|Other names|| Soccer |
|First competition|| December 19, 1863 (157 years) |
in Limes Field, Mortlake , London , England , United Kingdom [ 1 ]
|Country of origin||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|Members per team||11 players on the pitch and 3 substitutes in official FIFA matches (6 substitutes in national matches and others)|
|Gender||Male and female|
|Accessories||ball , gloves , football boots , shin guards , shorts, t-shirt, socks.|
Rectangular grass pitch 90 × 45 m or up to 120 × 90 m |
|Duration of the meeting||90 min. (2 parts of 45 min.)|
|Score format||Goals (1 point)|
|Meta||Goal , 7.32 × 2.44 m|
|Olympic|| Male : since 1900 |
Female : since 1996
The soccer or football [ 2 ] (from the British English football , translated as football ) [ 3 ] is a sport of equipment played between two teams of eleven players each and some referees dealing with that standards are met properly. It is widely considered the most popular sport in the world, with some 270 million people practicing it. [ 4 ] It is also known as association football or association football , a name derived fromThe Football Association , the first official federation in the world in this sport and that used that name to distinguish it from other sports that include the word "soccer" or " football ". [ 5 ] In some English-speaking countries it is also known as soccer , short for association , since the name of football in those countries is mostly associated with other sports with that name (mainly in the United States , where the name football applies for American football , a totally different sport).
The playing field is rectangular with natural or artificial grass , with a goal or arch on each side of the field. It is played with a ball that must be moved across the field with any part of the body other than the arms or hands, and mostly with the feet (hence its name). The objective is to introduce it into the opposing goal or goal , an action called scoring a goal . The team that achieves the most goals at the end of the match, which lasts 90 minutes , is the one that wins the match.
The modern game was reinvented in England following the formation of the Football Association , whose rules of 1863 are the basis of sport today. The governing body of football is the International Federation of Association Football , better known by its acronym FIFA. The most prestigious international soccer competition is the Soccer World Cup , organized every four years by that body. This event is the most famous and the one with the largest number of spectators in the world, doubling the audience of the Olympic Games . [ 6 ]
Nature of the game
Soccer is played by following a series of rules, officially called the rules of the game . This sport is practiced with a spherical ball (made of leather or other material with a circumference not greater than 70 cm and not less than 68 cm, and a weight of not more than 450 g and not less than 410 g at the beginning of the match), where two teams of eleven players each (ten "field" players and a goalkeeper) compete to fit the same in the rival goal, thus scoring a goal . The team that has scored the most goals at the end of the match is the winner; If both teams do not score, or score the same number of goals, then a draw is declared. There may be exceptions to this rule; see Duration and result below.
In a typical game, players try to get the ball to the opponent's goal, which is called a goal, through individual control of it, known as dribbling , or passes to teammates or shots to the goal, which is protected by a goalkeeper. Opposing players attempt to regain control of the ball by intercepting passes or taking the ball away from the player carrying it; however, physical contact is limited. Play in soccer flows freely, stopping only when the ball leaves the field of play or when the referee decides that it should be stopped. After each pause, the game is restarted with a specific move. At the end of the match, the referee compensates the total time in minutes that the game was suspended at different times.
On a professional level, in most matches only a few goals are scored. For example, during the 2006/07 season of the Spanish First Division , the Spanish soccer league , an average of 2.48 goals was scored per game. [ 7 ]
The rules do not specify any other position of the players apart from that of the goalkeeper, goalkeeper or goalkeeper, but over time a number of positions have developed in the rest of the field. Broadly speaking, three main categories are identified: the forwards , whose main task is to score goals; the defenders or defenders , located near their goal, who try to stop the rival forwards; and the midfielders, midfielders or flyers, who handle the ball between the previous positions. These players are known as field players, to differentiate them from the goalkeeper. In turn, these positions are subdivided into the sides of the field where the players play most of the time. Thus, for example, there may be right, central (containment) and left midfielders. The ten outfield players can be arranged in any combination. For example, there may be four defenders, four midfielders and two forwards (4-4-2); o three defenders, four midfielders and three forwards (3-4-3), and the number of players in each position determines the style of play of the team: more forwards and fewer defenders (for example 3-3-4) will create a game more aggressive and offensive, while the opposite (for example 5-3-2) will generate a slower and defensive game. Although players tend to stay most of the time in one position, there are few restrictions on their movement on the field. The scheme of the players on the field of play is called the team formation, and this, together with the tactics, is the job of the team.coach .
Tactical position of the players
Goalkeeper, goalkeeper or goalkeeper
The goalkeeper, also known as a goalkeeper, goalkeeper or goalkeeper, is the player whose main objective is to prevent the ball from entering his goal during the game, an act known as a goal . The goalkeeper is the only player who can touch the ball with his hands during active play, although only within his own area. Each team must have only one goalkeeper in their line-up. In the event that the player must leave the field of play for any reason, he must be substituted by another footballer, either one who is playing or a substitute. These types of players must wear different clothing than their teammates, their rivals (including the goalkeeper) and the refereeing body. They usually wear the number 1 printed on the shirt.
The defender, also known as a defender, is the player located one line in front of the goalkeeper and one behind the midfielders , whose main objective is to stop the opponent's team's attacks. Generally this line of players is in an arched shape , with some defenders being closer to the goalkeeper than the others. If only one player is located further back, they are called Libero; if there are two or more, they are called defenders. Defenders positioned on the sides of the field are called laterals or stoppers (in the case of a libero), and due to their placement (closer to the midfielders) they can advance further on the field if they wish. To name them, the zone is added to the word defense: for example, a defender who plays on the right (looking towards the opponent's goal) would be a right back. Also the goalkeeper must protect and give instructions to the defenders.
The midfielder, midfielder or midfielder is the person who plays in the midfield on a soccer field. Among its functions are those of recovering balls, promoting the creation of plays and exploiting the offensive game. According to these functions we can distinguish: the lane flyers (those who play closer to the touch line); the containment players , who play almost at the same height as the full backs to contribute to the defense and can be one or two players (the nickname "Five" given to these players is because it is the number they usually wear on the shirt); and those of creation or hooks, who are located between the line of the wingers and forwards (they are the brain of the attack and are characterized by their ability).
A striker or attacker is a player of a soccer team who stands out in the attacking position, the closest to the goal of the rival team, and is therefore the main responsible for scoring goals. It is very important to be on the move and always look for a pass, that is, to stand out so that it is easier for the ball carrier to pass it. Speed is essential.
