Ferrari 500TRC - Ferrari 500TRC

Ferrari 500 TRC from 1957
Ferrari 500 TRC from 1957
500 TRC
Sales designation: 500 TRC [1]
Production period: 1957
Class : Sports car
Body versions : Roadster
Engines: Petrol engines :
2.0 liters
(132 kW)
Long: 3937 mm
Width: 1638 mm
Height: 965 mm
Wheelbase : 2250 mm
Empty weight : 680 kg
Previous model Ferrari 500 TR
successor (see special subsection)

The Ferrari 500 TRC Scaglietti Spider short Ferrari 500 TRC is an open front engine - racing car with two seats and an in-house 2.0 liter DOHC - four cylinder - line engine . The Italian car manufacturer Ferrari produced the model only in 1957 and specifically for motorsport ; it replaced the 500 Testa Rossa (500 TR) from 1956. Depending on the point of view, 17 to 20 copies were built, which were used with success by mostly smaller racing teams and private drivers.


Ferrari went into the 1957 sports car world championship as defending champion and co-favorite .

Review of the 1956 World Sports Car Season

For comparison: the technically closely related predecessor model 500 TR Scaglietti Spider with chassis number 0620MDTR from 1956, the only left-hand drive and subsequently adapted to "Appendix C" of the FIA ​​regulations

In the 1956 season , which consisted of five races, the northern Italian company had won the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) brand world championship just ahead of Maserati and clearly ahead of Jaguar ; however, Mercedes-Benz , the winner of the 1955 season , withdrew from the sports car world championship as a works team . The title for the 1956 season was won by works drivers from Scuderia Ferrari such as Fangio , Phil Hill , Hawthorn , Collins and von Tripsin particular on Ferrari 860 Monza , an in-line four-cylinder with almost 3.5 liters displacement, and Ferrari 290MM , a V - 12 with 3.5 liters displacement. Numerous private drivers had supported the works team in a Ferrari 500 TR , an in-line four-cylinder engine built only in 1956. Her main focus was on class wins in the category up to 2.0 liters displacement as well as titles in national sports car championships; with the models A6GCS / 2000 and 200S , Maserati had been an equal opponent in many ways. [2] [3]

The new "Appendix C" of the FIA ​​Sports Car Regulations for 1957

The regulations of the sports car world championship had undergone some controversial changes for the season 1957: According to the will of the Commission Sportive Internationale (CSI) the difference between racing sports cars and road vehicles should be reduced; In particular, a passenger seat, a door on the passenger side, a windshield at least 100 centimeters wide and 15 centimeters high, as well as a hood , which could also be removed and did not even have to be carried in the race, were required. The details were set out in the new "Appendix C" of the regulations. [4]

The Ferrari racing cars of the 1957 season

A Ferrari 500 TRC in Kristianstad: At the 1957 Swedish Grand Prix, a race to the sports car world championship, three 500 TRC competed , one won the class up to two liters.

When it came to the works cars, Ferrari responded with an adaptation of the twelve-cylinder 290MM vehicles and their further development in the first half of the season via the 290S to the 315S and 335S ; there was an extensive "arms race" to survive against Maserati with the 450S , Jaguar with the D-Type and Aston Martin with the DBR1 . Against this background, the category up to 2.0 liters of displacement lost its importance in 1957, especially since more and more former works cars in the large category were also available for smaller teams and private drivers. Still createdFerrari for them in the category up to 2.0 liters displacement the new 500 TRC ; it represented a further development of the proven and successful 500 TR in several respects and competed above all with the further developed Maserati 200SI . [4]

The vehicle concept

A Ferrari 500 TRC with the low, curved belt line as well as the passenger seat and the larger windshield, which were mandatory from 1957

The Ferrari 500 TRC from 1957 marked the end of a series of four-cylinder, front-engined racing sports cars with a displacement of 2.0 liters, which were designed as open, small-series racing sports cars primarily for wealthy, smaller customer teams and private drivers. In accordance with the FIA ​​regulations, they had complete vehicle lighting and essential fittings and could therefore be approved for public road traffic according to the legal provisions of the time.

The chief engineer Aurelio Lampredi , who left Ferrari at the end of 1955, carried out decisive preparatory work for the 500 TRC , and Vittorio Jano , Alberto Massimino , Luigi Bellentani and Andrea Fraschetti did the major development work .

