The walkway in the Moorish Garden in the Stuttgart Wilhelma is adorned with a tiled wall with large-format mauresque tiled stars that were made and installed according to the designs of the Stuttgart architect Karl Ludwig von Zanth 1847–1848.
|Working title||Tiled wall|
|Artists||Karl Ludwig von Zanth|
|Reason||geometric and plant ornaments|
|Dimensions||74 panels over a length of approx. 200 m|
|Year of origin||1847–1848|
|Location||Stuttgart, Wilhelma, inner Moorish garden|
|Number of panels||74|
|Width of a panel ||straight aisle: 2.12 m or 1.90 m, arcade: 1.79 m|
|clear height of the walkway||2,84 m|
|Width of the walkway||2,90 m|
|Height of the base ||0,76 m|
|Diameter of a tile star||0,72 m|
The historic Wilhelma, as it was planned and built in the first half of the 19th century, lies on an approximately rectangular area that extends from the Neckar in the southeast to the Belvedere (B) in the west. On the two long sides, the area is delimited by Pragstrasse in the northeast and the greenhouse corridor (GG) in the southwest, which connects the main entrance (HE) with the inner walkway (red line) in the Moorish Garden.
A diagonal of the rectangle forms the almost west-east oriented longitudinal axis, which extends from the Belvedere (B) to the Damascus Hall (DH). The inner Moorish garden is located in the north-south oriented transverse axis between the Moorish country house (ML) and the former Moorish ballroom (MF). It is delimited by the Moorish country house (ML) with its two greenhouse wings and the adjoining arcades that merge into the oval, hippodrome-shaped inner arcade.
The arcades, which are now open on both sides and are only partially covered, extend from the corner pavilions of the greenhouse wings ( 10/11) through a small corner kiosk (8/9), where they bend at right angles and lead into the southern and northern pavilions (SP / NP), the two endpoints of the inner walkway.
Red line = inner gallery with the tiled wall , B = Belvedere, DH = Damaszenerhalle, GB = large basin (water lily pond), GG = greenhouse corridor , HE = main entrance, HS = half moon lake, LS = long lake, MF = moorish ballroom (today aquarium Terrarium), ML = Moorish country house, NP = northern pavilion, SP = southern pavilion, TW = outer walkway with terracotta wall, WG = winter garden, WT = Wilhelma theater
1 = main pavilion of the inner walkway, 2/3 = side pavilions, axially to the corner pavilions of the greenhouse wings, 4/5 = side pavilions, axially to the pavilions SP and NP, 6/7 = arched pavilions, 8/9 = corner kiosks of the arcades, 10 / 11 = corner pavilions of the greenhouse wings
There are two walkways in Wilhelma: the inner walkway with the tiled wall, which is dealt with here, and the outer walkway with the terracotta wall that delimits the Wilhelma on the Neckar side. The covered walkway, open to the inner Moorish garden, begins with the main pavilion (1). Before it was destroyed in the Second World War, behind it stood the Moorish Festsaal (MF), of which only the rear portal zone has survived and in its place the aquarium-terrarium with its hexagonal central structure was built in 1963. This is where the two wings of the gallery exit: the south wing between pavilion (1), (2), (4), (6) and (SP) and the north wing between pavilion (1), (3), (5), (7) and (NP).
They are straight at first and then enclose the inner Moorish garden in a semicircular arc. The straight part of the corridors is interrupted twice by identical side pavilions, which are opposite the corner pavilions of the greenhouse wings (10/11) and opposite the southern and northern pavilions (SP / NP) and used to serve as passageways between the outer and inner gardens. Greenhouses were originally built behind the back wall of the straight corridors, but they were destroyed in the Second World War. The side wings of the aquarium-terrarium now extend in their place.
In the middle of the two arches rise two identical side pavilions: the southern one (6), which is in front of the former kitchen building, and the northern one (7) with a passage in the direction of Pragstrasse. The southern archway is interrupted at two other places: between pavilions (4) and (6) by the transition to the greenhouse corridor (GG) and between pavilion (6) and the southern pavilion (SP) by a toilet wing .
The almost three-meter-high and wide inner walkway is basically constructed in the same way, with the exception of the interrupted places. The gently sloping gable roof is supported on the open front of the corridor by cast iron pillars and on the rear side by a wall with dark and light red glazed tiles . The rectangular panels made of light red bricks, with a tiled star in their center (except in the northern archway), are framed by dark red bricks, horizontally by a knee-high plinth area and a narrow ceiling zone and vertically by narrow, pilaster-like stripsTapes. In the area of the straight corridors, the panels with windows and doors alternate, while the panels in the southern arcade, except for the interrupted points, follow one another continuously. The windows and doors are bricked up today. Originally, they allowed a view or passage to the greenhouses that were behind the straight part of the walkway.