Soccer includes a very important physical activity . During a 90-minute professional soccer game, a player, depending on his position and the size of the field, travels between 12 and 15 km . [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] Also during a match of similar characteristics, a player loses about 2 kg of liquid, some of which are recovered during the rest time. [ 11 ] In games that are played with high temperatures, the refereesthey have the right to stop the match, usually in the middle of a period, so that the players and the refereeing body hydrate. [ 12 ]
But at the same time, soccer is one of the sports with the highest number of injuries, [ 13 ] although most of them are not serious. The most common injuries occur in the knees and ankles , due to the rotational movements to which they are subjected. Breaks menisci and ligaments crossed with the muscle tears, are common injuries in football. The chances of injury increase when the player does not receive adequate physical preparation, particularly in an amateur athlete, and when the game takes place on uneven ground. For professional or semi-professional footballers, the presence of a physical trainer who regulates the type of physical exercise, as well as its duration and regularity, is of vital importance. The work of the physical trainer must be complemented with a correct diet , where the presence of a professional in the field is also recommended.
Soccer players must be able to control the balls they receive. The easiest way is usually to stop the ball; in this case, the ball should be placed in the ideal position for the next hit. Advanced players can use the first touch to quickly move the ball to where they plan to run. They can also use the first touch to pass the ball. Avoiding the ball instead of receiving it can mislead opposing players.
It is an action widely used during a match, with the aim of receiving the ball, controlling it and putting it at your service to develop a subsequent action in good condition. The reception in stop is one in which the ball is fully controlled at the feet, losing the speed component but increasing the precision in the subsequent handling of the ball.
The half-stop reception is to make the ball lose part of its initial value. Damping reception is used to control aerial balls, with a downward trajectory, and there is a damping of the acceleration with which the ball arrives.
The control of the ball can be at ground level, or with the inner face of the boot, or with the sole of the foot, with the tip up and fitting the ball between the sole and the ground. In high balls, you must get the ball to the ground with the possibility of being played properly.
To maintain possession of the ball it is essential to have the ability to pass it short between nearby players accurately and on time. Accurate long passes allow for a greater variety of situations and more direct play. Generally, the passes that create scoring chances are called assist, although any player on the field could make this type of play, it is generally an offensive midfielder who does it, it is the usual job of the players marked with 10 or 8 in their t-shirts.
Players must have a balance when it comes to shooting on goal: neither do it too many times nor stop trying when they have the chance. Shots should be accurate and powerful, although this precision and power is generally not achieved at the same time. Choosing precision or power depends on the situation and the characteristics of the player.
Choosing where to shoot on the goal is a controversial issue and depends on how many players are covering it. When the player faces the goalkeeper alone, the shots should be placed near one of the posts. Ideally, the shot should be aimed at the squad, but it is less difficult and also effective to do it at ground level. When the goalkeeper is too far ahead, a balloon can be attempted .
Humanity has played various ball games throughout its history, since ancient times . It is known that this entertainment existed both in the culture of the Mediterranean Sea and in America . [ 15 ] The oldest and most revealing find dates back to a relief from Ancient Greece (400 BC), where a man holds a ball on his thigh. This sport was episkyros , [ 16 ] [ 17 ] which was played with a leather ball painted with bright colors and two teams of 12 to 14 players. the FIFArecognized it as one of the oldest forms of current football. [ 18 ] Later, in Rome, it received the name of harpastum . [ 19 ]
In Europe, already at the end of the Middle Ages and later centuries, different team games were developed in the British Isles and surrounding areas, which were known as football codes . These codes were uniting with the passage of time, but in the second half of the seventeenth century when the first great unifications of soccer occurred, which later gave rise to football rugby to the football , to the Australian football and sport which today is known in much of the world as plain football. [ citation required ]
In other areas of the world, games were also played in which a ball was kicked with the feet. Among them we can mention the Jesuit Reductions of the Guaraní area , more specifically in that of San Ignacio Miní in the seventeenth century, in the region that is now known as Misiones . The Spanish Jesuit José Manuel Peramás wrote in his book De vita et moribus tredecim virorum paraguaycorum: «They also used to play with a ball, which, even though it was made of full rubber, was so light and fast that, each time it was hit, it continued to bounce for some time, without stopping, driven by its own weight. They did not throw the ball with their hands, as we do, but with the upper part of their bare feet, passing it and receiving it with great agility and precision ». [ citation required ]
The first British codes were characterized by having few rules and by their extreme violence. [ 20 ] One of the most popular was carnival football . For this reason carnival football was banned in England by decree of King Edward III and remained banned for 500 years. [ 21 ] Carnival football was not the only code of the time; in fact there were other more organized, less violent codes that even developed outside the British Isles. One of the best known games was the Florentine Calcium , originally from the city of Florence (Italy ). This sport influenced current football in various aspects, not only because of its rules, but also because of the party atmosphere in which these matches were played. [ 22 ]
Unifications of the 19th century
British schools were divided over the Rugby Code; while several decided to follow him, others decided to reject him because their practice was not to touch the ball with the hand. Among the latter colleges were those of Eton , Harrow , Winchester , Charterhouse, and Westminster . [ 23 ]
In the middle of the 19th century , the first steps were taken to unify all football codes into one. The first attempt was in 1848 , when at Cambridge University , Henry de Winton and John Charles Thring appealed to members of other schools to regulate a new code, the Cambridge Code , also known as the Cambridge Rules. [ 24 ] The rules bore an important resemblance to today's soccer rules. Perhaps the most important of all was the limitation of the hands to touch the ball , passing the responsibility of transferring it to the feet. The object of the game was to pass a ball between two vertical posts and under a ribbon that joined them, and the team that scored the most goals was the winner. Even a rule was created out of play similar to the present. [ 25 ] The original 1848 documents are lost, but a copy of the 1856 rules is preserved . [ 26 ] Between 1857 and 1878 a football code was used that would also add characteristics to modern football: the Sheffield Code, also known as the Sheffield Rules. The code, created by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, adopted rules that are reflected in today's football, such as the use of a crossbar (horizontal post) of rigid material, instead of the tape that was used until now. Utilization was also adopted free kicks , corner kicks and throw - ins as methods resumption of the game. [ 27 ]
While these unifications of soccer made several breakthroughs for the creation of modern soccer, the day of his birth is considered to be October 26 , 1863 , when The Football Association first met. [ 28 ] On that day, Ebenezer Cobb Morley initiated a series of six meetings between twelve clubs from different London schools at Freemason's Tavern , with the aim of creating a universal and definitive soccer code, which would have the acceptance of the majority.
