The Flores Magón brothers are currently considered precursors of the Mexican Revolution .
Ricardo (1873 - 1922)
The most radical of the 3 brothers, he was born in San Antonio Eloxochitlán Oaxaca , Mexico on September 16 , 1873 . The son of a humble family and a liberal tradition, he began a career as a lawyer that did not end. In 1893 he participated in student riots that were protesting against the third reelection to the presidency of Mexico of General Porfirio Díaz , that same year he began the publication of an opposition newspaper called El Demócrata
In 1900, together with his brothers Enrique and Jesús, he founded the newspaper of anarchist affiliation Regeneración from where he attacked the dictatorship of General Porfirio Diaz , which led to his imprisonment. In 1901 he attended the First Congress of Liberal Clubs in the city of San Luis Potosí, in which the Diaz government rudely attacked, which resulted in the newspaper being suppressed and Ricardo Flores Magón imprisoned. In 1902 he took charge of the publication of the anti-Porfirian newspaper El hijo del Ahuizote , as a consequence he was apprehended again and expatriated in 1904.
Exiled in the United States, he republished the newspaper Regeneración and founded the Mexican Liberal Party in July 1906, together with Juan Sarabia, Antonio I. Villarreal, Librado Rivera, Manuel Sarabia, Rosalío Bustamante and his brother Enrique.
Among the postulates of the new party there were very revolutionary ideas for that time such as; abolition of re-election, abolition of the death penalty for political and common prisoners, compulsory elementary education up to 14 years of age, establishment of a minimum wage, expropriation of large estates and idle lands, as well as regulating working hours. The wishes embodied in the program of the Mexican Liberal Party would be taken up by the men and women who rose up in 1910 against the long dictatorship of General Díaz and started the Mexican Revolution , the first of the 20th century. Many of these postulates were collected by the Constituents of Querétaro and were incorporated into the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1917 .
At the beginning of the Mexican Revolution, his leader Francisco I. Madero invited him to participate in the movement, however Ricardo Flores Magón rejected the offer because he considered that the cause that Madero was leading was a bourgeois rebellion lacking social proposals. In the following years he had contact with the revolutionaries Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata without making an alliance with them.
In January 1911 he promoted an invasion of Baja California from Los Angeles , it is said that in order to make it independent and establish a socialist republic, however, some historians deny such a version.
After several armed skirmishes, the rebels took the nascent towns of Mexicali and Tijuana supported all the time by anarchists of different nationalities, mostly North Americans. This gave reason for some writers to consider the Flores Magón "traitors to the Homeland." The insurgents whom the government called filibusters were defeated months after the invasion began, thus ending the dream of establishing the world's first socialist republic.
Seven years later, together with Librado Rivera, he published a manifesto addressed to the anarchists of the world, a manifesto that led to both being imprisoned and sentenced to 20 years in prison, accused of sabotaging the war effort of the United States, which at that time participated in the first war. world. Ricardo was imprisoned on McNeil Island, Washington state and, already very ill, was transferred to Leavenworth prison, Kansas, where he died on November 21 , 1922 . His partner Rivera said he had been murdered. His remains rest in the Rotunda of Illustrious Persons in Mexico City .
Enrique (1887 - 1954)
Enrique Flores Magón politician and writer was born in Teotitlán Oaxaca, Mexico. Along with his brothers Ricardo and Jesús, he collaborated in the newspaper Regeneración , he founded, together with his brother Ricardo and other people, the Mexican Liberal Party in the city of San Luis, Missouri , an anarchist party. He was persecuted and imprisoned for his anarchist ideas and actions. Exiled, he returned to Mexico in 1923 where he lived away from politics until his death in 1954. =)
Jesus (1871 - 1930)
He was the eldest of the Flores Magón brothers and was born in Teotitlán Oaxaca, Mexico. He received his law degree and, in 1900, together with his brothers Ricardo and Enrique, founded the newspaper Regeneración . He was the first of the brothers to go to prison for opposing the regime of dictator General Porfirio Díaz. When Porfirio Díaz was deposed by the armed movement that would later be known as the Mexican Revolution, he was called to collaborate with the new government headed by Francisco I. Madero, being appointed undersecretary of Justice and later Secretary of Government.
Jesús Flores Magón was the most moderate of the three brothers to the extent that he broke with Ricardo and Enrique because of their radicalism, when they incited from Los Angeles, California , a group of anarchists of various nationalities to invade Baja California and create a republic independent socialist from both Mexico and the United States . Jesus went to meet them in Los Angeles, California, but could achieve nothing. Upon his return, he came into conflict with President Francisco I. Madero and resigned from his post.
During the troubled years that followed, he remained in Mexico City . When the revolutionary Venustiano Carranza took power, he chose to leave the country because he had participated as a running mate of the presidential candidate Manuel Valero . He returned to the death of Venustiano Carranza .
He died in Mexico City on December 7, 1930.