. The rainfall is concentrated in the summer months, from June to September. At the same time, the south coast is subject to typhoons that bring with them strong winds and heavy rains. [ 28 ] Average annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 millimeters in Seoul to 1,470 millimeters in Busan .

Gnome-weather-few-clouds.svg Seoul Average Climate Parameters WPTC Meteo task force.svg
My One. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Ago. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Temp. max. media (° C) 0.8 3.3 9.5 17.3 22.9 26.6 28.5 29.5 25.5 19.7 11.2 3.7 16.5
Temp. min media (° C) - 7.1 - 4.8 0.4 7 12.5 17.4 21.6 22.2 16.5 9.5 2.6 - 4 7.8
Total precipitation (mm) 23 24.6 46.8 93.9 91.8 133.9 369.4 294.2 168.7 49.5 53.3 21.4 1370.5
Hours of sun 310 308 372 390 434 450 434 403 360 341 300 279 4381
Relative humidity (%) 64.4 64 63.1 61.3 64.5 72.2 81.3 78.9 72.5 67.4 66.3 65.9 68.5
Source: Climate-Charts.com [ 89 ]

Flora and fauna

The Syrian Rose is the national flower and one of the symbols of South Korea. [ 90 ]

The country is located in an area where the continental humid climate predominates , so the most abundant vegetation in the country is typical of mixed forests . Here are deciduous plant species such as maple , elm and poplar ; as well as evergreens like pine and fir . [ 91 ] In the southern coastal areas you can find different species that do not grow in the rest of the country, such as bamboo , laurel and oak . [ 91] Forests cover about two thirds of the national territory, although their number and extension has been in constant decline due to human activities.

The mixed forest is characterized by hosting multiple species of large and small mammals , as well as a large number of birds and insects . The squirrels , porcupines , hares , owls , hawks and other small animals have survived human impact, who have replaced these species pets like dogs , cats , horses , etc. [ 92 ] However, large species of mammals, particularly tigers , leopards ,Bears and lynxes are currently in danger of extinction , mainly due to constant hunting and the destruction of their habitat. [ 93 ]

Thanks to being one of the most heavily guarded areas on the planet and restricting access to all civilians, the Korean demilitarized zone is one of the main natural sanctuaries in the country, where most of the flora and fauna are preserved. native to the region. [ 94 ] The natural isolation of much of the area (about 1000 km²) has made it one of the best preserved natural areas in the world and the last refuge for several threatened species. [ 95 ] Groups of ecologists and scientists have identified about 2,900 plant species, 70 mammals and 320 varieties of birds in the area. [ 95 ]Other investigations carried out near the region estimate that there should be more specimens of these and other species in the surrounding regions. [ 96 ]

Environment

Cheonggyecheon , a park in central Seoul, was restored after being crossed by a highway.

During the first twenty years of the wave of urban growth that began in the 1970s, little effort was made to preserve the environment. [ 97 ] Unbridled industrialization and urban development have resulted in deforestation and continued destruction of ecosystems. [ 98 ] However, recent efforts have been made to balance these issues, including a five-year "green growth" project costing $ 84 million, with which the government aims to boost technologies and production of environmentally friendly energy. [ 99 ]

The ecology- based economic strategy is a complete overhaul of the South Korean economy, using almost two percent of the national GDP. The greening initiative includes several proposals such as a national cycling network, the use of solar and wind energy, the reduction of vehicles that use fossil fuels and expanding the use of ecological technologies. [ 100 ] The country plans to build a state-of-the-art national Internet network, which will be ten times faster than current broadband services , in order to reduce energy use. [ 100 ]

Recently, piped water in Seoul was made safe for human consumption, thanks to city officials running campaigns like "Arisu" in an attempt to convince the public to drink it. [ 101 ] Multiple actions have also been carried out in the field of reforestation. Another multi-million dollar project in the city was the restoration of Cheonggyecheon , a park located in central Seoul, which had previously been crossed by a highway. [ 102 ] A major challenge for South Koreans is air quality, as problems such as acid rain occur annually., the presence of sulfur oxides in the air and yellow dust storms. [ 97 ] It is recognized that many of these difficulties are the result of the country's proximity to China, one of the world's leading air polluters. [ 97 ]