The Ferrari racing cars with 2.0-liter in-line four-cylinder

The sports car series began in 1954 with the 500 Mondial of Series I , of the 13 Pininfarina Spider , two Pininfarina Berlinetta and individual Scaglietti Spider emerged. He was followed by exclusively as Scaglietti Spider karossierte 500 Mondial of Series II for the racing season 1955 - the rest of the 17 of Scaglietti clothed 500 Mondial Spider . The further developed 500 TR (“Testa Rossa”) followed for the 1956 racing season ; he created 16 Scaglietti Spidersas well as three Touring Spiders due to the subsequent dismantling of the Ferrari 625 LM .

The Ferrari 500 series and the Ferrari four-cylinder in general

Together with the Ferrari 500 F2 Grand Prix racing car , the 500 TRC racing car and its forerunners belong to the Ferrari 500 series. What they all have in common is the Ferrari four-cylinder with a displacement of 2.0 liters, which was designed by the then Ferrari chief engineer Aurelio Lampredi. Ferrari built the engine between 1951 and 1957 for different purposes and with different specifications. In addition to the smallest version with 2.0 liters, there were also variants with 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 liter displacement for other models.

With the 2.0-liter engine of the driver had Scuderia in Ferrari 500 F2 the 1952 Formula One season as well as that 1953 dominant, the only two years in which the automotive world championship exceptionally according to the Formula 2 -Reglement was discharged. At the end of the 1955 season, Ferrari had already stopped building the four-cylinder racing car 750 Monza with a displacement of 3.0 liters without a direct successor; At the same time, the chief engineer Lampredi, as the driving force behind this four-cylinder project, switched to Fiat after a disappointing year in racing . Smaller racing teams and private drivers who want an openFerrari racing cars were looking for, therefore had to make do with the 500 TR in the smaller 2.0-liter category for the 1956 season or fall back on used vehicles from the previous year in the larger category.

For model designation 500 TRC

The deeply drawn-down front and the high arched fenders of the Ferrari 500 TRC

In the case of the 500 TRC , the number “500” continues to stand for the (up) rounded cubic capacity per individual cylinder, as was the case with Ferrari twelve-cylinder units at the time. "TR" still stands for "Testa Rossa" ( Italian for "red head"), which goes back to the cylinder head coated with red shrink varnish , as it was introduced last year with the 500 TR . The appended "C" stands for the new "Appendix C" of the FIA ​​Sports Car Regulations or for the word "clienti" (Italian for "customers") to indicate that the 500 TRC is specifically designed for the needs of the small racing teams and private drivers.[5]

The position of the 500 TRC within the Ferrari model range

In the 1957 season, the new 500 TRC replaced the 500 TR as a Ferrari entry-level model in racing cars . Anyone wishing to compete in the larger sports car category had to fall back on used previous year's works cars of the 860 Monza or 290MM models due to the lack of new alternatives . Another alternative were the near-series GT sports cars from Ferrari , namely the particularly light versions specially optimized for motorsport: the 250 GT LWB Berlinetta "Tour de France" with racing coupé bodies also from Scaglietti or occasionally from Zagato or open -toppedCalifornia Spider LWB with a pure aluminum body by Scaglietti.

The 500 TRC was only available in 1957. At the end of the season, the company de facto gave up both the 2.0-liter category and the four-cylinder concept as a whole. The reasons were another change in the sports car regulations by the FIA ​​for the 1958 season with a limitation of the displacement for sports cars to 3.0 liters and thus a further loss of importance for the smaller categories; Added to this was the departure of the greatest advocate Lampredi at the end of 1955 and the conviction that only the V12 engines could permanently promote the Ferrari image in the direction of exclusivity.

The 500 TRC is thus Ferrari's last four-cylinder car to date .

To the successor to the Ferrari 500 TRC

The 1959 Ferrari Dino 196 Sport Fantuzzi Spider with a 2.0-liter V6 engine; the potential successor to the 500 TRC remained a one-off
Only the Ferrari Dino 206S from 1966 was a Ferrari racing sports car in the 2.0-liter category, which was also available for private drivers

There are different opinions on the question of which Ferrari model is to be regarded as the successor to the 500 TRC or whether it even had a successor.

The 250 Testa Rossa Scaglietti Spider , a racing sports car built from mid-1957 onwards, is partly called. This can be justified with the direct chronological sequence and the availability for smaller racing teams and private drivers; on the other hand, with a 3.0-liter V12 engine, it is in a higher (displacement) category than the 500 TRC .