Finalized meetings, December 8 , eleven of the twelve clubs reached consensus to establish 14 rules of the new code, which would be called football association ( association football in English ), to differentiate it from other codes of soccer of the time . Only the Blackheath club refused to create these rules, which would later become one of the creators of another famous sport, rugby . [ 29 ]
The regulation used as the basis for football was the Cambridge Code , except for two points in it, which were considered very important for current codes: the use of the hands to transfer the ball and the use of the tackles (physical contact abrupt to take the ball away from the opponent) against opponents. This was the reason for leaving the Blackheath club.
Together with the creation of the new code, The Football Association (FA) was created, the body that governs football in England to this day . At that time, students in English schools developed the abbreviations "rugger" and "soccer" (derived from "as soc iation") to designate both sports: rugby and football, respectively. With this last term, soccer is mostly known in the United States . [ 30 ]
With football well defined, the first matches with this new code began to be played.
The 20 of July of 1871 , a British newspaper announced the creation of an organized tournament for the FA, the first step in the creation of the FA Cup . [ 31 ] That year, the FA was composed of 50 teams, but only 12 decided to participate in the first edition of the tournament, [ 32 ] 1871 - 1872 , which was won by Wanderers FC. [ 33 ] On November 30 , 1872 , Scotland and England disputed thefirst official match between national teams , a match that ended in a goalless draw. The match was played at the Hamilton Crescent, now a cricket ground , in Partick, Scotland . [ 34 ]
Between January and March 1884 , the first edition of the British Home Championship was played , which until its disappearance in 1984 was the oldest national team tournament in history. The first title corresponded to Scotland . [ 35 ] The first competition of league arrived in season 1888 - 1889 with the creation of the Football League . Twelve FA-affiliated teams participated, each playing a total of 22 matches. This tournament was in the hands of the Preston North End Football Club , which also achieved it without being defeated. [ 36 ]
Over the years, football expanded rapidly in the British Isles , where new football associations were created, apart from the English one (founded in 1863 ), which represented the four regions of the then United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland : the Scottish Football Association ( Scotland , 1873 ), the Football Association of Wales ( Wales , 1876 ) and the Irish Football Association ( Ireland , 1880 ). [ 37 ] In the lateIn the 1880s football began to expand rapidly outside the UK , mainly due to the international influence of the British Empire . The first countries to start their football associations were Denmark and the Netherlands ( 1889 ), [ 37 ] which were later joined by the associations of New Zealand ( 1891 ), Argentina ( 1893 ), Belgium , Chile and Switzerland ( 1895 ), Italy ( 1898 ),Germany and Uruguay ( 1900 ), Hungary ( 1901 ), Norway ( 1902 ), Sweden ( 1904 ) and Spain ( 1913 ). [ 37 ] [ 38 ]
The rise of soccer worldwide led to the creation of FIFA on May 21 , 1904 . The founding associations were Belgium , Spain (represented by Madrid FC ), Denmark , France , the Netherlands , Sweden and Switzerland . The four football associations in the United Kingdom , the so-called Home Nations , opposed the creation of such a body. [ 38 ] Due to the growth of football, FIFAhad announced the first international competition of selections for 1906 , but due to internal problems of several associations it did not take place. [ 38 ] Soccer had already been introduced to the world through a series of exhibition matches during the Olympic Games of 1900 , 1904 , 1906 (interleaved games), all at club level, until the 1908 edition received by first time a national team competition. The gold medal went to the United Kingdom football team .
In 1916 the South American Football Confederation (Conmebol) was founded , which that same year organized the first edition of the South American Football Championship, current Copa América - this tournament remains the oldest in the history of football at the level of national teams, the ones that still exist. [ 39 ] In that first edition Argentina , Brazil , Chile and Uruguay participated , the latter being the champion.
The World War set back the development of football, but the editions of 1924 and 1928 of the Olympic Games revitalized the sport, in particular the actions of the Uruguayan national team . This new growth of soccer motivated that the FIFA confirmed the 28 of maypole in 1928 in Amsterdam the realization of a world championship teams , whose seat would be confirmed on 18 of maypole of 1929 at the congress in Barcelona . Uruguay would host thefirst edition of the Soccer World Cup , to be held in conjunction with the 100th anniversary of the first Uruguayan Constitution . The Uruguayan team won the first title in the history of the competition. The second edition of the tournament was held in 1934 in Italy , and was used by the dictator Benito Mussolini as propaganda for his regime. The competition was lackluster due to the intervention of Mussolini, who did everything for his Italian team to win the tournament, even threatening the referees in the final. [ 40] Thethird editionof the tournament was also lackluster due to Mussolini, who before the final betweenItalyandHungarysent atelegramto his team threatening them with death. Finally the Azzurri , who wore a completely uniformblackrepresenting theParty National Fascista, won the final by 4 goals to 2. [ 41 ]
The Second World War also had a similar effect on soccer. In 1946 the Home Nations , which had withdrawn from FIFA after the First World War , returned to the international body. The October of maypole of 1947 is considered a date of vital importance for the resurgence of FIFA and world football, thanks to the accomplishment of the friendly encounter between British selection and combined footballers Europeans , the Rest of Europe XI in the called Party of the Century . The match was played inHampden Park , Glasgow , Scotland , in front of 135,000 spectators. The British team won the match with a score of 6 goals to 1, and the proceeds from the match were donated to FIFA to help them relaunch it. [ 38 ] The first edition of the World Cup after World War II took place in Brazil during 1950 . The triumph of the Uruguayan team in the remembered Maracanazo crowned the resurgence of FIFA and world football.
