Flora and fauna of Canada - Flora y fauna de Canadá

A Canadian goose.

Much of the Canadian territory is covered by forests of timber trees, where pine, fir, spruce and cedar stand out. It also has large meadows.

The fauna is very similar to that of Northern Europe and Northern Asia . You can find bears, wolves, coyotes, American lions and pumas, among other carnivorous animals. In the arctic regions there are polar bears. Beavers, porcupines and numerous rodents can be seen in some areas. In flat regions there are moles. Some areas of Canada are also home to deer, reindeer, and elk. There are also abundant and diverse varieties of birds, reptiles and insects. Given the enormous expanse of Canada, ranging from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and from the 49th Parallel to beyond the 70th, the country has a varied topography and significant climatic differences, which favors a multivariate flora and fauna.


In the Arctic we come across the tundra that offers more than 900 plants of different species. Vegetation decreases as we approach the North Pole .

One of the country's greatest riches is the forests. In the tundra, birches and dwarf willows, grasses, mosses and evergreens flourish during the summer. To the south of the tundra are the great coniferous forests made up of black and white firs, Banks pines, aspen and white aspen, white birch, larch and balsam pines.

The so-called "taiga" extends from the Yukon Territory and the Labrador Peninsula , while between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic there is a forest region composed of hard and soft wood trees, with a predominance of deciduous trees such as yellow birch, red maple, sugar maple, ash, oak, walnut and elm. In the coastal zone of the Pacific, thanks to the humidity, an exuberant vegetation appears formed by conifers such as Douglas fir, red cedar.


Among the animals that make up the Canadian fauna we can point out, in the north, species such as musk oxen , reindeer , polar bears , seals , foxes , wolves , stoats, Canadian lynx or bobcat . Between the provinces of Nova Scotia and Yukon, moose can be seen, while caribou are found in the northern forests; the white - tailed deer and bison only in national parks. White chamois, bush caribou and brown bears usually inhabit the mountain ranges .

As for the ornithofauna, thousands of migratory birds cross the skies. Canadian geese and wild geese are distinguished . There are many types of partridges, quail and goshawks; the golden eagles , owls and ravens are numerous . The most unique songbirds include orioles, bramble robins, and various kinds of finches. Among the marine species we find ducks, geese, cormorants, swallows and boobies. Bird lovers will find ideal territories throughout Canada (especially along the Fundy coast - more than 350 species have recently been counted in the latter region).

On the other hand, the richness in marine species is impressive. In British Columbia you can find fish such as salmon, pike, perch and umbra. In the Atlantic, cod, mackerel, swordfish and, especially, giant tuna. Freshwater are trout and Atlantic salmon. In the rivers of Quebec there are large numbers of pike, bass, trout and "ouananiches", a kind of salmon. Muskfish, trout, seabass, perch, and sole roam the countless waters of Ontario.

If the trip coincides with the season, it is "almost obligatory" to enjoy the spectacle of great cetaceans. During the summer you can see the belugas that reach the bays of Newfoundland, Hudson or the coasts of British Columbia, while in spring, gray whales travel the west coast when migrating from Mexico to Alaska and Puerto Rico but also in Mexico there are a great variety of fauna