It is a member of the Antarctic Environmental Protocol, the Antarctic Treaty , the Biodiversity Treaty , the Kyoto Protocol (forming with Mexico and Switzerland the Environmental Integrity Group, GIA, under the supervision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ). [ 103 ] In addition, it is part of several agreements and conventions that work on environmental issues, such as desertification , endangered species , environmental modification, the disposal of hazardous materials at sea, the prohibition of nuclear tests, protection of theozone layer and the preservation of wetlands , among others. [ 28 ]

South Korea is the country of the OECD with the worst environmental quality, especially air, in 2018. The annual particle exposure increased by an average of 4% between 2005 and 2013. [ 104 ]


Economy

Hyundai Motor Group is the highest-earning automaker [ 105 ] and fourth in terms of units sold. [ 106 ]
Songdo in the Inchon Free Economic Zone, is the largest private initiative project in history. [ 107 ]

South Korea is a developed country and between the 1960s and 1990s it had one of the fastest growing economies in the world. [ 108 ] The rapid transformation into a rich, industrialized economy in this short time was called "the Han River miracle." This surge of growth was achieved through export-oriented manufacturing and a highly skilled workforce . [ 109 ] In 2009, it was the ninth country with the highest income from its exports. [ 110 ]

As the largest of the four Asian dragons , the South Korean economy is the fourth largest in Asia and the 13th largest in the world. Is an important trading partner of the largest economies of the world, for example, is the third largest trading partner for China and Japan , [ 111 ] [ 112 ] the seventh to the United States [ 113 ] and the eighth for European Union . [ 114 ]

Its capital, Seoul , is constantly situated between the ten financial cities and major shopping for the global economy [ 115 ] [ 116 ] and was named the sixth most economically powerful city in the world, according to the magazine Forbes . [ 115 ] The GDP per capita National is around US $ 30 000. [ 117 ] [ 118 ]

As a member of the OECD , is classified by the World Bank as a high income economy by the IMF and the CIA as an advanced economy [ 119 ] [ 120 ] and as a developed market by the FTSE group. It also has a very high HDI , particularly in education , where it is ranked first in Asia and seventh worldwide. Currently, it is ranked as the most innovative country , according to the Global Innovation Index . [ 121 ]

The nation is the current president of the G-20 member economies and was the first country in Asia to host the G-20 Summit in November 2010. It is one of the 24 OECD members selected to serve on the Committee on Development Aid , where the world's most important donor countries are located, and whose main mission is to contribute to development aid and poverty reduction in developing countries. He is also a founding member of the Forum of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and East Asia Summit .

The South Korean economy is led by large conglomerates known as chaebol . These include multinationals like Samsung , LG and Hyundai- Kia. The ten largest South Korean companies are Samsung Electronics , POSCO , Hyundai Motor Company , KB Kookmin Bank , Korea Power Company , Samsung Life Insurance , Shinhan Bank , LG Electronics , Hyundai Mobis, and LG Chem . [ 122 ] [ 123 ]

That South Korea has little unemployment, but recorded one of the highest incidences of job strain OECD: 51% of workers say they are required more than they can give [ 124 ]

In the survey published by The Hankyoreh , 85% of young people agreed with the statement: "The people who were born poor can never compete with people who were born rich" .. [ 124 ]

High-tech industries

South Korean company Samsung Electronics is one of the world's largest electronics companies. [ 125 ]

The country has an infrastructure of high technology, as well as having the largest system of wiring in the world, [ 126 ] while the index has access to Internet of broadband highest per capita. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] On average Internet connections in the country are the highest in the world, with a rate of 100 Mbps. Eventually, the government will use cables fiber optic to raise that average 1 Gbps 2012. [ 129 ]

In addition, the South Korean economy is the largest producer of LCD , OLED and plasma screens . [ 130 ] Samsung and LG are among the top three manufacturers of televisions [ 131 ] and mobile phones . [ 132 ] Today, Samsung is the first commercially successful home appliance manufacturer . [ 133 ]

The nation is one of the innovation leaders in technology, being the third country with the most registered patents , only after Japan and the United States. [ 134 ] Among the developed countries, is the growth rate of patenting higher, of 14.8% in 2007. [ 134 ]

Infrastructure

Transport and energy

Incheon International Airport , annually ranked since 2005 as the best airport in the world. [ 135 ]

The country has a technologically advanced transport network consisting of high-speed railways , highways , bus routes , ferries, and air routes that cross the entire territory. Korea Expressway Corporation is the company in charge of the operation, maintenance and collection of tolls on highways.