Denomination: from "football" to soccer
The Castilianization of the word occurs at the beginning of the 20th century. [ 42 ] [ page needed ] The game of ball or football, which is already quite popular in England, appears for the first time in Spain a graphic magazine in 1868. The magazine "Panorama", published in Valencia between 1867 and 1869, included a small report of curiosities speaking for the first time about English "football" in its issue of April 30, 1868, and incorporating a graphic illustration of it. [ 43 ]
From then on, the game of football began to spread in Spain and other Latin American countries (Argentina, Paraguay) and there are many references to this game, using the original name. [ 44 ] By then the first clubs and teams in Spain and Argentina incorporated the English word into their original names. The names Sport Club, Sporting Club, Racing Club, Athletic Club, Recreation Club or Foot-ball Club that accompanied the town they represented are very common . [ 18 ] In 1908, Mariano de Cavia proposed that the new game be called "football" [ 45 ]And in September of that same year some new teams incorporated it, such as the recently created "Sevilla Balompié", an immediate antecedent to Real Betis Balompié. [ 46 ]
In 1922, the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language, at the request of Gabriel Maura y Gamazo , who was president of the Royal Spanish Football Federation, incorporated the word "soccer" without an accent, although the English name was still used assiduously. With the arrival of the Republic, in 1931, the Spanish Federation definitively incorporated the word "football" into its name and began to use it assiduously, making it official. [ 18 ]
At the end of the Civil War there was a clear policy of "Castilianization" and "purification" of the Franco regime of all words and words, including foreign ones. Through the Order of the Ministry of the Interior of May 16, 1940, [ 47 ] the use of foreign generic words was prohibited in all types of signs, posters and public spaces, which led to the definitive change towards the name "soccer" both about the clubs and their communication, using de facto all those words from the lexicon that had already been incorporated by the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy.
The National Sports Council, under whose command was the Spanish Football Federation, imposed an idiomatic cleanup on all the national federations, unifying the football terminology through a decision taken on December 20, 1940. [ 18 ]The Federation transferred the will of the government to its associates through federative circular 3. 149, communicated on December 21, 1940, by which all clubs were obliged to change their name, which had to be done before February 1 1941. This is how Real Madrid FC became Real Madrid CF, FC Barcelona became CF Barcelona, Valencia FC became Valencia CF, Athletic Club became Atlético de Bilbao and Athletic-Aviación Club became Club Atlético-Aviación, while others, such as Real Sporting de Gijón or Real Santander Racing Club stayed in Real Gijón and Real Santander SD. From that moment on, the football lexicon was completely unified, adopting by the media and football institutions much of the terminology that has reached the 21st century.
The second half of the 20th century would be the time of greatest growth in football. South American football was already organized since 1916 , the year in which the South American Football Confederation was founded , but the sport in other areas would begin to group in the 1950s and 60s . In 1954 European and Asian football was organized into the Union of European Football Associations and the Asian Football Confederation.respectively. In Europe, the clubs with the largest budgets are consolidated, most of them founded at the end of the s. XIX, but they reached great levels of success in the second half of the s. XX. Among them, the Spanish club Real Madrid Club de Fútbol stands out , declared by FIFA "Best Club in the World in the 20th century". In Africa the African Football Confederation was founded in 1957 ; in America North , Central and Caribbean , the Concacaf in 1961 ; and finally in Oceania , the Oceania Football Confederation in 1966. These organizations would be affiliated with FIFA under the name of confederations .
In parallel with the creations of the new confederations, the first regional team tournaments began to be played, except for the South American Football Confederation , which was already contesting its South American National Team Championship since 1916 . In 1956 the Asian Football Confederation held the first edition of the Asian Cup , and the following year the African Football Confederation organized the African Cup of Nations . In 1960 the Eurocup is created , which brings together the UEFA teams . For its part,Concacaf would contest the Concacaf Cup for the first time in 1963 , which would later be replaced by the Gold Cup . The Oceania Football Confederation would be the last to create its own tournament, the OFC Nations Cup , first held in 1973 .
Due to the creation of the confederations, the first international championships at club level began to be played, the first of its kind being the South American Championship of Champions , which brought together seven teams from South America. Then came the UEFA Champions League , which brings together the various champions of the main leagues of the UEFA countries from 1955 onwards . Five years later the Copa Libertadores de América began , the maximum event for clubs affiliated to CONMEBOL , which was played for the first time in 1960 .
That same year the first edition of the Intercontinental Cup was held , which brought together the champions of the continental tournaments in South America and Europe. This tournament was replaced in 2005 by the FIFA Club World Cup , which also hosted the champions of the other confederations.
Development in the world
According to a survey carried out by FIFA in 2006 , [ 4 ] approximately 270 million people in the world are actively involved in football, including footballers, referees and managers. Of these, 265 million play soccer regularly in a professional , semi-professional or amateur way , considering both men , women , youth and children . This figure represents around 4% of the world's population. The confederation with the highest percentage of people actively involved with football is theConcacaf , with 8.53% of the population. Its counterpart occurs in the AFC area , where the percentage is only 2.22%. The UEFA has a participation rate of 7.59%; the CONMEBOL of 7.47%; the OFC of 4.68%; and the African Football Confederation of 5.16%. There are more than 1.7 million teams in the world and approximately 301,000 clubs. [ 48 ]
The country with the most regular footballers (except for children) is China , which has 26.1 million footballers. They are followed by: the United States (24.4 million), India (20.5), Germany (16.3), Brazil (13.1), Colombia (9.2) and Mexico (8.4). On the other hand, the Federations with the least amount of regular footballers (except children) are Montserrat , with 300 footballers, the British Virgin Islands (658), Anguilla (760) and the Turks and Caicos Islands (950).
The women 's game has had slow growth in modern soccer, mainly by social and cultural barriers that prevent the full entry of women to the sport. [ 49 ] The first recorded women's match under association football rules took place in 1892 in Glasgow , Scotland . [ 50 ] At the end of 1921, women's football was banned in England , a fact that did not allow it to expand to the rest of the world. In 1969 women's football was reorganized in England, which is why it began to expand outside its territory. The first international match of women's soccer teams occurred in 1972 , coincidentally 100 years after the first men's match , where England beat Scotland 3-2. [ 51 ] The first world tournaments began to be played in the 1990s : the Cup Women's Soccer World Cup since 1991 and as a sport of the Olympic Games since 1996 .
