Location of Ferrara in Emilia-Romagna
Location of Ferrara in Italy
|Entity||Commune of Italy , City and Big City|
|Fractions||Aguscello, Albarea, Baura, Boara, Borgo Scoline, Bova, Casaglia, Cassana, Castel Trivellino, Chiesuol del Fosso, Cocomaro di Cona, Cocomaro di Focomorto, Codrea, Cona, Contrapò, Corlo, Correggio, Denore, Focomorto, Francolino, Gaibana, Gaibanella Sant'Egidio, Malborghetto di Boara, Malborghetto di Correggio, Marrara, Mezzavia, Monestirolo, Montalbano, Parasacco, Pescara, Pontegradella, Pontelagoscuro, Ponte Travagli, Porotto, Porporana, Quartesana, Ravalle, Sabbioni, San Bartolomeo in Bosco, San Martino, Spinazzino, Torre della Fossa, Uccellino, Viconovo, Villanova|
|Bordering municipalities||Argenta , Baricella (BO), Bondeno , Canaro (RO), Copparo , Ficarolo (RO), Formignana , Gaiba (RO), Masi Torello , Occhiobello (RO), Ostellato , Poggio Renatico , Ro , Stienta (RO), Tresigallo , Vigarano Mainarda , Voghiera|
|• Total||404 km²|
|• Media||9 m s. n. m.|
|• Total||135,369 hab.|
|• Density||334.08 hab / km²|
|Demonym||ferrarés the ferrarense|
|Time zone||CET (UTC +1)|
|• in summer||CEST (UTC +2)|
|Patron (a)||Saint George|
|Official Web site|
Ferrara is an Italian municipality in the Emilia-Romagna region , capital of the homonymous province . With a population of 135,369 inhabitants (2010), it is located on the Po de Volano river . The city has an urban structure that dates back to the 14th century , when it was ruled by the Este family . The design by Biagio Rossetti made it the first modern city in Europe. From this historical fact, in addition to the conservation of the architectural style and materials in the area of the historic center, it is largely recognized as a World Heritage Sitein 1995 (to the historic center of Ferrara), extended in 1999 to the Po delta . [ 2 ]
The origin of the name Ferrara is not clear: In fact there are several hypotheses. Some have thought of a Biblical derivation: from Ferrato , son of Cam and grandson of Noah . Others say that Ferrara was founded by a certain Marco who went to Ferrara with his people; Among these there was a Trojan girl, Ferrara , and with this name he designated the city that he had begun to build. Others think that it derives from iron , that it was found or worked in the territory.
The strongest hypothesis is the one that supposes that the name has come from farro, a kind of durum wheat , the oldest food of the Romans, abundant, it seems, in the area. "Farraria" is the land where farro is grown . A herb named farraria , a species of aquatic plant , would be another possible origin. And finally, the place where the two important fairs of the year ( Palm Sunday and Saint Martin's Day ) were held on the banks of the Po river was called the Feriarum area (public square of the fairs), and hence Ferraria . Right at the small door of St. George's Cathedral there is an image of a girl sculpted in marble, formerly called "Madonna Frara".
Ferrara emerged in the 7th and 8th centuries on the banks of the Po and its secondary channels.
The origins of Ferrara are uncertain and it appears for the first time in a document in 754 as part of the Ravenna exarchate . 984 I is fief of the count of Modena and Canossa , nephew of the Emperor Otto I . After a period of independence in which the city is governed among others by the Adelardi family, in 1101 the city is taken by Countess Matilde di Canossa .
In 1146, with the death of the last Adelardi, Guillermo, Ferrara passed as a dowry from his niece Marchesella to Azzolino de Este . After some hostilities with the Salinguerra family, Azzo Novello was appointed perpetual podestà in 1242 and in 1259 he took Ezzelino of Verona prisoner in battle . He was succeeded by his nephew Obizzo II (1264-1293) who was appointed by the Pope Captain General and defender of the Papal States. In the thirteenth century the rule of the Este family began , which lasted until the end of the sixteenth .
