|Height above MSL||125 m (410 ft)|
|Distance from the city center||
2.4 km south-west of Welzow, |
22 km south-west of Cottbus,
66 km north-north-east of Dresden
|Bahn||Cottbus – Hoyerswerda|
|operator||Flugplatzbetriebsgesellschaft Welzow mbH|
|21/03 (current)||2000 m × 30 m Concrete|
|22/04 (1990)||2500 m × 80 m Concrete|
|(1945)||1100 m × 800 m Gras|
The airfield Welzow is an airfield in Welzow in Brandenburg . Created in the 1920s, it served as a military airfield for the German Air Force from the 1930s . After the end of the Second World War , it was taken over by the Soviet armed forces and operated until they withdrew from Germany in the first half of the 1990s. After a partial renovation, it has been used civilly since August 1996.
The first flying activities on the area between Welzow and Bahnsdorf began in the 1920s. From 1928 passenger flights were carried out from the site on Bahnsdorfer Weg. These were discontinued in 1930 and it was subsequently used as a glider flying site .
The time of National Socialism
From 1936, the expansion into the future deployment port of the Air Force began, whereby it is noteworthy that most of the infrastructure was built as wooden structures. Three hangars with an asphalt apron were built on the southern edge. At that time, the size of the square was 1,100 × 800 m, with the size of the sod used as a runway being given as 1,000 × 300 m. The first intensive use as an operational airfield took place in 1939 by the Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 , whose 1st group moved from their peaceful location Cottbus to Welzow at the end of August , in order to move from here at the beginning of the Second World Warin September 1939 flying attacks on Polish forces. The airfield was then used as a place of work by pilot schools and supplementary units. During the last days of the war, various Luftwaffe units retreating from the Red Army gathered in Welzow, such as a large part of Jagdgeschwader 6 , which was in Welzow from February 1945 and was relocated in April. On April 16, 1945, there was an air raid by units of the Soviet 2nd Air Army , which was subordinate to the 1st Ukrainian Front . Finally, the airfield was captured on April 19 (20?) 1945 by the Red Army and from May to June by the IL-2equipped 8th Guards Battleman Division occupied. The hangars had previously been blown up by retreating Wehrmacht units.
Under Soviet use
After the end of the war , the remains of the hangar and the technical area were demolished; only the wooden buildings remained, were used by the Red Army until 1953 and then replaced by stone buildings. From 1949, planning began to expand the site as a front bomber base for the 16th Air Army . This began with a considerable expansion phase to three times the original area by clearing forest and meadow areas in a south-westerly direction. From 1951 to 1953, the expansion to a 2nd class airfield took place: it became an asphalt runway with a length of 2500 meters including a flight linelaid out, splitter boxes and flak positions erected and a rail connection to Neupetershain station established. In 1958, a reserve runway running parallel to the runway, 2000 meters long and twelve meters wide, and a decentralization area in the north-west of the square were added. This decentralization area was located approx. 3 km outside the airfield and had 20 parking spaces, the taxiway there crossed the Grossenhain – Cottbus railway and the 169 trunk road . The airfield, now called Neu-Welzow , was given the code name DUBROWKA ( Russian Дубровка , German in the oaks). In the further course various flying units of the Soviet Army were stationed, but the main user was the 11th Independent Reconnaissance Air Regiment (11th ORAP), which was relocated from Krustpils / Latvian SSR to Welzow in June 1954 . His equipment consisted of reconnaissance versions of the types IL-28 , Jak-27 , Jak-28 and from 1986 from Su-24 .
In the 1960s, the question arose of giving up the square in favor of mining the abundant brown coal deposits in the region by the GDR , which, however, would have had to withdraw its guarantees of existence to the Soviet side. The Soviet Union made its approval dependent on the construction of a complete airfield elsewhere as a replacement for the Neu-Welzow airfield by the GDR, which therefore rejected these considerations at the end of the 1960s.
In 1969/70 the first ten closed aircraft covers were erected in Neu-Welzow, to which more were added in 1974/75. In addition, a second 2500 m runway was built 50 m west of the first, which then also served as a parking area for larger aircraft at times. In 1983 the flight line was enlarged to 500 × 70 m in anticipation of the arrival of Su-24 reconnaissance vehicles.
In May 1991 the 11th ORAP briefly received some MiG-25RB from the inventory of the 931st ORAP from Werneuchen , which formed its 3rd squadron until the 11th ORAP withdrew. This began a month later with the return of a first Su-24MP squadron from June 5th to 7th and ended on June 15, 1993 with the launch of the last Su-24MR in the direction of Marinowka . The last material shipment flights took place in early August 1993. The airfield was then handed over to the German authorities and declared a conversion area.
- Stefan Büttner: Red places . Russian military airfields Germany 1945–1994. Fliegerhorste – Aerodorme – Military fallow areas. Ed .: Lutz Freundt. AeroLit, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-935525-11-4 , pp. 170/171.
- Jürgen Zapf: Luftwaffe airfields 1934–1945 - and what was left of them. Volume 1: Berlin & Brandenburg . VDM Heinz Nickel , Zweibrücken 2001, ISBN 3-925480-52-8 , p. 328–333.
- Lutz Freundt: Soviet Air Force Germany 1945–1990. Volume 2 . Airfields (part 2) and units. Self-published, Diepholz 1998, ISBN 3-00-002665-7 , p. 22/23.