Korail provides the rail service to the main cities of the country. The two lines that run to North Korea, Gyeonggi and Donghae Bukbu , have reconnected. The Korean high-speed train , KTX , provides high-speed service between Gyeongju and Honam . Major cities including Seoul, [ 136 ] Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju have their own subway systems.

The construction of the airport largest in the country, the Incheon International Airport , was completed in 2001. Six years later, the airport received 30 million passengers a year. [ 137 ] Since 2005, it has been selected as the "best international airport" for four consecutive years by the Airports Council International . [ 135 ] Other international airports include Gimpo , Busan, and Jeju . There are also seven national airports and a large number of heliports . [ 138 ]

In 2008, Korean Air , founded in 1962, carried 21,640,000 passengers, including 12,490,000 passengers on international flights. [ 139 ] A second airline, Asiana Airlines , founded in 1988, also serves domestic and international traffic. Together, South Korean airlines travel through 297 international routes. [ 140 ] Smaller airlines, such as Jeju Air , provide domestic flight services at lower fares.

South Korea is the sixth largest nuclear power producer in the world and the second largest in Asia. [ 141 ] Nuclear energy provides 45% of electricity production. The parastatal Korea Electric Power is the only power company in the country. [ 142 ]

Media

Offices of the Korean Broadcasting System located in the city of Changwon .

The most important means of communication in the country are the newspaper , television , radio and the Internet . The journalism in Korea started from the opening to foreign trade in the nineteenth century and have since emerged large number of publications. The major newspapers in South Korea include Chosun Ilbo , JoongAng Ilbo, and Dong-A Ilbo . [ 143 ] All these newspapers are written in Korean , although there are publications printed exclusively in English.for tourists or foreigners residing in the country. These include The Korea Herald , The Korea Times and JoonAng Daily . [ 143 ]

Like newspapers, radio broadcasts are generally broadcast in Korean, although there are also stations that offer their programming entirely in English. [ 144 ] Most radio programs broadcast mixed Korean music and foreign music, as well as news , radio soap operas, and sports programs . [ 144 ]

Television programs are also broadcast in Korean, and even on broadcast television channels foreign films are dubbed into Korean. [ 145 ] The main public initiative networks are Korean Broadcasting System , Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation , Educational Broadcasting System and Seoul Broadcasting System . There are also channels with programming exclusively in English, such as Arirang TV . [ 145 ]

The Internet has become a major part of everyday life for South Koreans, which is why nine out of ten households have Internet service. [ 146 ] It is one of the countries with the highest number of Internet users , and its connections are among the highest speed in the world. It is also the leader in DMB technology and has the largest number of Internet provider companies internationally. [ 146 ]

Demography

Evolution of the population of South Korea (1961-2003).
The hangul is the alphabet used to write the Korean language .
The temple cave Seokguram , a site declared World Heritage Site by Unesco .

South Korea is notable for its population density, which, at 487.7 inhabitants per square kilometer, [ 147 ] is more than ten times the world average. Most South Koreans live in urban areas , due to massive migration from the countryside during the rapid economic expansion of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. [ 148 ] The capital , Seoul , is the most populous city and one from the main industrial centers of the country, since it has a population of 9 million inhabitants. The Seoul National Capital Area ( Sudogwon ) has 24 million inhabitants, making it thesecond largest metropolitan area in the world. [ 149 ] [ 150 ] [ 151 ] Other important cities are Busan (3.5 million), Incheon (2.5 million), Daegu (2.5 million), Daejeon (1.4 million), Gwangju (1.4 million) and Ulsan (1 million). [ 152 ]

The population has also been shaped by international migration. After the division of the Korean peninsula , after World War II , about four million North Koreans crossed the border to the south. This growth trend was reversed in the next forty years due to emigration, especially to the United States and Canada . In 1960, the total population was 25 million. [ 153 ] The current population is about 49 540 000. [ 2 ]