On March 4, 1391, with the permission of Pope Boniface IX , the Marquis Alberto de Este founded the University of Ferrara , in which important characters studied, highlighting the 16th century graduations of Nicolás Copernicus (1503) and Paracelsus . Nicholas III (1393-1441) in 1438 received the council of Pope Eugene IV and his son Borso received the fiefdoms of Modena and Reggio from Emperor Frederick III , becoming Duke in 1452, to be appointed Duke of Ferrara in 1471 by the PopePaul II . At the end of the 15th century , the economic situation and the desire for prestige convinced Hercules I (1471-1505) to promote an ambitious urban restructuring project: the famous Addizione Erculea . This was designed by the famous architect Biagio Rossetti , and duplicated the urban fabric, creating a new city.
Hercules I fought against Venice . The war continued with his son Alfonso I , who had married Lucrezia Borgia (daughter of Pope Alexander VI and sister of César Borgia ). In 1509 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II and in 1512 he fought against the papal army, conquering Ravenna . He managed to reconcile with the Papal States and was succeeded by his son Ercole II , who married Renata of France , daughter of Louis XII , and who ruled from 1534 to 1559. His son Alfonso II , married Barbara of Habsburg, sister of Emperor Maximilian II , who led Ferrara to the height of its splendor. He had no male offspring and in 1597 Ferrara was declared a vacant fiefdom by Pope Clement VIII , putting an end to the Duchy of Ferrara .
Due to the Devolution , in the year 1598, the city of Ferrara and the territory of the Este family, were under the direct political and administrative control of the Papal States until the year 1832, when this control passed to Austria , while that in 1859 Ferrara became part of the kingdom of Sardinia .
Ferrara has been an important Jewish center since the 13th century and, after the Racial Laws issued in 1938 by the fascist government , it was the main center of persecution and purification, as the writer Giorgio Bassani narrates in his novel The Garden of the Finzi-Contini ( 1962) and in Una Noche de 1943 (1956).
At the end of 2007, there were 133 591 people residing in Ferrara, 62 417 men (46.8%) and 71 174 women (53.2%), assuming a slight growth compared to 2006 (133 214). Those under 18 years of age are 12.28% of the population. The population of pensioners reaches 26.41%. The Italian average is 18.06% (under 18 years of age) and 19.94% (pensioners). The median age of Ferrarenses is 49 years, the Italian average being 42 years. The number of inhabitants per circoscrizioni (2007) is detailed below :
- City Center District : 18 693 inhabitants.
- Arianuova Doro Garden District : 16 835 inhabitants.
- District vía Bologna : 26 119 inhabitants.
- Northern Zone District : 13 819 inhabitants.
- District North West Area : 11,022 inhabitants.
- District South Zone : 12 952 inhabitants.
- District North East Area : 9159 inhabitants.
- District East Zone : 24 992 inhabitants.
Between 2002 and 2007, the population of Ferrara grew by 2.28%, while in Italy it increased by 3.85%. The growth of the last few years has been really meager (+0.4% in 2005, +0.6% in 2006 and +0.3% in 2007). Ferrara's current birth rate is 7.02 births per 1000 inhabitants. The average | Italian is 9.45 births.
Ferrara is known for being the oldest city of more than 100,000 inhabitants in Italy, as well as the one with the lowest birth rate . While the population of Italian origin has fallen by 0.5% in 2007, the number of foreign residents has increased, reaching 6,938 people at the end of 2007, representing 5.2% of the total number of residents, of which 3,043 were men and 3,895 women.
The increase in foreigners in previous years was 15% in 2006 and 13% in 2005. The largest group of immigrants was originally from Ukraine (1016), followed by Romania (935) and Albania (836 ). It is worth noting the strong increase in Romanians in 2007, from 417 (2006) to 935 (2007). Those from Morocco are in fourth position (427). Currently, 10% of births have at least one foreign father.
