Dragoon Regiment "Prince Albrecht of Prussia" (Litthauisches) No. 1 - Dragoner-Regiment „Prinz Albrecht von Preußen“ (Litthauisches) Nr. 1

The Dragoon Regiment "Prince Albrecht of Prussia" (Litthauisches) No. 1 was a Dragoon joined the Prussian army , which consisted 1717-1919 and the oldest cavalry regiments of the Prussian army counted.

history

On April 19, 1717 King Friedrich Wilhelm I entrusted Major General Heinrich Jordan von Wuthenau with the establishment of a regiment of dragoons made up of 780 Saxon horsemen and dragoons from various regiments, which August II of Poland had left to the king. The officers were given by the king from the Prussian army. In May Wuthenau formed the regiment into eight companies. As a uniform it wore white skirts with light blue markings. The dragoons were jokingly called the "porcelain regiment" after these colors. In December the march into the East Prussian garrisons Insterburg (Stab), Tilsit , Ragnit ,Goldap , Stallupönen and Pillkallen . In 1718 the regiment was united for the first time for exercise at Insterburg and increased to ten companies in August. The companies, which were increased to 110 riders in 1725, were given the designation of squadrons . After the death of General von Wuthenau in 1727, the regiment was divided into the regiments " von Cosel " and " von Dockum ". The former received the old garrisons except Tilsit and the uniforms. The latter was relocated to Tilsit with all five squadrons and received red badges, the following year silver timpani and later number 7.

From 1734 to 1746 the regiment was frequently relocated, including to Berlin , Magdeburg , Potsdam and Tilsit. It was permanently stationed there as a garrison from 1746 . The peace of Tilsit ended the relationship between the chiefs and their regiments. According to a cabinet order of September 7, 1808, the association lost the name of its head of the regiment in the course of the reorganization of the Prussian army and was initially called the East Prussian Dragoon Regiment , which on September 14, 1808 was again part of Dragoon Regiment No. 3 -Regiment changed. The association initially took place in Tilsit and InsterburgQuarters. Half of the regiment (two squadrons) took part in Napoleon's campaign against Russia in 1812 in the Mobile 1st Dragoons Regiment in the Prussian auxiliary corps under General Yorck and in the campaigns against France in 1813/14.

Around 1815/16 the soldiers were relocated to various locations (including Berlin, Demmin and Tilsit). Between 1860 and 1866 parts of the regiment were repeatedly stationed in different places in East Prussia (Insterburg and Ragnit ). In 1879 the regiment was finally consolidated in Tilsit.

The regiment was recruited from volunteers from the far north-east of East Prussia and had the reputation of having the best horses and riders. [1]

On the occasion of the coronation of King Wilhelm I , the association was given the name Litthauisches Dragoon Regiment No. 1 (Prince Albrecht of Prussia) on October 18, 1861 . The last time the name was changed on October 15, 1872, in Dragoon Regiment "Prince Albrecht of Prussia" (Litthauisches) No. 1 .

First Silesian War 1740/42

During the First Silesian War , the Dragoons fought down the Imperial and Royal Cuirassier Regiment "von Birkenfeld" in the Battle of Chotusitz in 1742 . The Leibstandarte was lost when grenadiers snatched the banner from the seriously wounded Junker von Roop in battle. The regiment lost four officers and 152 men, six officers and 71 men were wounded, three officers and 280 men were taken prisoner.

Second Silesian War 1744/45

In the Second Silesian War the adjutant Lieutenant of Blankenburg 1745 lost those who had been already in safety in action at low Zehren timpani and bodyguard . At Kesselsdorf, the regiment attacked the carbine guard and the grenadiers "la cheval". The Saxon guard rode on foot and the regiment "Sneezing mussel" down. The Dragoons Stiecklies conquered the body flag of the regiment "Niesemeuschel", a standard and a pair of silver timpani were conquered from the carbine guard.

Seven Years War 1756/63

In the Seven Years' War the regiment rode in the battle of Groß-Jägersdorfthe Hungarian, Serbian hussar regiment and the Tschujugeffsche Cossack regiment over the heaps and chased them from the battlefield to behind the backs of the Russian infantry. Together with the Leib squadron, it took a battery with ten heavy artillery pieces and cut down a grenadier battalion. Three squadrons attacked the infantry regiments "von Vologdas" and "Suzdal" with the dragoon regiment "von Platen" and killed a large part. (Loss: 136 men). In the middle of September / beginning of October 1757 the dragoons fought at Setzlaken and Tilsit. They then marched to Pomerania, took part in the battle at Sternberg on August 5, 1758, and in the advance on Zielenzig from August 9 to 14, 1757. In the battle of Zorndorfthe dragoons threw several Russian regiments, which pursued the defeated vanguard. Five cannons were captured and the vanguard rallied afterwards. (Losses: four officers, 59 men and 115 horses).