It is a homogeneous society, as 98% of its inhabitants are ethnic Koreans . [ 28 ] Although it remains minimal, the percentage of the non-Korean population has been increasing. [ 154 ] In 2009, 1 106 884 foreigners resided in the country, more than double the total in 2006. Migrants from China make up 56.5% of the total; however, many of them are joseonjoks , Chinese citizens of Korean origin. [ 155 ] The approximately 33,000 Mongolian immigrants make up the largest community of Mongolian citizens residing abroad. [ 156 ][ 157 ] Another notable minority are women of the Southeast Asia , who in 2006 formed 41% of marriages with Korean farmers. [ 158 ] There are also the 31,000 US servicemen stationed in the country. [ 159 ] In addition, around 43,000 English teachers from the United States, Canada, Australia , New Zealand , the United Kingdom , Ireland, and South Africa temporarily reside in Korea. [ 160 ]

The South Korean birth rate is the lowest in the world. [ 161 ] If this trend continues, the population is expected to decline by 13% in 2050, or to 42.3 million people. [ 162 ] In 2008, the annual birth rate was 9 births per 1,000 people, [ 28 ] while life expectancy at birth was 79.10 years, [ 163 ] which is the 40th most high of the world. [ 164 ]

South Koreans do not appear to be very happy with their current situation: three out of four young people between the ages of 19 and 34 want to leave the country, according to a survey published in December by The Hankyoreh newspaper . What's more, eight out of 10 see South Korea as "hell." [ 165 ]

Migrants

South Korea has more than 350,000 residents illegal immigrants in 2019. [ 166 ]

When the authorities arrest foreigners in an irregular situation, they imprison their children with them, even if they are very young. This practice is denounced by human rights NGOs, but so far without success. The NGO World Vision Korea recalls that South Korea violates the international conventions on the rights of the child that it has signed. [ 166 ]

Korea imports part of its labor force abroad, mainly to Southeast Asia . These migrant workers occupy low-paid and dangerous jobs, often suffering from poor working conditions and abusive employers. They cannot change jobs without the permission of their employer. There are many work accidents, as well as police raids, arrests, and deportations when their visas expire.

Idiom

The official language of the country and the one most spoken by South Koreans is the Korean language , a language whose classification is still debated, since some authors affirm that it belongs to the Altaic family and others believe that it is an isolated language . [ 167 ] Korean has its own alphabet , Hangul , which was invented around the 15th century . [ 168 ] Although its appearance may seem like a pictographic alphabet , it is actually a phonetic system organized in syllabic blocks. Each of these blocks consists of at least two of the 24 characters ( jamo ): at least one of the fourteen consonants and one of the ten vowels. The Hanja (Chinese) and Latin alphabets are used within some Korean texts, a more common practice in the South than in the North. [ 169 ]

Although it is also the official language of its northern neighbor, the Korean spoken in South Korea differs in some respects from that spoken by North Koreans, such as pronunciation, writing, grammar, and vocabulary. [ 170 ] For its part, English is widely used as the second language by the majority of the population, in addition to being compulsory in secondary schools. [ 28 ]

Religion

In 2005, almost half of the South Korean population expressed that they had no religious preference. [ 171 ] Of the rest, the majority are Christian or Buddhist ; According to the 2005 census, 29.2% of the population at that time was Christian (18.3% Protestant and 10.9% Catholic ) and 22.8% were Buddhist. [ 172 ] Other religions practiced in the country include Islam and several new religious movements such as Jeungism , Daesunism , Cheondoism, and Won Buddhism.. Today, freedom of worship is guaranteed by the Constitution and there is no state religion . [ 173 ]

The Christianity is the religion professed throughout the country, with more than half of all religious followers. There are approximately 13.7 million Christians, [ 174 ] about two-thirds of them belong to a Protestant group, while the rest belong to the Catholic group. The church with the largest number of followers is Yoido Full Gospel Church , which is based in Seoul. The Catholic Church has been the fastest-growing religion since the late 1980s. [ 175 ] South Korea is the second-largest missionary-sending nation. [ 176 ]

Buddhism was introduced to Korea in 372. [ 177 ] According to the 2005 national census, there are more than 10 million Buddhists in the country. [ 174 ] [ 178 ] Today, approximately 90% of South Korean Buddhists belong to the Order of Jogye . Most of the national treasures are Buddhist artifacts. Along with Neo-Confucianism , Buddhism was the state religion during the Three Kingdoms period of Korea , during the Joseon Dynasty. [ 179 ]Islam has just under 30,000 native followers, in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers residing in Muslim countries, [ 180 ] especially Bangladesh and Pakistan . [ 181 ]

Education

A South Korean classroom equipped with computers with Internet access.