74 panels of the gallery carry a large-format tiled star with a diameter of 72 cm in their center. The tiled stars in the northern archway are missing because they were left out during the restoration. The tile stars imitate, on a larger scale, the star tiles popular in oriental art. The star shape of an eight-pointed star tile or an eight-pointed star tile is created by placing two squares on top of each other rotated by 45 °.
Within this basic shape, Zanth created five types of tile stars, which are numbered here from 1 to 5 (see details ). Starting at the main pavilion (1), the tiled stars spread to the left (north wing) and to the right (south wing) in the order of the type number:
The tile stars are rotationally symmetrical , ie two identical stars can be brought into congruence again after rotating them through a certain angle. Types 1 and 2 are rotationally symmetrical in four directions, ie they are congruent after a rotation of 90 ° and 4 rotations are required for a full circle rotation. Types 3, 4 and 5 are 8-fold rotationally symmetrical with a rotation angle of 45 °.
King Wilhelm I commissioned Zanth to build the walkway in 1843, but the repeatedly changed plans were not approved until 1846. Construction began in 1847 and was finally completed in the revolutionary year of 1848 . Nothing is known about the planning and execution of the tile stars.
After the destruction of the Second World War, the walkway was restored in 1987. The restoration of the tile stars was carried out by the Villeroy & Boch company .
Like many other applications in the Zanthschen Wilhelma buildings, the tile stars are part of the Moorish decoration of the “Swabian Alhambra ”. Tiles are a popular ornament in Moorish architecture, so it comes as no surprise that Zanth decided to use ceramic tiles to decorate the inner gallery, just as he had already chosen terracotta tiles for the outer gallery .
Zanth chose the star motif popular in Moorish ornamentation as the basic form of his walkway decorations, which was particularly reflected in star tiles. However, he enlarged the format of these star tiles into tile mosaics, which are composed of a large number of individual tiles.
Zanth did not use an oriental model, but rather composed the stars from ornaments according to his own design, which he adopted from the common occidental and Moorish treasure trove of forms. This applies in particular to the frequently used arabesque stylized lotus blossoms and palmettes . The individual motifs of the stars are framed with partially artistically interwoven ribbons that are reminiscent of Moorish wickerwork. When coloring the tiles, he kept to the basic Moorish colors blue, red and yellow.
The following references only deal with the inner walkway without dealing with the tiled stars. "Ceramic ornaments" are only mentioned in Herzog 1990. 
- Herbert Fecker: Stuttgart, the palaces and their gardens. The development of palaces and gardens from the count's residence to the international horticultural exhibition. Stuttgart 1992, especially pages 93-101, 159-169.
- Oskar Gerhardt: The Wilhelma . In: Stuttgart's gem. The history of the castle garden, Rosenstein and Wilhelma. An entertaining chat based on extensive official source material , Stuttgart [approx. 1936], pp. 76-103.
- Rainer Herzog: Wilhelma Stuttgart. Documentation of the historical and creative development of the Wilhelma gardens , Stuttgart 1990, especially pages 29–65 (Inner Moorish Garden), 43–44 (Inner walkway).
- Susanne Smile: South Pavilion and Walkway in the Moorish Garden (1987) . In: Ministry of Finance Baden-Württemberg: The Wilhelma. Your structural development up to 1996 , [Stuttgart] 1996, page 46.
- Christian Friedrich von Leins: The court camps and country seats of the Württemberg regent house. Stuttgart [approx. 1889], especially pages 85–86.
- Frank Scholze: Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von Zanth and Wilhelma. A brief introduction to the architect's 200th birthday , Stuttgart 1996, especially pages 18–19  .
- Elke von Schulz: The Wilhelma in Stuttgart. An example of orientalizing architecture in the 19th century and its architect Karl Ludwig Zanth , Tübingen 1976, especially pages 58–62.
- Michael Wenger: Karl Ludwig von Zanth (1796–1857) and Wilhelma. A "very modern style with Moorish-oriental decorations". In: Schlösser Baden-Württemberg 1996, issue 3, pages 2-6.
- Including the pilaster-like strips that frame the panel on the sides.
- To the lower edge of the panel.
- Zanth used similar square fillings for the rosette tiles of the terracotta wall of the outer gallery.
- "The back of the corridor was designed as masonry made of glazed bricks, which showed a color-contrasting subdivision into fields, the centers of which were decorated with colored ceramic ornaments. Within the straight aisle section, these ornaments alternated with window openings, through which a view of the greenhouses adjoining the back with their citrus trellises was possible. ”(Herzog 1990, page 43).