Are hot - Están calientes
The etching They are hot is an engraving from the Los Caprichos series by the Spanish painter Francisco de Goya . It is numbered with the number 13 in the series of 80 stamps. It was published in 1799.
Interpretations of the print
There are several contemporary manuscripts that explain the plates of the Caprichos. The one in the Prado Museum is taken as Goya's autograph, but it seems rather to mislead and look for a moralizing meaning that conceals riskier meanings for the author. Two others, the one that belonged to Ayala and the one in the National Library, highlight the most rugged part of the plates. [ 1 ]
- Explanation of this print from the Prado Museum manuscript: They are in such a hurry to swallow it that they are swallowed boiling. Even in the use of pleasures, temperance and moderation are necessary. [ 2 ]
- Ayala Manuscript: The stupid friars hang out, back at their hours, in the refectories, laughing at the world; What to do but be hot! [ 2 ]
- Manuscript of the National Library: The stupid friars dock well in their refectories, and laugh at the world; What to do next if they are not hot! [ 2 ]
We find ourselves before an engraving of strong clerical allusions. The friars are in the refectory eating with cadaverous heads and their mouths extremely open, highlighting the spoons and the way of swallowing the soup. In the background, a layman reinforces the feeling of copious food by carrying a tray that appears to be full. [ 3 ]
The title of the scene contains a double meaning where irony prevails. According to Helman, this engraving is a graphic summary of the illustrated thought that Samaniego reflected with the bees and the drones when alluding to the abundance: With which the provid swarm maintains as much fat drone as it has . [ 4 ]
There are three preparatory drawings. The first study, number 63 of Album B, is a wash in India ink with the inscription Cheerful caricature . The clergyman on the left has a huge nose that recalls the cartoons of Tiepolo and his son. In the second study the meaning of the inscription changes and it says Dream of some men who ate us(corresponds to Dream 25). In this second drawing the subject acquires critical features and loses the caricature tone of the previous one. In the third study, with the red wash, he acquires the final forms of the print by suppressing a figure. The picture is further dramatized with the figure on the right that goes from having a friendly smile to expressing cruelty, reinforcing the meaning of the entire scene. They are clarified and allow the spoons and utensils on the table to stand out. The chiaroscuro and violent lights of the figure on the left intensify. [ 5 ]
Point out other aspects that in the succession of the preparatory drawings have been reinforcing the message that Goya wants to convey: the initially small table that did not give the impression of great food gets longer; some utensils disappear from the table that contributed to misleading; It can be seen in the preparatory drawings how faces and shapes are sought that convey ferocity.
- Camon Aznar, José. Francisco de Goya, volume III . Savings Bank of Zaragoza, Aragon and Rioja. Camon Aznar Institute. ISBN 84-500-5016-2 .
- Carrete Parrondo, Juan (1994). «Francisco de Goya. Whims". Goya. Whims. Drawings and Etchings . Central Hispano. RAde Fine Arts of San Fernando. National intaglio. ISBN 84-604-9323-7 .
- Casariego, Rafael (1988). Francisco de Goya, Los Caprichos . Madrid: Editions of art and bibliophilia. ISBN 84-86630-11-8 .
- Chalcography Studies Office. Barrena Clemente, Blas Javier, Matilla José Manuel, Villar José Luís and Villena Elvira (1994). "Drawings and Prints". Goya. Whims. Drawings and Etchings . Central Hispano. RAde Fine Arts of San Fernando. National intaglio. ISBN 84-604-9323-7 .
- Helman, Edith (1983). Goya's Transmundo . Madrid: Editorial Alliance. ISBN 84-206-7032-4 .
- Helman, op. cit., p. 54
- Helman, op. cit., p. 216
- Camon, op. cit., pp. 51y 86
- Casariego, op. cit., print 13
- Sánchez Catón, op. cit., p.75