The education is considered crucial for success, and therefore, is one of the main points of the government 's plans and it invests 4.6% of GDP. [ 28 ] In the 2006 results of the OECD's International Program for Student Assessment , the country ranked first in problem solving, third in mathematics, and eleventh in science . [ 182 ]The South Korean education system is technologically advanced and is the first country in the world to bring fast broadband Internet access to every primary and secondary school across the country. With this infrastructure, the country has developed the first textbooks digital in the world, which were distributed free to all schools before 2013. [ 183 ]

A centralized administration supervises and manages the schools for the education of children from pre-school education to the third and last year of secondary education . The country has adopted a new educational program to increase the number of its foreign students. According to the estimate of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, in 2010 the number of scholarships for foreign students will double , to reach 100,000 students. [ 184 ] The school yearIt is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins in early March and ends in mid-July; while the second begins in late August and ends in mid-February. Hours are not standardized and vary from school to school.

Main cities

Major cities of South Korea

Seoul
Seoul
Busan
Busan
Incheon
Incheon

Town Administrative division Population Town Administrative Division Population

Daegu
Daegu
Daejeon
Daejeon
Gwangju
Gwangju

1 Seoul Seoul 10 464 051 11 Bucheon Gyeonggi 884.976
2 Busan Busan 3 574 340 12 Yongin Gyeonggi 854.054
3 Incheon Incheon 2 758 431 13 Ansan Gyeonggi 739 493
4 Daegu Daegu 2 509 187 14 Cheongju North Chungcheong 648 598
5 Daejeon Daejeon 1 498 665 15 Jeonju North Jeolla 639 922
6 Gwangju Gwangju 1 445 828 16 Anyang Gyeonggi 623 511
7 Ulsan Ulsan 1 129 827 17 Cheonan South Chungcheong 551 423
8 Suwon Gyeonggi 1 098 449 18 Namyangju Gyeonggi 530 699
9 Seongnam Gyeonggi 979 035 19 Hwaseong Gyeonggi 515 162
10 Rocking Gyeonggi 951 001 20 Pohang North Gyeongsang 513 343

Culture

Hwasong Fortress , declared in 1997 as a World Heritage Site by Unesco .

South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea , but the two Koreas developed different contemporary forms of culture, especially since the peninsula was divided in 1945. Historically, although Korea's culture has been influenced by that of its neighbor closer to China , it has been possible to develop a unique cultural identity different from that of other countries. [ 185 ] The South Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism actively promotes traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs. [ 186 ] [ 187 ]

The industrialization and urbanization have brought many changes to the customs of the Korean people. The changing economy and lifestyles have led to a concentration of the population in large cities, especially in the capital Seoul, where typical multigenerational households separate to fit in with the living conditions of a nuclear family . Currently, there are nine sites World Heritage of Unesco in the South Korean territory. [ 188 ]

In addition to the classic cultural expressions, the new South Korean culture , which encompasses other forms such as soap operas , movies and popular music , has begun to be assimilated significantly in various parts of the world. This phenomenon, often called Hallyu or the " Korean wave ," has spread to other Asian countries such as Japan , Vietnam, and China . [ 189 ]

Art

During the Goryeo dynasty, the making of Buddha statues like this one reached a great boom.

Korean art is strongly influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism . Among the most developed plastic arts in Korea are painting , calligraphy and ceramics . The oldest surviving Korean painting is the Goguryeo Mural , which dates back to the Three Kingdoms era, although this art reached its peak during the Goryeo Dynasty . [ 190 ] Most of these works are religious-themed, and the landscaping was developed during the heyday of the Joseon dynasty., being its highest representatives. The handwriting was developed while the painting and other graphic arts, since before the invention of the Korean alphabet ( Hangul ), Chinese forms are used writing. [ 190 ]