September 23, 1758 Battle near Zehdenick; September 25, 1758 Skirmish near Linum, the Swedish Leib-Kürassier-Regiment lost three officers and 300 prisoners, in an attack on a Swedish battalion the regiment lost two officers and 104 men. September 28, 1758 battle near Fehrbellin, October 15, 1758 battle near Boitzenburg, November 15, 1758 battle near Eilenburg, it captured two cannons and two ammunition wagons with the “Malachowsky” hussar regiment, another march to Poland. January 1, 1859 Storming of Damgarten, conquest of Anklam; August 27, 1759 Battle near Zahna; August 29, 1759 Battle near Torgau; September 4, 1759 Battle near Großenhayn, the Imperial and Royal Palantinal Hussar Regiment is thrown (loss: 368 men, 500 horses); September 5, 1759 Battle near Dresden; September 8, 1859 battle near Torgau, eight cannons and 16 ammunition wagons are captured, 26 officers and 850 captured (losses: four officers, 186 men); September 16, battle at Triebsche, at Korbitz the cuirassier regiment "Serbelloni" was thrown into a ravine near Stroischen, ten officers and 64 men were taken prisoner (losses: eight officers, 180 men, 68 horses); November 7, 1759 Battle near Niederzehren; November 9th battle near Meissen; November 23, 1759 Battle near Unsewitz: November 1759 Battle near Niederzehren; November 9th battle near Meissen; November 23, 1759 Battle near Unsewitz: November 1759 Battle near Niederzehren; November 9th battle near Meissen; November 23, 1759 Battle near Unsewitz:

1760 fighting in Pomerania, on the Kavel Pass, Lübbersdorf, Jogow, Taschenberg, Prenzlau, Röppersdorf, Schiedeberg and near Berlin (losses: two officers, 80 men); Belzig, Leipzig, October 19, 1760 Taschenberg, battle near Ticino (Zarnewanz). A squadron blew up the Swedish cavalry and captured a cannon.

1761 Campaign in Pomerania, (June 12th to 18th, 1761) Battles near Belgard, August 19th battle near Körlin, September 4th battle at Gröpfack-Krug, September 6th battle near Garrin, the Russian "Archangelgorod" dragoon regiment is cut conquered three standards; September 12th Battle near Treptow, the dragoons Kleibitz captured Colonel Count Wittgenstein; Battle near Körlin, two unicorns (a kind of long, smooth howitzer) captured, October 2nd battle near Spie, October 10th battle near Gerwin, October 16th battle near Triglaff, October 20th battle near Schwanteshagen, October 20th Kantecker Wald, October 22nd, cannonade at Gollnow, November 3rd, battle near Passkrug, November 15th, battle near Greiffenberg, December 12th, storm on Spie, battle near Klempin (casualties: one officer, 136 men, 154 horses).

1762 Battle near Malchin, January 4th to 10th (Mecklenburg), Battle near Döbeln, the regiment storms the hill near Klingenberg, which was lost by the grenadier battalion "von Bähr", taking 500 prisoners, October 15, battles near Ruppersdorf, Tuttendorf and Konradsdorf, 16 October Klein-Waltersdorf, Battle of Freiberg , the regiment throws the cuirassier regiment "Bayreuth", the regiment "von Salm" is dispersed and eight cannons are captured, two squadrons blow up regiments No. 51 and No. 33, it made 17 officers and 700 prisoners (losses: one officer, 66 men, 72 horses).

Bavarian War of Succession 1778/79

During the War of the Bavarian Succession , the regiment took part in the battle near Braunsdorf on July 28, 1778 and in the attack near Eckertsdorf against the Austrians on August 11, 1778. The own losses amounted to two officers, 151 men, 157 horses.

Fourth coalition war

At Schulitz the lieutenant von Sydow succeeded with 50 men and the lieutenant Heinrich Erdmann Gottlieb von Massow (Dragoon Regiment No. 13) through 500 hussars, 6 December 1806 battles at Thorn, Biezun, Soldau; 1807 Battle of Schippenbeil, Battle of Prussian Eylau Lieutenant von Turau saved a gun; Battle of Spanden, Battle of Dietrichsdorf, Battle of Heilsberg The regiment opposes the French Gensd'armes d'elite.

Campaign in Courland

1812 Eckau, August 22nd, 1812 Dahlenkirchen, Lieutenant Kyckbusch throws himself with five dragoons at the Russian Tirailleurs and made 45 prisoners, Tomoszna, Bauske, Graefenthal, Dahlenkirchen, at Piktupönen it blows two squares, a cannon is captured on December 28th 1812 Battle of Ragnit.