According to a survey conducted by FIFA , there are around 26 million female players in the world. On average, for every 10 footballers (of both sexes) there is a female footballer in the world. [ 4 ]
According to estimates by FIFA , during the period 2003 - 2006 that body had revenues of 3238 million Swiss francs (CHF) [ 52 ] and expenses CHF 2422 million, giving a surplus of 816 million Swiss francs. 92% (CHF 2.986 million) of revenues are related to international competitions, particularly the television broadcast of the 2006 Football World Cup , which comprises CHF 1.66 billion of that value. The rest of the income is divided equally between financial income and other operating income. Of the total revenue, CHF 714 million is earned from rights tomerchandising . Much of this revenue comes from outlets around the World Cup Soccer stadiums . [ 53 ] Regarding expenses, 69% (CHF 1,682 million) of them are dedicated to the organization of championships and the development of the sport: 46% of the total expenses (CHF 1,125 million) and a 23% (CHF 557 million) respectively. 26% (622 million CHF) was dedicated to operating expenses, such as transportation, rentals, legal expenses, communications, among others. The other 5% (CHF 118 million) is due to currency exchange and interest effects. [ 54 ]
The budgets of football clubs can be found in different values depending on the area of the world where they are located. The largest budgets can be found in Europe , particularly in the major leagues in Germany , Spain , Italy and England . [ 55 ] In much of South America, the highest revenues are due to the transfer of players to European leagues , funds contributed by television broadcasts and advertising on T-shirts. [ 56 ] [ 57] On theEuropean side, television rights, advertising, ticket sales andmerchandisingcover a large part of the budget. [ 58 ] [ 59 ]
Soccer also plays a supportive role. One of FIFA's main contributions to the development of sport in areas where this is difficult due to a lack of materials and development techniques is the Goal Program . On the other hand, FIFA has been working with UNICEF since 1999 , providing working material related to football so that it can be distributed by this United Nations organization . [ 60 ] Friendly matches for charitable purposes are regularly held around the world, the promoters of which are often world soccer stars. [ 61 ] 
A transfer or transfer is understood to mean the transfer of a footballer from one club to another in exchange for an economic sum paid by the receiving club to the player to whom it is delivered. Some of these signings can reach very high prices. The ten most expensive signings in the history of football are as follows: [ 64 ]
- In bold active players in your destination club
|Position||Year||Soccer player||Nationality||Club of origin||Destination club||Value in millions ( € )|
|1||2017||Neymar||Brazil||FC Barcelona||Paris Saint Germain||222|
|2||2017||Kylian Mbappe||France||AS Monaco||Paris Saint Germain||180|
|3||2019||Joao Felix||Portugal||S. L. Benfica||Atlético de Madrid||126|
|4||2018||Philippe Coutinho||Brazil||Liverpool FC||FC Barcelona||120|
|2016||Paul pogba||France||Juventus||Manchester United||120|
|2019||Antoine Griezmann||France||Atlético de Madrid||FC Barcelona||120|
|7||2018||Cristiano Ronaldo||Portugal||Real Madrid||Juventus||112|
|8||2017||Ousmane Dembele||France||Borussia Dortmund||FC Barcelona||105|
|9||2013||Gareth Bale||Gales||Tottenham Hotspur||Real Madrid||101|
|10||2019||Eden Hazard||Belgium||Chelsea F.C.||Real Madrid||100|
- The signing of Gareth Bale is valued at 91.5 million according to the Spanish press, although the English media (including the official Tottenham Hotspur website ) assure that it was 101 million.
The fight against doping in football dates back to 1966 , when FIFA became one of the first international federations to create rules to control it. [ 71 ] Every year, 20,000 anti-doping tests are carried out on soccer players around the world, of which between 80 and 90 are positive, mostly for the use of cocaine or cannabis . [ 72 ] Positive doping is understood to be the following:
Only speak of a positive doping result if the laboratory identifies the presence of a prohibited substance, its metabolites, markers or evidence of the use of a prohibited method that has not been approved by a TUE (Exemption for Therapeutic Use) or when they do not originate naturally in the body. [ 73 ]
The procedure for a doping test begins at the half-time of a match, when two players per team are drawn. Fifteen minutes before the end of the meeting, an envelope is given to him or to the delegates on the field, identified by a white vest with a green cross, who randomly choose two of them (one per team). Once the match is over, they will inform the two chosen players that they must go to the test area to be controlled. Players sent off during the match may also be cited. Later the selected players will have to give a urine sample. Prior to this, the selected ones cannot enter their changing rooms, but they can enter a room where they can drink non-alcoholic beverages and even take a shower. The sample taken by a professional of the same sex as the player's is sent to a laboratory for analysis. [ 74 ]
In the event that the sample tests positive, the report on it is sent to the FIFA Doping Control Subcommittee , which investigates the veracity of the study and, once approved, passes to the director of doping control of the FIFA FIFA, which will verify the information to authorize its submission to the Disciplinary Committee, the Sports Medicine Committee and the association to which the player belongs. The Disciplinary Commission will decide what penalty is applied to the player. [ 75 ]
Perhaps the best known case of doping in soccer was that of Diego Armando Maradona , who after a match for the 1994 Soccer World Cup in the United States was selected for the test. His sample was positive and he was sentenced to 15 months. [ 76 ]
The violence in soccer is almost as old as the sport itself. Its origins date back to carnival football matches during the Middle Ages , which were characterized by having no rules and the excessive use of violence. In 1314 , the first prohibition of this sport was made, to avoid the growing wave of violence that it produced. [ 77 ] The first appearance of violence in modern football, from 1863 onwards, occurred in 1885 , when an encounter between the English teams of Preston North End and Aston Villaended with a brutal fight between players from both teams. [ 78 ]
The violent groups of a fan are called by various names, but some stand out such as barra bravas , hooligans or ultras . For example, in Argentina there have been more than two hundred deaths related to incidents on and around soccer fields. [ 79 ] In Italy , the violence of the so-called Italian ultras is characterized by their racist insults and even by the manufacture of weapons for the battles they carry out before, during and after the encounters. [ 80 ]
Violence in soccer has generated even worse things, such as the so-called Soccer War . This conflict was exacerbated by the series of matches played by the soccer teams of El Salvador and Honduras . The matches were valid for the qualification for the 1970 Soccer World Cup , to be played in Mexico . [ 81 ]
To avoid these evils of soccer, FIFA promotes a called campaign Fair Play or guidelines , which invites participants of the sport to show values that make football grow. [ 82 ] Annually, the same body awards one or more awards to individuals, clubs, associations or entities of any kind that transmit the values of Fair Play . [ 83 ]
Off the court, they have also been instances: Mexican referee Adalid Maganda was a victim of attitudes of racism by the public, the players, arbitration ( Arbitration Commission ) and the Mexican Football Federation . [ 84 ]
Culture is the set of expressions of a society, and as such football is not exempt from it. One of the institutes that promote football as a culture internationally is the Goethe-Institut , which has held exhibitions around the world whose themes were football. [ 85 ]
An important sample of culture occurred during the 2006 Soccer World Cup in Germany . The Walk of Ideas was a sample exhibited in that country during that year, which consisted of a series of plastic works that represented Germany, one of them being a pair of soccer shoes.