In terms of cubic capacity and power, several Ferrari models can be seen as 500-TRC successors:

Although they were racing sports cars in the 2.0-liter category, they did not get beyond the status of test vehicles and factory prototypes and were therefore basically not available to private drivers.

Ultimately, the Ferrari Dino 206S can be seen as the successor, of which at least 34 vehicles were built between 1965 and 1967 and which was also available for smaller racing teams and private drivers; The time difference of around eight years to the 500 TRC speaks against him .

The production history

The Ferrari with chassis number 0672MDTR: one of two 625 TRCs , originally with a 2.5-liter in-line four-cylinder, later with a 3.0-liter V12 (recognizable by the atypical, long and high air scoop)

The Ferrari 500 TRC made its debut in early 1957, just in time for the start of the 1957 racing season. The first vehicle of the small series has chassis number 0658MDTR, the last the number 0708MDTR. Like all Ferrari racing cars of this period, every 500 TRC has an even number. The chassis abbreviation MDTR was taken over by the 500 TRC unchanged from the 500 TR ; it still stands for “Mondial Testa Rossa”. The new "C" of the type designation, however, was not included in the chassis number.

The production of the predecessor 500 TR had ended with the chassis number 0654MDTR; This was followed by a 290 Sport Scaglietti Spider with a V12 engine and chassis number 0656 before the small series production of the 500 TRC began. The vehicles were produced in relatively quick succession, essentially until the spring of 1957. The bodywork was made by the body builder Sergio Scaglietti with his employees in the Carrozzeria Scaglietti company in Modena , the completion took place in the racing department of Ferrari . However, Ferrari pushedget individual racing sports cars in between: With the chassis number 0666 was the first Ferrari 250 TR prototype based on a 290-MM - chassis ; with chassis numbers 0674 and 0676 Ferrari produced a 315S and a 335S each as Scaglietti Spider with DOHC V12 engine, as 0684 another 315S ; the chassis number 0688M was reserved for a Ferrari 860 Monza , which had actually already expired , although ultimately only the 3.5-liter four-cylinder engine was built; Ferrari built another 335 S Scaglietti Spider under the chassis number 0700.

The slightly different information on the number of units of the 500 TRC (17 to 20) results from different views on how to classify three special racing cars:

  • With the chassis numbers 0672MDTR and 0680MDTR, two otherwise identical Ferrari 625 TRCs with 2.5-liter four-cylinder in-line engines and the normal 500-TRC chassis and its body were created;
  • With the chassis number 0704TR, the second Ferrari 250 TR prototype was created on an adapted 500 TRC chassis.

Individual 500 TRCs were only delivered during the season; a completion in May 1957 is documented for the chassis number 0698MDTR and in September 1957 for 0708MDTR. [5] [6]

The technology

The rear and the rear sideline of the Ferrari 625 TRC , which is identical in this respect ; Typical of the time is the hump (with fuel filler neck) behind the driver's headrest

The engine, the chassis and the rear axle of the Ferrari 500 TRC are partly unchanged, partly slightly modified from the previous year's model 500 TR .

The chassis

The chassis of the 500 TRC bears the internal designation Tipo 518C . It is a derivative of the 500 TR with the Tipo 518 chassis . The only difference is a change in the area of ​​the front tubes of the chassis; they are modified so that the engine could be installed lower. The basic construction of the oval tubular frame corresponds to all other contemporary Ferrari models. The front wheel suspension with double wishbones and coil springs had Ferrari gradually introduced in 1954 for all models. The rear wheel suspension with rigid axleand coil springs took over the 500 TRC unchanged from its predecessor 500 TR ; it was lighter and cheaper to manufacture than the De Dion rear axle on the more powerful Ferrari racing cars.

The equipment with brake drums all around still corresponded to the Ferrari standard; Disc brakes only found their way into the new racing sports cars of the 1959 season . The use of 16- inch - wheels and - tires also corresponded even the Ferrari standard; It was not until 1961 that the sports car manufacturer gradually switched to 15-inch versions. The size of the rims and tires was 5.50 × 16 ″ and, depending on the intended use, the rear was also 6.00 × 16 ″. Besides the 500 TRthe wider rear tires probably received ex works as standard, the two models were also similar in this respect; In any case, the tires were narrower than on the contemporary Ferrari racing cars with V12 engines, which were more powerful and powerful .