Wars of Liberation 1813/15

1813

Together with the Queen Dragoons and the Grodno Hussars, around 1200 French cavalry were ridden down in the battle near Dannigkow with minor losses of their own (three officers, ten men, 19 horses). On April 7th, the regiment came to Corps York, fought near Merseburg, Großgörschen , Kolditz, Königswartha-Weißig, Waldau, (loss up to the armistice of Pläswitz , 610 men, 49 soldiers, 258 died from the exertions), Gröditzberg, Löwenberg. In the battle of the Katzbach , the 1st, 2nd and Jäger squadrons of the French reserve artillery removed thirty guns. When attacking a squarefour guns could also be captured. The own losses amounted to three officers, 89 men, 108 horses. On October 3rd the Dragoons fought near Wartenburg and on October 16th the regiment smashed a square of the 1st Guard Marinier Regiment near Möckern and captured its eagle (losses: one officer, 17 men, 28 horses).

1814

On January 11, 1814, the regiment fought at Saint-Avold . The 1st Squadron was deployed at Manheules on January 19th. Then the association took part in the fighting at La Chaussee, Chalons and Montmirail . At Chateau-Thierry there was a fight with the French guard cavalry (losses: one officer, 35 men, 28 horses). In the battle of Laon , the regiment reached the artillery park and captured nine artillery pieces and a war chest . After fighting at Sézanne , the regiment took part in the Battle of Paris on March 30th .

1815

The regiment was part of the reserve cavalry of the 5th Brigade under Gustav Kalixt von Biron . It is still on the march to France without taking part in combat operations. In the course of the year it took part in the Reich execution against Lippe. In total, the regiment suffered losses of seven officers, 22 non-commissioned officers, 247 men and 325 horses.

German War 1866

During the German War , the regiment was with the 1st Division and later formed the vanguard of the 1st Army Corps in the combined cavalry brigade. In the battle of Trautenau the 3rd and 5th and three platoons of the 1st Squadron fought against the Austrian Dragoon Regiment "Windischgrätz" and suffered losses of four officers, 73 men and 67 horses. The regiment also took part in the battles at Königgrätz and Tobitschau . In total, it lost five officers, 126 men and 219 horses during the war.

Franco-German War 1870/71

At the beginning of the war against France , the 1st and 4th Squadrons came into action on August 13, 1870 near Flanville. On August 14, the regiment took part in the Battle of Colombey and then it was used until October 27, 1870 in the enclosure and siege of Metz . During this time the federation fought on August 31/1. September also at the Battle of Noisseville . After the surrender of Metz, the regiment was used from 14 to 22 November 1870 in the enclosure of Mézières . The 3rd and 4th Squadrons fought at Amiens on November 27th . At Rougemontier , the 1st squadron managed two French squadrons on January 4, 1871Batteries as well as a fully-drawn ammunition wagon. [2]

First World War 1914/18

With the outbreak of World War I , the regiment mobilized as part of the 1st Cavalry Division and was deployed on the Eastern Front .

Whereabouts

After the end of the First World War , the regiment was demobilized and dissolved by June 1919.

The tradition was taken over in the Reichswehr by the 1st Squadron of the 1st (Prussian) Cavalry Regiment in Tilsit. In the Wehrmacht, the regimental staff and the 1st squadron of the 1st Cavalry Regiment in Insterburg continued the tradition.