The graphic design contributes its part to the culture of this sport, since the design of posters and other graphic elements must represent the country where the competition to which they were assigned such work is done. Works such as those of the Argentine graphic humorist and writer Roberto Fontanarrosa are also worth highlighting , since many of them were related to football. [ 86 ]
The relationship with literature was more problematic. Having been popularly rejected by writers since its inception, it was only in the 1960s and 1970s that writers approached the world of football. [ 87 ] This approach can be related to the rise of semiotic studies, which revalued mass and popular cultural manifestations. [ 88 ]
In cinema and television you often see content related to this sport. As for the first, there are many films dedicated to this game, although few created with the support of FIFA . Among the best known, the trilogy ¡Goool! : Goool! ( 2005 ), Goool! 2: Living the Dream ( 2007 ) and Goool! 3: The Final Game ( 2008 ), all supported by FIFA . [ 89 ] FIFA also released a film related to the 2006 Soccer World Cup . [90 ] On television, one can highlight animated series such as the anime Captain Tsubasa , which practically popularized soccer in that country; Mexican [ 91 ] and Argentine [ 92 ] productions that take it as a main or secondary ingredientcan also be mentioned.
The relationship between video games and soccer is very fruitful. One of the first successful soccer video games was Pele's Soccer on the Atari 2600 console . [ 93 ] Many editions became classics, such as the FIFA Series , Pro Evolution Soccer / Winning Eleven, and PC Soccer .
The rules of the game
Soccer is regulated by 17 laws or rules, which are used universally, although within them certain modifications are allowed to facilitate the development of women's , children's and senior soccer . Although the rules are clearly defined, there are certain differences in their applications that are due to several aspects. An important aspect is the football region where the game takes place. For example, in Europe , particularly in England , referees stand out for being more permissive with fouls and infractions, thus reducing cautions and expulsions, while in other places, for example in South America, fouls are punished with cards more often.
The rules of the game are defined by the International Football Association Board , a body made up of FIFA and the four UK associations . To approve a modification to them, at least the votes of FIFA and 2 of the 4 votes of the United Kingdom associations must be obtained.
Football is played on a rectangular- shaped natural or artificial grass pitch . The allowed measurements of the terrain are 90 to 120 meters long and 45 to 90 meters wide, but for international matches the following measurements are recommended: between 100 and 110 meters long, and between 64 and 75 meters wide. The two lines located along the field are called sidelines or touchlines, while the others are called goal or end lines. The midpoints of each sideline are joined by another line, the midline.
On the center of each goal line and entering the field, the penalty areas, the goal areas and the goals or goals are located. The so-called goals, also known as goals or arches, consist of two vertical posts (known as sticks or verticals) 2.44 meters high located 7.32 meters apart and on the center of each goal line. The tops of the posts are joined by another horizontal post, known as a crossbar or stringer.
Penalty areas are rectangular areas located in the center of the goals and into the field. These are drawn 16.5 meters from the vertical posts, also entering 16.5 meters into the ground, and then joining by another larger line. The layout of the goal area is the same, but using a measurement of 5.5 meters.
Start of the game
Each of the two teams consists of a maximum of 11 players and a minimum of 7. During the match, these players may be exchanged for others, the so-called substitutes or substitutes. One of the starting players must be the goalkeeper . A goalkeeper and another player on the team are permitted to exchange positions during the match, as long as it is during an interruption with the consent of the referee.
Each player must have a basic clothing , which consists of a shirt or jersey with sleeves, shorts, socks, shin guards or shin guards and appropriate footwear. The colors of the clothing of both teams and that of both goalkeepers must be clearly distinguishable for the eye . The captains (players representing each team) must wear an identifying mark to be called by the referee when necessary, which is generally a bracelet.
Soccer is played with a ball or ball of spherical shape . It must be made of leather or other suitable material. Its circumference will be between 68 and 70 centimeters , its mass between 410 and 450 grams and its pressure between 0.6 and 1.1 atmospheres at sea level . Players can touch and move the ball with any part of their body except their arms . The goalkeeper has the advantage of being able to use any part of his body for this, but only within his penalty area.
Each match will be controlled by a main referee appointed by the organization of the competition in question, who will be the highest authority of the match and in charge of enforcing the rules of the game. All decisions of the referee are final. Only he can modify a decision, as long as the game has not been resumed or the game has ended. In addition, you will have at your disposal 2 assistant referees or lineman (line man) to help you in making decisions. He also has a fourth referee at his disposal who is the one who confirms it, and also controls the substitutes and coaching staff. The fourth official also indicates the substitutions and the increase in regulation time.
To start the match, one or more players of a team will move the ball towards the rival goal from the midpoint of the middle line, at which point regulation time will begin to run. This situation occurs with the opposing team at the beginning of the second half. It also occurs after each goal, where the team that received it executes the service.
Duration and result
The duration of a match, specified in Rule 7 of the regulations, will be two equal times of 45 minutes , with an intermediate rest period that may not exceed 15 minutes, and its duration must be established in the regulations of each competition. The duration of each half time may only be altered if the competition rules allow it, and if there is an agreement between the referee and the two participating teams before the start of the match. The time lost during the dispute of the match must be made up at the end of each period, the duration of these recovery periods being left to the discretion of the main referee.
The goal of sport is to score more goals than the rival. A team is considered to have scored a goal when the ball completely crosses the goal line between the vertical posts and below the horizontal goal post of the rival goal, as long as there has not been an infringement of the rules of the game previously. The goal is the only way to score in football, which is not the case in other football codes. If both teams score the same number of goals, the match is considered tied.
In many cases, when the match ends in a draw, some way must be found for one of the two teams to be considered the winner of the match, and there are several ways to achieve this. If the match ends tied, an extension or extra time can be played , which consists of two halves, generally 15 minutes each, where the initial match is continued. In addition, there are two ways in which overtime ends early: the golden goal and the silver goal , although these forms have been neglected in recent years.
If equality persists, a series of penalty kicks or penalties will be taken. It consists of each team taking penalties alternately until a total of 5 each. If after the 10 penalties or penalties [ 94 ] executed the equality persists, one penalty per team will continue to be taken until a winner is defined.