The pottery and sculpture were two of the oldest arts practiced in the Korean territory since their earliest traces date back to the Bronze Age . [ 191 ] When Buddhism became one of the major religions in Korea, Buddha statues were multiplied throughout the country's artisan workshops. Later, the ceramics created in the time of the Goryeo dynasty were jade in color , and since the 14th century , the most common way to decorate a vessel was through engravings in bluish tones on a white background. [ 191 ]

In the field of performing arts , dance and theater developed together, as did music . The talchum and buchaechum are forms of national performing arts better known abroad. The beginning of contemporary dance in the country dates from the Japanese occupation and since then, different types of dance such as ballet , jazz and break dance have acquired greater importance on the South Korean scene. [ 192 ]Within the theater, performances with dances and choreography, not including dialogues, have become popular, leading to successful works such as Jump and Nanta . [ 192 ]

The traditional clothing of the country is known as hanbok . This costume has many variants such as the dopo , the durumagi and the jeogori ; there are special suits for men and women and for formal and casual occasions. The hanbok tradition was passed down for hundreds of years from generation to generation, without undergoing drastic changes in the manufacture and use of the garments. [ 193 ] However, since the introduction of Western dress in the 20th century, the use of the hanbok has declined considerably, and today most people use it only for ceremonies such as weddings , anniversaries, andnational holidays . [ 193 ]

In 1993, with the goal of preserving South Korean classical arts and training professional artists, the government founded the Korea Comprehensive Art School , where classes in acting, painting, dance, theater, film, and sculpture are taught. In addition, there are other private-initiative organizations, such as the Seoul Art Center and the LG Art Center , which are responsible for disseminating South Korean art and culture, as well as bringing several of these art forms to an international stage. [ 192 ]

Architecture

The Beopjusa pagoda , an example of traditional Korean architecture.

The architecture of pre-modern Korea can be divided into two main styles: that used in palace and temple structures and that used in common people's houses, which has local variations. Ancient architects adopted a support system characterized by thatched roofs and simple floors called ondol . Upper class people built big houses with tiled roofs . There are still many sites like Hahoe, Yangdong and Korea folk villages where the traditional architecture of the country is preserved.

Traditional Korean architecture uses the Dancheong technique , the selection of colors that were used to cover most of the buildings of the ancient Korean kingdoms. The origin of the Dancheong can be traced back to the colorful colors with which the wall paintings of the ancient royal tombs were decorated: red , blue , yellow , black and white . These colors were used for their special properties in the face of natural phenomena such as wind, sun, rain and heat. [ 194 ]

Science and Technology

Building of the Korea Institute of Advanced Science and Technology in Daejeon .

Aerospace research

South Korea has launched two satellites, " Arirang-1 " in 1999 and " Arirang-2 " in 2006, as part of its space partnership with Russia . [ 195 ] The Naro Space Center , the first of its kind in the country, was completed in 2008, in Goheung . In 2009, a South Korean launch vehicle took off from Naro, but failed to complete its mission. [ 196 ] In April 2008, Yi So-yeon became the first Korean to fly into space, aboard the Russian Soyuz TMA-12 . [ 197 ]In June 2010, a second launch vehicle was launched, but like its predecessor, it failed shortly after being launched. [ 198 ]

Robotics

Since 2003, robotics has been included in the list of top national research and development projects in Korea. [ 199 ] In 2009, the government announced plans to build robot theme parks in Inchon and Masan , with a mix of public and private funds. [ 200 ] In 2005, the Korea Institute of Advanced Science and Technology developed the world's second humanoid robot, HUBO . In May 2006, a team from the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology developed the first Korean android , EveR-1. Since then, several more complex models have been created in the country, with greater capacity for movement and vision.

Biotechnology

Since the 1980s, the South Korean government has actively invested in the development of a national biotech industry , as this sector is projected to grow close to $ 6 million in 2010. [ 201 ] The sector Medical is the recipient of a large part of the productions of this industry, including the production of vaccines and antibiotics . Recently, research and development in genetics and cloning has received increased attention, from the first successful cloning of a dog, Snuppy, and the cloning of two females of an endangered species of wolves.by Seoul National University in 2007. [ 202 ] The rapid growth of the biotechnology industry has resulted in an important test for the regulation of professional ethics, as happened with the famous case of scientist Hwang Woo-Suk . [ 203 ]