Regimentskommandeure

Rank Name Date [3]
Oberst Anton Ludolph von Krosigk 19. April 1717
Oberst Franz Christoph von Friesenhausen March 31, 1721
Lieutenant colonel Wilhelm von Rappe 15. June 1727
Oberst Friedrich von Stosch 0 3. May 1737
Lieutenant colonel Friedrich von Truchseß 01. November 1744
Lieutenant colonel Joachim Wilhelm von Ahlimb January 19, 1746
Major Johann Heinrich Friedrich von Spaen April 17, 1754 to February 18, 1759
Major Carl Sigismund von Pogrell 1759 (in charge of the tour)
Major Heinrich Ernst von Loßberg until September 1860 (in charge of the tour)
Oberst Joachim Anton von Massow September 23, 1760 to November 29, 1762 [4]
Major Karl von Eberstein November 29, 1762 to October 27, 1778 [5]
Major / Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel / Major General Sylvius von Frankenberg and Proschlitz 0 November 6, 1778 to September 26, 1790
Colonel / Major General Joseph Albrecht von Biberstein September 26, 1790 to November 27, 1793
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Franz von Quoos November 27, 1793 to September 25, 1798 [6]
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Joseph Theodor Sigismund von Baczko 25. September 1798
Oberst Helmuth Dietrich von Maltzahn 18. November 1806
Major Gottlieb Wilhelm Christian von Platen 0 February 1, 1813 (in charge of the tour)
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Theodor von Below 1813
Lieutenant colonel Rudolph Hiller von Gaertringen 1815
vacancy 1827
Lieutenant colonel Wilhelm von Tietzen and Hennig 1828
Major Karl von Broesigke March 30, 1836 to January 13, 1837 (responsible for the tour)
Major Karl von Broesigke January 14, 1837 to March 29, 1839
Major Heinrich Gregorovius March 30, 1839 (in charge of the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Hans von Auerswald March 23, 1841
Major Karl von Dunker March 27, 1847 to March 8, 1848 (in charge of the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Otto von Trotta called Treyden 0 March 9, 1848 to August 7, 1854
Major/Oberstleutnant Eduard Kehler 0 October 5, 1854 to March 13, 1857
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Richard von Kalckreuth May 14, 1857 to September 15, 1862
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Otto von Bernhardi September 16, 1862 to March 21, 1868
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Ferdinand von Massow March 22, 1868 to December 1, 1871
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel August von Egloffstein December 17, 1871 to October 15, 1873
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Otto von Holtzendorff October 16, 1873 to August 4, 1875
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Richard Manché 0 August 5, 1875 to July 4, 1883
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Albert von Kemnitz 0 July 5, 1883 to January 16, 1888
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Hans von Meyer January 17, 1888 to July 27, 1892
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Gustav Kühls July 28, 1892 to May 13, 1894
Major Hans von Gersdorff May 14 to June 15, 1894 (in charge of the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Hans von Gersdorff June 16, 1894 to August 17, 1898
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Kuno von Ruppert August 18, 1898 to April 21, 1901
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Julius von Platen April 22, 1901 to September 9, 1908
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Wedig from Glasenapp September 10, 1908 to April 3, 1913
Lieutenant colonel Georg von Eicke and Pollwitz 0 April 4 to December 11, 1913
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Karl von Kanitz December 12, 1913 to March 21, 1918
Lieutenant colonel Hermann Osterroht March 22, 1918 to June 1919

Dragonerkaserne Tilsit

In the 1930s, the mighty barracks housed drawn artillery of the 1st Infantry Division and, after 1945, a Soviet motorized rifle regiment of the 40th Guards Panzer Division.

When the renovation of one of the now vacant barracks buildings began in autumn 2009, head-high reliefs and golden letters came to light that recall the numerous battles and skirmishes of the regiment since 1717. The city, the Russian Defense Ministry, local entrepreneurs and the Russian company “Tilsit” want to restore the 36 memorial plaques with heraldic decorations, iron crosses and Prussian eagles and set up a museum “Hall of Fame”. [1]

literature

  • Franz Alt: The royal Prussian standing army. Volume 2, p. 201 ff.
  • Otto Kähler : Experiences of the Littauian Dragoon Regiment No. 1 in the 1866 campaign against Austria. Hayn's heirs, Berlin 1869.
  • Otto Kähler 150 years of the Royal Prussian Litthau Dragoon Regiment No. 1 from its establishment on May 1, 1717 to the present day. ES Mittler & Sohn, Berlin 1867.
  • Eduard Lange: The soldiers of Frederick the Great , p.187ff
  • Herrmann Osterroht: History of the Dragoon Regiment Prince Albrecht of Prussia (Litthauisches) No. 1. 1717-1919. Berlin 1930, DNB 366857541
  • Alexander Sieg: History of the Dragoon Regiment Prince Albrecht of Prussia (Litthauisches) No. 1. 1867 to 1881. ES Mittler & Sohn , Berlin 1883.
  • Karl Wilhelm von Tyszka: History of the Royal Prussian 1st Dragoon Regiment since its foundation in 1717 up to the present day. Haberland, Rastenburg 1837.
  • Karl Wilhelm von Tyszka: Memories of the years 1812, 13, 14, 15, contain the history of the 1st Dragoon Regiment during these campaigns. Gumbinnen 1829.

Weblinks

Individual evidence

  1. a b Hans Dzieran: Double surprise on the Memel. German memorial plaques were discovered in Tilsit's Dragoon Barracks - and the Russians want to restore them. in: Preussische Allgemeine Zeitung (The Ostpreußenblatt). No. 49, December 5, 2009, p. 13.
  2. ^ Moritz von Kaisenberg, Emil Buxbaum : The German Rider Regiments Ehrentage. Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1909, pp. 51–52.
  3. ^ Günter Wegmann (ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 3: The occupation of the active regiments, battalions and departments from the foundation or list up to August 26, 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1993, ISBN 3-7648-2413-1 , pp. 44–46.
  4. ^ Collection of unprinted messages. Volume 3, p. 19.
  5. Louis Ferdinand Eberstein: History of the barons of Eberstein. Volume 1, p. 1185.
  6. Gothaisches genealogical pocket book of noble houses. Gotha 1904, p. 689.