The use of extra time and penalty kicks are a widely used format in modern football, the main exponent of this being the elimination phases of the final phase of the Football World Cup . In some competitions, penalties are taken directly after the completion of the initial match, without using extra time. A clear example of this system is the knockout stages of the Copa América .
In all these examples a single match was played, but there are other tournaments where the knockout phases are played over two matches, the so-called round-trip matches. To determine if the key (both games) ended in a tie, the goals for both teams in the two games are added, and if they do not matter, it is said that the key ended in a tie. In some cases, if the bracket was tied, a tiebreaker system with extra time or penalty kicks is used, which are executed at the end of the second match of the bracket.
In some knockout stages, another form of tiebreaker prior to extra time or penalties is considered: away goals . If at the end of both games neither team surpassed the other in goals in favor, the number of goals scored by each team in the away game will be counted. If a team scored more away goals at the end of both games, it will be the winner of the key, but if equality persists also in the away goals, it will proceed with extra time or penalties. An example of this system is the knockout stages of the Copa Libertadores de América and the UEFA Champions League .
Fouls and resumption of play
Each time a player tries to hit or hit another, pushes him, holds him to gain an advantage, spits it or touches the ball with his hands (except the goalkeeper), the referee will mark a direct free kick in favor of the team that does not committed the offense, to be executed from the place of the offense. If it occurred within one's own penalty area, regardless of the position of the ball and whether the ball is in play, a penalty kick will be scored against the offending team.
If a player plays in a dangerous way, obstructs an opponent or prevents the goalkeeper from getting the ball out with his hands, an indirect free kick will be scored in favor of the team that did not commit the infringement, which will be taken from the place of the infringement. In addition, an indirect free kick will be scored if the goalkeeper keeps the ball in his hands for more than 6 seconds or touches the ball after having touched it previously, receives it from a teammate or directly from a throw-in.
A player may be entitled to receive a yellow card (warning) or red card (expulsion), if he commits any infraction specified in the regulations . If a player receives a red card , he will be expelled from the field and cannot be replaced by another. If a player receives two yellow cards in the same match, he will receive a red card and will be sent off. Cards are a way for players to enforce the rules of the game.
If the ball leaves the field of play over a goal line after being touched by a defending player, a corner kick is awarded to the opposing team. If it is last touched by an attacker, a goal clearance is awarded to the defending team. If the ball leaves the field on one of the touch lines, a throw-in will be awarded to the team that did not touch the ball the last time.
There are many variants of football, the main ones are:
The indoor football or futsal is played between two teams of 5 players each, one of them being the keeper . Two halves of 20 minutes each are played. Each match is played on a surface of solid material measuring 40 by 20 meters . The rest of the rules are practically the same as those of traditional football, with some differences, such as the lack of offside and the use of the feet to take the throw-in . [ 95 ]
Like futsal or indoor soccer , beach soccer contains great similarities to traditional soccer. Two teams of five players each participate, one of them being the goalkeeper . It is played on a field of about 35 by 25 meters , which is entirely covered by sand . Each match consists of three periods of 12 minutes each and unlike other football variants ( futsal for example), time stops when the referee scores a free kick , scores a penalty kickor it is known that a player is passing time inappropriately. All free kicks are direct and without a barrier from the opposing team. If a player receives two yellow cards, they will receive a blue card and must leave the field of play for 2 minutes without being able to be replaced by another player. If a player receives a red card or three yellow cards, he will be sent off and cannot be replaced by another. The throw - ins can run with feet . The rest of the rules are practically the same as those of traditional football. [ 96 ]
Football for the disabled
At present, particularly in the Paralympic Games , there are two versions of football adapted to people with some type of disability : Football 5 , for people suffering from blindness , and Football 7 , for people with cerebral palsy . They are used rules similar to those of traditional soccer and of the futsal , but with modifications to suit the disability in question.
5 football is played between two teams of 5 players each, where one of them, the goalkeeper , must not suffer from blindness Total (blindness B-1). To avoid cheating, the 4 outfield players wear a blindfold, regardless of their level of blindness. Two times of 25 minutes each are played. The land is rectangular in shape , its length is between 38 and 42 meters and its width between 18 and 22 meters. It has a goal or goal, a penalty area and other characteristics similar to that of traditional football. A ball is used that when turning on itself emits a sound that is clearly identifiable by the players. The object of the game is to score more goalsthan the rival and for this the ball must be passed through the rival goal using any part of the body, except the arms . As in traditional football, each match is controlled by several referees , who are in charge of enforcing the rules and sanctioning the players if necessary. [ 97 ]
The Football 7 is practically equal to traditional soccer. The most noticeable differences are the smaller size of the pitch and the goals, the number of players per team (7 instead of 11), the absence of offside and the freedom to take a throw-in in the way that the team player wants it. Players can only participate suffering from cerebral palsy class 5 to 8. [ 98 ]
The Showbol is like futsal, played on a court with dimensions of a hockey rink , often in synthetic grass , with side walls surrounding the court against which can bounce the ball without being out of the game. In South America, the former players Diego Armando Maradona ( Argentine ) and Iván Zamorano ( Chilean ) have created many fans . A five-player variant is played in Spain under the name of indoor soccer .
Apart from the main variants mentioned above, there are other sports that share great similarities with traditional football or that even combine aspects of other sports, although the rules of the same vary according to the place where it is played and the elements available.
The game called bossaball combines aspects of traditional soccer and volleyball . Based on the rules of volleyball, it is played on a surface of inflatable mattresses and trampolines, which allows a greater number of touches and much more spectacular jumps. It is played between two teams of up to 5 players, who must pass the ball over a net using any part of their body, although with a limited number of touches.
For its part, soccer tennis , as its name indicates, combines aspects of traditional soccer and tennis . It is played on a terrain similar or even the same as the tennis court, where each of the two teams must pass the ball over the net using their head and feet. The height of the net can vary, whereby the terrain could be replaced by a volleyball field .
Board games and others
One of the more traditional soccer-related board games is table soccer (along with its Spanish variant, foosball ). It consists of a table with a replica of a playing field inside, which has several dolls representing soccer players. The width of the table is crossed by a series of rotating bars where the players are embedded. Each of the teams has its bars alternately. These bars are rotated with the hands thanks to rubbers at their ends. Although this game is informal, particularly due to its rules and the format of the table, there is an organization called the International Table Soccer Federation that stipulates rules [ 99 ]And organizes championships on a regular basis.