Who

The cinema has garnered several successes internationally, although it is not as popular as its namesakes in India and Japan . The first film produced entirely in the country was Honored Revenge directed by Kim Do-san in 1919. [ 204 ] After this, several films were filmed that were relatively successful in the country, but the true development of the Korean film industry it happened after the Korean War. [ 204 ]

From then until 1972, Korean cinema lived its so-called "golden age" in which films could freely express the political and social views of the people. However, in the 1980s, the crackdown on freedom of expression by the Park Chung-hee government decreased film production in the country, and the industry lost its presence. [ 204 ] In recent years, several South Korean films, directors, and actors have achieved international recognition at multiple awards and film festivals such as Cannes . [ 205 ]

In 2020, the film Parasites by South Korean director Bong Joon-ho , won three awards for best director, [ 206 ] best international film and best film of 2019 at the ninety-second Oscar award ceremony , being the first foreign film of history in winning this latest award. [ 207 ] [ 165 ]

Song

Hi! Festival, held every year in the South Korean capital of Seoul.

From the division of the peninsula, the music of South Korea is basically divided into two: traditional and folk music and modern music. The traditional music Korean, called Hanguk Eumak evolved in different ways over the centuries since played an important role in ceremonies and events. [ 208 ] The earliest forms of Korean music and dance date back to the Three Kingdoms era, when more than thirty different musical instruments were used. Korean music was divided into several genres, according to its utility: the muak was used in rituals; the talchumin the dances with masks; the nongak was used by farmers and the minyo by the people in general. [ 208 ]

Modern Korean music, called K-pop , is characterized by the use of songs of the pop genre mixed with elements of South Korean folk music. Other genres with a large following in the country are R&B , hip hop and electronic music . [ 209 ] Several South Korean performers and musical groups have managed to cross the borders and be accepted by the public in other Asian countries such as China , Japan , Taiwan and Hong Kong and even be accepted in the other continents. Today this genre is known worldwide. [210]

Literature

Celebrating a traditional Korean wedding.

Like music, South Korean literature is divided into two: classical and modern literature. The first covers all the works written before and during the reign of the Joseon dynasty. Many of these works were written with the Chinese alphabet , which is why several authors consider that the true emergence of Korean literature occurs with the invention of the Hangul alphabet . [ 168 ] These works tell the epic stories, legends, and traditions of the ancient Koreans, as well as serving as historical records by containing some chronicles of the kings of previous dynasties. Ki Man-jung , Heo Gyun , Park Ji-won, and Yi Eokare some of the most prominent authors of this time, while Gu-unmong , Hong Gil-dong Jeon and Hojil are some of the works written by them. [ 211 ]

Modern South Korean literature refers to all those works written and published after the 19th century . The Korean novel regained strength in this period and often dealt with historical themes for Korean society such as the Japanese occupation, World War II, and the Korean War. [ 212 ] Like the cinema and other media, literature suffered from censorship by the dictatorial regimes that ruled the country in the 1970s and 1980s. Among the most prominent South Korean writers are: Yi Munyol , Yong -Tae Min , Lee Cheong-jun and Park Gyeong-ri. The latter was the author of the Toji series of books , considered one of the most important works of Korean literature and was included in the Unesco Collection of Representative Works. [ 213 ]

Gastronomy

Baek kimchi saucer
Bulgogi , a Korean dish made with beef or pork.

The Korean cuisine , Hanguk Yori (한국 요리,韓國料理), or Hansik (한식,韓食), has evolved through centuries of social and political change. [ 214 ] Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated with varying variations across the country. The cuisine of the Korean royal court once brought together all the regional specialties unique to the royal family. For a long time, the consumption of food has been regulated by a series of manners and etiquette, both for members of the royal family and for Korean peasants. [ 214 ]

Korean cuisine relies heavily on noodles , rice , tofu , vegetables, fish, and meats. [ 214 ] Korean traditional food is characterized by the number of side dishes , banchan (반찬), which are served alongside boiled short grain rice. Each meal is accompanied by numerous banchan . Among the most consumed traditional South Korean dishes are bulgogi , bibimbap and galbi . [ 215 ]