|Graph of demographic evolution of Ferrara between 1861 and|
Source ISTAT - Wikipedia graphic elaboration
The city of Ferrara occupies an area of 404 km² and is located on the edge of a branch of the delta of the Po river called Po de Volano , at an altitude of 9 m above sea level, in the region known as Plain Padana , which geographically corresponds to the Po valley . Ferrara borders the following municipalities: Argenta , Baricella , Bondeno , Canaro , Copparo , Ficarolo , Formignana , Gaiba , Masi Torello , Occhiobello , Ostellato , Poggio Renatico, Stienta , Tresigallo , Vigarano Mainarda , Voghiera
Winter is harsh and rainy, with no lack of precipitation in the form of snow. The low pressures that form in this season carry cold and disturbed air, allowing considerable periods of bad weather; when there are high pressures, the harsh weather conditions also remain due to the entry of air of Arctic-Russian origin, which causes days that can be sunny but accompanied by strong icy winds and temperatures close to zero degrees during the central hours of the day , and that they can drop well below zero at night.
Summers are hot and suffocating due to the high humidity level, which rarely falls below 70%. The heat is interrupted by storms, which can be violent and cause hail of consistent intensity. On the other hand, several consecutive sunny weeks with high temperatures can be registered, thanks to the Azores anticyclone and the African anticyclone , which is the one that causes the highest temperatures.
Autumn is cool, humid and rainy, and sometimes decidedly cold during the second part of the season, during which it can have eminently winter characteristics. It is also particularly nebulous, placing Ferrara among the foggy cities in Italy.
Spring offers Ferrara various prints. In its first part, it is an extension of the winter season in which cold currents persist, while with the course of the season it gradually becomes peaceful and stable.
|Average maximum temperatures ( ° C )||4||8||13||17||22||26||29||29||24||18||11||6|
|Average minimum temperatures ( ° C )||1||1||5||9||13||16||19||19||15||11||5||1|
|Precipitation ( mm )||44||44||49||54||52||55||48||60||52||55||72||49||634|
The Italian administrative structure is defined in the Italian constitution in articles 118 to 133. Local governments in Italy have undergone a reform process based on the principles of capitalization, obligation to render accounts to the citizens and quality service. The municipality of Ferrara is divided into eight circumscriptions ( circoscrizioni ), which are the communal decentralization units into which the territory is divided. The circoscrizioni group the different neighborhoods of the city and the frazione .
- City Center District.
- Arianuova Doro Garden District. Barrios: Aqueduct , Arianuova , Darsena , Doro , Ex Mof , Skyscraper , Urban Park , P.le dei Giochi , San Benedetto , Central Station , Vía del Lavoro .
- District via Bologna. Barrios: Borgo San Luca-Rivana , Ducal Embankment , Airport , Foro Boario , La Pirámide , Krasnodar , Villaggio Satellite , Craft Center , San Giorgio , Chiesuol del Fosso , Fair .
- Zona Norte district. Barrios: Pontelagoscuro , Chemical Pole of Ferrara , Barco .
- District Noroeste area. Barrios: Porotto , Cassana , Mizzana , Arginone , Diamante Commercial Park , Borgo Marconi .
- Zona Sur district. Barrios: Artisan , Aguscello , Gaibanella , Torre Fossa , San Martino , Goro , Sant'Egidio , Foso San Marco , Montalbano , San Bartolomeo in Desbasto , Monestirolo .
- Northeast Zone constituency. Barrios: Codrea , Cocomaro di Cona , Cocomaro di Focomorto , Cona , Focomorto , Quartesana , Masi Torello , Copparo , Final di Reno , Migliaro , Massa Fiscaglia .
- Zone Este district. Barrios: Villa Fulvia , Porta Ferrara , Quacchio , Pontegradella , Ponte Travagli , Borgo Punta , Malborghetto di Boara , Boara .
Places of interest
|Ferrara, Renaissance city, and its delta del Po|
Unesco World Heritage Site
|Criteria||ii, iii, iv, v, vi|
|Region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1995 (XIX session )|
|Official Web site|
The city is still surrounded by more than 9 kilometers of ancient walls, mostly built in the 15th and 16th centuries . [ 4 ]
The main monument is the Castello Estense ( Castle of the East ), also called Castello di San Michele (Castle of Saint Michael), a square-plan fired brick building equipped with four defensive towers and surrounded by a water moat, which is located in the city center. It was built from 1385 and was partially restored from 1554; the pavilions at the top of the towers date from this past year. It was started in 1385 and finished in the 16th century . It is made of red brick, with massive towers and shapes, surrounded by a wide moat. Among the most interesting pieces of its interior we will mention the Garden of Orange trees from the 15th century , the Hall of the Games and the Chapel of Renata de Francia.