According to the brand tradition, all Ferrari 500 TRCs were right-hand drive , which promised advantages for the predominantly clockwise circuits . [5] [1] [7]

The motor

The Testa Rossa in-line four-cylinder with the eye-catching red paint on the cylinder heads and the elaborate control of the camshafts and valves

The engine of the 500 TRC has the internal name Tipo 131C . It is a derivative of the 500 TR with the Tipo 131 engine . The only difference is the changed bearing points, which allowed the engine to be installed deeper. This enabled the center of gravity to be slightly reduced compared to the 500 TR . The Ferrari 500 TRC has a four-cylinder in-line engine that Aurelio Lampredi originally designed for Grand Prix races in accordance with Formula 2 regulations. The engine is installed as a front engine behind the front axle . Like all contemporary Ferraris , it has two V-shaped interconnected valvesper cylinder . A special feature is, on the one hand, their complex control with two overhead camshafts , one only serving the inlet valves, the other only the exhaust valves. On the other hand, what is unusual is the complex drive of the camshafts using toothed wheels on the face of the engine instead of a chain that is considered to be less precise . The four-cylinder in-line engines had been using this technology since 1951. The V12 racing cars, on the other hand, did not receive the DOHC valve control until 1957, and the camshaft drive by gears not until 1971.

Like its predecessor, the engine of the 500 TRC has a cylinder bore of 90.0 millimeters and a piston stroke of 78.0 millimeters, resulting in a displacement of 1984.86 cubic centimeters. A compression ratio of 8.5: 1 results in a maximum output of 180 HP (132 kW ) at 7000 revolutions per minute. The mixture preparation is carried out by two Weber - twin carburettor type 40DCO / 3 , the ignition two distributor and dual ignition means of two spark plugsper cylinder. The oil supply is done by a racing-style dry sump lubrication ; it enables all relevant engine parts to be lubricated even in the event of strong lateral acceleration, and the omission of a conventional oil pan reduces the installation height, which allows the bonnet to be designed lower . As with contemporary Ferrari racing cars in the larger category, the drive is via a synchronized four-speed manual gearbox on the rear wheels . Compared to the five-speed gearbox, as it is temporarily in the 500 Mondial of the Series IIwas used, it saved weight and space and was sufficient in view of the favorable torque curve. [4] [1] [7]

The body

A Ferrari 500 TRC with a typical two-tone paint scheme designed by Scaglietti, as seen on several vehicles from the factory

The main novelty of the 500 TRC compared to the 500 TR was its light metal body, which was significantly influenced by the new "Appendix C" of the FIA ​​sports car regulations. The space previously provided for the passenger according to the regulations was given a simple, lightweight racing seat and could no longer be covered; the now mandatory passenger door was just as minimalist as the driver's door. The windshield of at least 100 centimeters wide and 15 centimeters high, which is now specified by the regulations, would have increased the frontal area without design countermeasures and thus worsened the aerodynamics .

Ferrari responded to the 500 TRC - like some other manufacturers - with a further lowering of the bodywork in general and especially in the area between the axles, which resulted in a more curved, wavy body contour. The body bulges above the wheels are much more pronounced than on the 500 Mondial and 500 TR . The prerequisite for the flatter basic body of the body was the minor changes to the engine and chassis of the 500 TRC compared to its predecessor. They also allowed the bonnet to drop more and more forward, which reduced the drag coefficient and the downforceincreased on the front axle. As a result, the FIA's change in regulations ensured that - contrary to their intentions - the racing cars at Ferrari also stood out even more from the near-series GT vehicles.

It is not entirely clear who was responsible for the design of the 500 TRC or individual details. In addition to the coachbuilder Sergio Scaglietti comes - as was the case 500 TR - Battista "Pinin" Farina considered. Some authors see the design of the 500 TRC as a further development and mixture of design elements of the 500 TR Scaglietti Spider and the 625 LM Touring Spider . Instead of the comparatively angular wheel cutouts of the 500 TR , the TRC has simple round cutouts at the rear and rounded cutouts on the front wheels that are clearly extended to the rear; The latter are reminiscent of the 625 LM Touring Spider, should dissipate the waste heat from the front brake drums faster and ensure better driving stability. The side, almost rectangular air outlet openings in the fenders are now significantly longer and lower, instead of narrow and high. At least in the case of individual vehicles, they are also divided horizontally instead of vertically as before.