It is also worth highlighting subbuteo , a board game similar to table football where the main difference is that the players are not embedded in a bar, but rather lean individually on a concave base. For a player to be able to move the ball , one of the dolls must be hit with the finger so that it hits the ball.
Soccer is also of great importance at the level of video game and robot programming . At the video game level, simulators such as FIFA and Pro Evolution Soccer (also known as Winning Eleven) stand out, which allow emulating football matches by controlling the movements of the players, and others such as Football Manager , which allows controlling teams from the point of managerial view. There are also competitions such as Robocup , which simulate soccer matches using small robots .
The governing body of football at the international level is the Fédération Internationale de Football Association , better known by its acronym FIFA, based in Zurich , Switzerland . This organism raises 5 main points to guarantee the good development of the sport: to improve soccer from its universal, educational and cultural character, as well as to improve the human values that it raises; organize sports competitions; develop regulations to maintain the spirit of the game; control the different forms of football, adopting measures to improve them; and prevent certain practices that affect the essence of the sport. [ 100 ]
FIFA does not focus solely on the organizational details of sport, but also promotes improvements in the football infrastructure of each country, particularly the poorest , through the Goal Program . It instills tactical, technical, health and organizational aspects to the populations of these countries, helping them to grow soccer. The program does not finance the construction of stadiums, but it does finance training grounds, training materials and office supplies for the associations. [ 101 ] Currently, 185 national associations benefit from the program, which has completed or is working on a total of 292 projects. [ 102]
Due to the constant growth of FIFA , six regional confederations have been created throughout history , whose objectives are similar to those of FIFA. They are in charge of coordinating all aspects of the sport in each region. For an association to be a member of a confederation, it does not necessarily have to be a member of FIFA.
In turn, within each confederation there are soccer associations, which represent a country and, on some occasions, a territory or state that is not recognized internationally. Except in exceptional cases, there is only one association per country or territory, and if there is more than one, only one can be affiliated with its confederation. In some cases, the main association of the country has affiliated other sub-associationsto help organize football. Each association organizes the football of its country regardless of its confederation, but in some cases, for example to qualify clubs for international tournaments, these clubs must be endorsed by the association before the confederation. In some cases, a team may be directly or indirectly affiliated with an association without being affiliated with a confederation.
We must also mention the NF-Board , an organization that groups together associations not affiliated with FIFA , or any of its confederations. The vast majority of its associations belong to territories and states not politically recognized at the international level. The only competition of this body is the VIVA World Cup .
Most important championships
At the national team level, the most important tournament is the Soccer World Cup , which has been held since 1930 . Prior to the creation of the World Cup , particularly during the 1920s , the football competition of the Olympic Games was considered the highest competition in sport, although today it is maintained as a secondary tournament where players under 23 are allowed. , with up to 3 players over that age limit per team. At the female level , the equivalent of the World Cup is the Women's Soccer World Cup .
At the level of confederations of FIFA , the most important tournaments are the Copa America ( America of the South ) and the Euro ( Europe ); and, at a lower level, are the African Cup of Nations ( Africa ), the Concacaf Gold Cup ( North , Central America and the Caribbean ), the Asian Cup ( Asia ) and the Nations Cup of the OFC ( Oceania ).
The most important tournament for young players is the U-20 Soccer World Cup , which welcomes teams classified from the South American Under-20 Championship ( South America ), the UEFA European Under-19 Championship ( Europe ), the CAF Youth Championship ( Africa ), Concacaf U-20 Championship ( North , Central America and the Caribbean ), AFC Youth Championship ( Asia ) and OFC U-20 Championship ( Oceania).
In each country, soccer clubs tend to federate into associations or leagues that organize official tournaments among themselves, from which the champions of each country and the teams that will participate in international tournaments emerge. There is no single system of tournaments and each national league organizes them according to their traditions. In general, most countries have two main tournaments a year: Colombia (Apertura and Clausura) (the season starts according to the European calendar), Mexico (idem, but in the reverse order), Chile (National Tournament and Chile Cup) , Spain (Liga and Copa del Rey) , Italy (Serie A and Copa Italia), etc. In some cases the champions of both tournaments dispute annual "super cups" and "recopas" among themselves. England has a main championship system (the Premier League) and then several cups in which teams from different divisions participate. Brazil has a system of championships by State ( São Paulo , Rio de Janeiro , Mineiro , Gaúcho , etc.), in addition to having a National Championship ( Brasileirão ).
At world level, the most important competition is the FIFA Club World Cup, which has been held since 2000 and in which the champions of the different conferences that make up FIFA participate. On a continental level, the most important competitions are the Copa Libertadores de América ( South America ), the UEFA Champions League ( Europe ), the CAF Champions League ( Africa ), the Concacaf Champions League ( North America , Central and the Caribbean ), the AFC Champions League (Asia ) and the OFC Champions League ( Oceania ). Also on a continental level, the secondary competitions in South America and Europe stand out : the South American Cup and the Europa League ( formerly the UEFA Cup ), respectively.
In some cases clubs from other confederations are invited to competitions of a specific confederation. For example, in the case of the participation of Mexican teams affiliated with CONCACAF in the Copa Libertadores de América, organized by CONMEBOL.
It was created when the Football Association in 1863 , with the creation of the sport , the name was chosen football association ( association football in English ) for this new game. This name was chosen to differentiate it from other football codes of the time, mainly rugby football , one of the most popular of the time.
The meaning of the word soccer varies according to where it is mentioned. In most Spanish - speaking countries, the term soccer refers to association football . In other countries, where association football is not the most popular code, the term football is associated with other football codes. In these countries the term soccer (derived from association football in the 1880s ) [ 103 ] is often used to refer to association football . In Spanish speaking countriesThe terms football are also accepted , used in some areas of Spain and in the names of several clubs in that country, soccer or football / soccer (note the word acute ) in Mexico , Central America (except for Belize which translates it as football ) and the Greater Antilles and simply soccer in South America (except for Brazil which translates it as futebol , Suriname as voetbal and Guyanaand French Guiana as football ).
In Spain the use of foot-ball is documented in 1878 and the spelling football in 1915 . However, already in 1908 Mariano de Cavia had proposed the football copy , although some rejected it as Gallicism. Azorín even brought up the term spheromachy , used by the Romans. [ 104 ]
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