Ferrara has many palaces from the first Renaissance, often preserving terracotta decorations ; few such small cities in Italy have so many, although most are comparatively small. Among them we can highlight those of the northern district (especially the four at the intersection of its two main streets), which was added by Ercole I in 1492-1505, based on plans by the architect Biagio Rossetti , and hence it is called the Addizione Erculea . They can be cited:
- The Palazzo Municipale ( Municipal Palace), rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style in 1927, was the first residence of the Este .
- The Palazzo della Ragione ("Palace of Reason", an example of Palazzo della Ragione ), opposite the cathedral, built with bricks in the Gothic style between 1315 and 1326; the current appearance is the result of a post- World War II remodeling , following a fire that destroyed part of the palace. However it does not do justice to the beauty of the original construction.
- The Palazzo dei Diamanti ("Palace of Diamonds"), named for the diamond- shaped points in which the stone blocks of the facade are cut. It currently houses the National Picture Gallery. His collection of paintings is mainly from the Ferrara school, which reached its prominence in the second half of the 15th century , with Tura, del Cossa and dei Roberto; Among the Ferrarese masters of the 16th century are Lorenzo Costa and Dosso Dossi, the most outstanding, Girolamo da Carpi and Benvenuto Tisio (il Garofalo) . When Ferrara passed to the power of the Holy See , many works by Renaissance painters were transferred to Modena, but others are in this gallery. It is a magnificent Renaissance building, a masterpiece of the architect Biagio Rossetti , characterized by almost 12,000 ashlars in the shape of a diamond point, which line the facade and one of its flanks, while the corners are adorned by elegant and decorated pillars.
- The Palazzo Schifanoia , built in 1385 by Alberto V d'Este , includes frescoes depicting the life of Borso d'Este , signs of the zodiac and representations allegoric of months. The lobby was decorated with stucco moldings by Domenico di Paris of Padua . The building also contains beautiful choir books. A splendid example of the architecture of Biagio Rossetti, it was built between 1466 and 1496 and was used as a "place of delights" for parties and receptions. Among the beautiful rooms inside, all elegantly decorated, stands out the extraordinary Hall of the Months, painted in the centuryXV by Cossa and de'Roberti.
- The Palazzo Paradiso (1391) is currently the headquarters of the Biblioteca Civica Ariostea where you can find the most complete collection of editions of Orlando Furioso and some letters from Torquato Tasso , as well as a Bible that belonged to the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola .
- A little out of the way is the university , which has faculties of law , architecture , pharmacy , medicine and natural sciences . The university has a botanical garden ( Orto Botanico dell'Università di Ferrara ).
- The simple house of Ludovico Ariosto was built by the writer from 1526 and there he died in 1533.
- The Archivio Storico Comunale contains an important set of historical documents, dating back to the 15th century . The Archivio Storico Diocesano is even older, being mentioned in documents from the year 955, it contains precious documents collected over the centuries by the Church.
- The Ferrara Communal Theater is an opera house whose construction was carried out between 1786 and 1797.
- The Contrari Palace , Gothic in origin but remodeled during the Renaissance , was the residence of the Contrari, one of the most influential families in the city.
A few steps from Castello Estense is the old arcispedale Santa Anna, where the poet Torquato Tasso was imprisoned between 1579 and 1586, during his madness.
Near the Palazzo del Comune is the Ferrara Cathedral or Duomo which is dedicated to Saint George , patron saint of the city; in 1135 the lower Romanesque part of the main façade and the lateral ones were completed. According to an inscription now missing, the church was built by Guglielmo I degli Adelardi (died 1146), who is buried in it. The sculpture of the main portal is a work signed by the artifex Nicholaus, mentioned in the lost inscription as the architect of the church. The upper part of the main facade, with arches of pointed arches, dates from the 13th centuryand the portal had reclining lions and elaborate sculptures above it. The interior was restored in a Baroque style in 1712, following a disastrous earthquake in 1570 that destroyed not only the interior of the cathedral, but also numerous buildings throughout the city. After this restoration, the Porta dei Mesi , the imposing entrance on the south side, was closed . The bell tower , in Renaissance style , dates from 1451-1493, but the top floor was added at the end of the 16th century .