The top of the front, including the bonnet, does without an air scoop over the carburetors or other air inlets and outlets. The structure appears either sporty and elegant or unspectacular and simple, depending on the view. Against this background, Scaglietti designed a two-tone paint scheme in which the entire underside of the body flanks is painted in a contrasting manner, as is a wide central stripe over the entire length of the vehicle; At the ends of the body, both surfaces come together in wide arcs, at the front below the headlights , which, depending on the color, highlights the wide and narrow front cooling air intake. Many 500 TRCs received this two-tone paint scheme, which later, in a modified form, also some early Ferrari 250 TRsfeatured. [4] [7]

mass and weight

The dimensions and weights of the Ferrari 500 TRC largely correspond to the 500 TR . The wheelbase was still 2.25 meters; it remained 10 centimeters below that of the brand's contemporary twelve-cylinder sports cars, making the four-cylinder models lighter and more manoeuvrable. The gauges were 1,308 millimeters in front and back in 1250, unchanged from the predecessor. Because of the same front axle, this corresponded to the twelve-cylinder models - with the exception of a few millimeters due to different wheel-tire combinations; their De-Dion rear axles, on the other hand, were 36 millimeters wider.

The 500 TRC is 3,937 millimeters long, 1,638 millimeters wide and only 965 millimeters high. Despite the hump behind the driver's seat and the raised windshield required by the regulations, it is one of the slimmest racing cars ever.

The dry weight of 500 TRC was like his predecessor at 680 kilograms and 200 kilograms so down on the Ferrari 335S . The weight differences are mainly due to the engines and the specification of the chassis tubes, as well as the shorter wheelbase and the simpler rear axle.

The tank holds 150 liters and the maximum speed was up to 260 kilometers per hour, depending on the drive ratio, due to the better aerodynamics with the same engine, another 15 kilometers per hour more than with the 500 TR . [1]

The racing history

The Ferrari TRC cockpit, traditionally right-hand drive for all vehicles

Between 1957 and 1966 Ferrari 500 TRCs were entered 222 times in national and international sports car races. In 158 races there were 10 overall and 39 class wins. The first notable success was the Sebring 12-hour race in 1957 ; In the 500 TRC of the Temple Buell Racing Team , Howard Hively and Richie Ginther finished tenth overall and achieved class victory for sports cars up to two liters. Four places behind came Jan de Vroom , George Arents and David Cunningham on another 500 TRCto the goal. The owner of the car with the chassis number 0664MDTR was de Vroom, who founded the North American Racing Team together with Arents and Luigi Chinetti . One day after the 12-hour race, Cunningham won the Sebring 3-hour race with the de Vroom car and celebrated the first race victory of a 500 TRC .

One of the most successful drivers of this sports car model was Gino Munaron : in 1957 he was overall eighth and class winner of the Mille Miglia as well as Italian champion in sports cars up to two liters. At the Le Mans 24-hour race in 1957 , the car of Belgian Ferrari importer Jacques Swaters and drivers Lucien Bianchi and Georges Harris took seventh place overall and won the class. At the following Swedish Grand Prix in Kristianstad , Finnish private drivers Curt Lincoln and Heimo Hietarinta scoredwith her 500 TRC she finished ninth overall and won the class.

In the years that followed, private drivers repeatedly took part in races for the sports car world championship with a 500 TRC , for example the Sebring 12-hour race in 1958 ; At the 1958 Targa Florio , Gaetano Starrabba and the experienced Franco Cortese achieved seventh place overall as well as the class victory for sports cars up to two liters. Other world championship races with participation of at least one Ferrari 500 TRC were the Targa Florio in 1959 and 1965 and the 1000 km race on the Nürburgring in 1961 . Other well-known racing drivers who drove the 500 TRC were Masten Gregoryand Porfirio Rubirosa as well as among the German-speaking Jo Siffert , Sepp Liebl , Gotfrid Köchert and Erwin Bauer .

So Ferrari was much more successful in this class in 1957 than its long-term rival Maserati . Nonetheless, some of the class wins have to be put into perspective: In individual races, racing cars from Porsche , OSCA or Lotus , which competed in smaller categories, were faster.