The tea is an important part of the national cuisine, and the ceremony tea is one of the most rooted traditions of the current population. Korean teas are made from cereals , seeds , fruits, and medicinal herbs . [ 216 ] The alcoholic beverages were made from cereals since before the fourth century. Among the main South Korean liquors are "Takju" ( unrefined liquor ), "Cheongju" (medicinal liquor) and "Soju" (distilled liquor). The takjuIt is the basis for the elaboration of other regional drinks, increasing or decreasing the fermentation time. [ 217 ]

Parties

Date Name in Spanish Local name Notes
January 1 New Year New Year
( Sinjeong )
First day of the year
January - February
( January 1 of the lunar calendar )
Korean new year New Year's Day
( Seol-nal )
First day of the first lunar month, as well as the preceding and following days.
March 1st Independence Movement Day Independence Movement
( Samiljeol )
Commemoration of the independence movement repressed by the Japanese in 1919 .
May 5th Children's Day Children's Day
( Eorininal )
May
( April 8, lunar calendar )
Birth of buddha Buddha's birthday
( Bucheonim osin nal )
It is celebrated on the first full moon in May.
June 6th Commemoration of the dead for the homeland. Memorial Day
( Hyeonchungil )
July 17th Day of the constitution Constitution Day
( Jeheonjeol )
August 15th Independence Day Liberation Day
( Gwangbokjeol )
The end of the Japanese occupation is commemorated
September - October
( August 15 of the lunar calendar )
Chuseok Thanksgiving ( Chuseok ) O
thanksgiving ( Han-gawi)
It is a great harvest festival and holiday that spans three days in Korea that is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar.
October 3 Gaecheonjeol National Foundation Day
( Gaecheonjeol )
Anniversary of the founding of Korea in 2333 BC. C.
October 9 Hangul Day Hangul
( Hangulnal )
A national holiday in Korea that commemorates the invention and proclamation by King Sejong the Great of the Hangul repertoire , the Korean language's own alphabet. It is celebrated on October 9 , 1446 .
December 25th Christmas Nativity ( Seongtanjeol ) O
Christmas ( Christmas )

sports

Practicing taekwondo demonstrating the technique Tuio dollyo chagi.

The discipline of taekwondo developed in Korea. In the 1950s and 1960s, modern rules were created to standardize it, in 1988 it began as an exhibition sport, and in 2000 it was recognized as an Olympic sport . Other modern Korean martial arts include hapkido , taekkyon , tangsudo , kuk sool won , soo bahk do, and kumdo (fencing).

The baseball was introduced to Korea in 1905 and has since become the most popular spectator sport in South Korea. [ 218 ] Established in 1982, the Korean Baseball Organization was the first professional sports league in the country. The South Korean team finished third in the 2006 World Baseball Classic , second in the 2009 edition and won the gold medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics . [ 219 ]

The Gate of World Peace in the Seoul Olympic Park.

In 1988, he organized the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games , remaining in fourth place on the medal table , with 12 gold, 10 silver and 11 bronze medals. [ 219 ] The country regularly performs well in archery , table tennis , badminton , short track speed skating , handball , ice hockey , freestyle wrestling , baseball , judo , taekwondo , skating and weight lifting. It has won more medals at the Winter Olympics than any other country in Asia. In its last edition , it won a total of 14 medals (6 gold, 6 silver and 2 bronze) for a total of 45 medals (23 gold, 14 silver and 8 bronze). [ 219 ]

It hosted the Asian Games in 1986 (Seoul) and 2002 (Busan) and 2014 (Inchon). [ 220 ] It also hosted the 1999 Asian Winter Games ; and the Winter Universiade in 1997 and the Summer Universiade in 2003 . At the 2002 soccer World Cup , jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan, the soccer team became the first team from the Asian Soccer Confederation to reach the semi-finals. [ 221 ]In 2010, a Formula 1 World Championship event , the South Korean Grand Prix, was held for the first time at the Korean International Circuit in Yeongam . In addition, the 2011 World Athletics Championships were held in Daegu . [ 222 ] The three equestrian competitions in the country are also important , among which the one at the Seoul Racing Park stands out , which is the largest.

living place

According to a report published in 2018 by the UN Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing, Leilani Farha: "Lack of affordable housing is a substantial barrier to living in adequate housing." Not only do rents account for 50% of South Koreans' wages, but many of the homes are "so small that even with just one or two residents they are already overcrowded," he said. [ 124 ]

See also

References

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