This cathedral is a majestic Romanesque church that was built between the 12th and 14th centuries . Elegant galleries that continue on the right flank, where the bell tower (probably the work of Alberti) stands, animate its façade. The portals and the pronaos are adorned by reliefs from the 12th and 13th centuries .
500 meters from the cathedral is the Church of San Francisco , a project by the architect Biagio Rossetti and built in 1594 on a pre-existing one used by the Franciscans.
The Corpus Domini Monastery contains the tombs of the Este, including Alfonso I , Alfonso II , Ercole I , Ercole II , as well as Lucrezia Borgia , Eleanor of Aragón , and a dozen other historical figures.
The synagogue and a Jewish museum are located in the heart of the medieval center, close to the cathedral and the Castello Estense. This street was part of the ghetto in which Jews lived separately from the rest of the Ferrara population, from around 1627 to 1859.
In the period of government of the Este, Ferrara was an important humanistic center attended by the best poets of the 15th and 16th centuries , Matteo Maria Boiardo , Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso , as well as the native poet Agustín Beccari . Ferrara also developed his own school of painting. In the city of Ferrara they painted Andrea Mantegna , Giovanni Bellini , Cosmè Tura , Francesco del Cossa and Ercole Ferrarese , Garofalo , Tiziano , Dosso Dossi and Battista Dossi, Scarsellino . Furthermore, the city of Ferrara was the home of Leon Battista Alberti , Pisanello , Piero della Francesca and Rogier van der Weyden . The Ferrara bible was a translation of the Old Testament into Ladino (Judeo-Spanish) made by Sephardic Jews and dedicated to Ercole II.
Ferrara was the setting for Giorgio Bassani's novel Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini ( The Garden of the Finzi-Contini ) and its film adaptation by Vittorio De Sica (1970). The film by Wim Wenders and Michelangelo Antonioni (born here) entitled Al di là delle nuvole (1995) and Ermanno Olmi's Il mestiere delle armi (2001), which recounts the last days of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere , were also shot in Ferrara .
The oldest Palio in Italy, called San Giorgio , takes place in the city on the last Sunday in May. El Palio is a typical medieval festival where races were held (on horseback, on donkeys or on foot) in which the winner was awarded a cloak or cloth (pallium) with a religious effigy.
The agriculture of Ferrara turns out to be today one of the most important sectors of the provincial economy: the occupational base of the province of Ferrara reaches 8.3%, and it is the highest index in the entire northeast of Italy with 8763 industries active in the field and 180,000 hectares of total agricultural area.
The fishing sector is also of fundamental economic importance, considering that 55% of the 3,000 workers in the Emilia-Romagna sector are concentrated in the province of Ferrara with a total of 1,135 active companies.
Notably, it is the area covered by the Ferrara chemical pole, with companies such as LyondellBasell, Polímeri Europa, Eni Rewind (ex Syndial) or BT Italia; Ferrara has been the target of industrial activities. 34.8% occupation in the industry with a total of 54,000 people employed.
The handicraft sector is growing progressively. Ferrara's artisan companies produce 13.8% of the provincial value, which plays a fundamental role in the local production system characterized by small companies: 26,000 workers in the sector. 35.5% of the entrepreneurs in Ferrara are artisans .
The tertiary sector is closely linked to tourism , thanks to the wide cultural offer. The high level of artistic and museum quality has allowed the supply of spas to grow on the Lido de Comacchio and in the Po Delta Regional Park.
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- "Cadastral Codes" . Comuni-italiani.it (in Italian) . Consulted on April 29th 2017 .
- "Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, and its Po Delta" . UNESCO Culture Sector . Retrieved April 14, 2015 .
- Euro Weather
- Ferrare city website.