In 1957, Ferrari won the World Sports Car Championship for the fourth time, clearly ahead of Maserati and Jaguar . The success was primarily due to factory drivers such as Masten Gregory, Piero Taruffi , Phil Hill, Collins and von Trips as well as the 290MM , 315S and 335S models . The 500 TRC used by private drivers played a role insofar as they could have secured points for their own brand if the Ferrari factory car had failed; at the same time, they could have taken important points away from other manufacturers.

The Ferrari model was also successful overseas : In the United States , Swiss- born Gaston Audrey won the SCCA championship with him in the "E Modified" class in both 1958 and 1959. With 25 starts, Audrey was also the driver with the most Racing outings on this sports car model.

More important than the actual motorsport successes of the 500 TRC was its strategic brand significance: As the only racing car model Ferrari for broader customer sport in the 1957 season, it maintained the brand loyalty of various racing teams and private drivers until the appearance of the more successful and now highly valued Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa Scaglietti Spider with 3.0 liter V12 engine upright. [7] [8]

The Ferrari 500 TRC today

A detailed Ferrari 500 TRC replica, built on an adapted chassis of a 250 GT 2 + 2

The 500 TRC is still today (as of 2017) as a model that is little known, often underestimated and undervalued, even among Ferrari enthusiasts, which is clearly in the shadow of the V12 models. This is surprising in that the 500 TRC has a drive system that largely corresponds to that of the 500 F2 Grand Prix racing car . Of the 15 grand prizes in which the latter was used, he won 14 and made it possible for Alberto Ascari to have two titles as driver world champion.

Of the 17 to 20 vehicles that were built as 500 TRCs or received such a chassis, depending on the perspective , only one vehicle is currently considered destroyed. Because of the comparatively poor availability of spare parts for the four-cylinder in-line engines, several vehicles no longer have their original engine. Vehicles are known that are temporarily or permanently equipped with a 3.0-liter four-cylinder from a 750 Monza , a 3.5-liter four-cylinder from an 860 Monza , a 3.0-liter V12 from a 250 TR or from a 250 GT were equipped. [6]

The Ferrari 500 TRC received are occasionally sold or exchanged among collectors, but sometimes also auctioned through well-known auction houses. Depending on the state of preservation, racing history and previous owners, their value is now in the high six, and repeatedly in the seven-digit dollar , pound and euro range:

Because of their rarity, their high value and the resulting limited suitability for historic motorsport, there are now individual reproductions of the Ferrari 500 TRC - as well as many racing car models with V12 engines; As a rule, they are produced individually by well-known Ferrari restorers on the basis of adapted chassis from the Ferrari 250 GT series.


  • Peter Braun, Gregor Schulz: The great Ferrari manual - all series and racing vehicles from 1947 to today . Heel Verlag, Königswinter 2006, ISBN 978-3-89880-501-8 , pp. 49, 155–157, 330 and 364.
  • Matthias Urban: Handbuch der Ferrari serial numbers, Ferrari Serial Numbers Manual, The Raab Files - revisited, 1947–2007 . Heel Verlag, Königswinter 2007, ISBN 978-3-89880-711-1 , in particular p. 18 f. and 43 f.
  • Karl Ludvigsen: Ferrari vs. Maserati - Relentless motorsport rivals . Heel Verlag, Königswinter 2008, ISBN 978-3-86852-051-4 , pp. 154-171, in particular pp. 166-170.
  • Pino Casamassima: History of the Scuderia Ferrari. Nada Editore, Vimodrome 1998, ISBN 88-7911-179-5 .


Commons : Ferrari 500 TRC - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Braun & Schulz (2006); S. 364.
  2. Braun & Schulz (2006); S. 151–154.
  3. Ludvigsen (2008); S. 151–169.
  4. a b c d Braun & Schulz (2006); Pp. 49 and 155.
  5. a b c Braun & Schulz (2006); S. 155.
  6. a b Urban (2007); S. 43 f.
  7. a b c d Ludvigsen (2008); S. 166–170.
  8. The racing results of the Ferrari 500 TRC on the web portal , accessed on January 11, 2017 (English).
  9. Auction catalog of the auction house RM Auctions / Sotheby’s from 2011 , accessed on January 11, 2017 (English).
  10. Auction catalog of the auction house RM Auctions / Sotheby’s from 2012 , accessed on February 11, 2017 (English).
  11. 2013 auction catalog of the Gooding & Co. auction house , accessed on January 11, 2017 (English).