Gioachino Rossini, photographed by Étienne Carjat, 1865
|Birth name||Giovacchino Antonio Rossini|
|Italian name||Gioachino Antonio Rossini|
|Birth|| February 29 , 1792 |
Casa Rossini ( Pesaro , Papal States ) or Pesaro (Papal States)
|Death|| November 13 , 1868(76 years old) |
Passy ( France ) or Paris (France)
|Cause of death||Colorectal cancer|
|Grave||Basilica of the Holy Cross and Père-Lachaise Cemetery|
|Educated in||Giovanni Battista Martini Conservatory|
|Occupation||Composer and musician|
|Years active||since 1810|
|Students||Marietta Alboni y Adolphe Nourishes|
|Genders||Opera , cantata and classical music|
Gioachino Rossini [ a ] ( Pesaro , Papal States , 29 as February as 1792 - Passy , Paris , Second Empire , 13 as November as 1868 ) was a composer Italian who gained fame for his 39 operas , but also wrote many songs , some pieces of chamber and piano music and some sacred music . It set new standards for both comic opera andIt would be before he retired from full-scale songwriting when he was still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity.
Born in Pesaro to musician parents, his trumpeter father and a singer mother, Rossini began composing at the age of 12 and was educated at the music school in Bologna . His first opera was performed in Venice in 1810 when he was 18 years old. In 1815, he committed to writing operas and directing theaters in Naples . In the period 1810-1823 he wrote 34 operas for the Italian scene which were performed in Venice, Milan , Ferrara , Naples and elsewhere. This productivity required an almost formulaic approach for some components (such as openings) and a certain amount of self-loan. During this period he produced his most popular works, including the comic operas The Italian in Algiers , The Barber of Seville and The Cinderella , which brought to its maximum expression the tradition of the comic opera that he inherited from masters such as Domenico Cimarosa and Giovanni Paisiello . He also composed works of serious opera such as Othello , Tancredi and Semiramide . All of these attracted admiration for their innovation in melody , harmonic and instrumental color, and dramatic form. In 1824, the Paris Operahired him, to produce an opera to celebrate the coronation of Charles X , The Journey to Reims (later reused for his first French opera, Count Ory ), revisions of two of his Italian operas, Le Siège de Corinthe and Mosè in Egitto , and in 1829 his last opera, Guillermo Tell .
Rossini's withdrawal from opera for the last 40 years of his life has never been fully explained. Contributing factors may have been his poor health, the wealth that his success had brought him, and the emergence of a spectacular grand opera featuring composers like Giacomo Meyerbeer . From the early 1830s until 1855, when he left Paris and settled in Bologna, Rossini wrote relatively little. Upon his return to Paris in 1855 he became famous for his Saturday music salons, regularly attended by musicians and Parisian art and fashion circles, for whom he wrote the entertaining pieces Péchés de vieillesse . Guests included Franz Liszt, Antón Rubinstein , Giuseppe Verdi , Meyerbeer and Joseph Joachim . Rossini's last great composition was his Petite Messe Solennelle of 1863.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini was born on February 29, 1792 in Pesaro, a city on the Adriatic coast of Italy that was then part of the Papal States . [ 2 ] He was the only son of Giuseppe Rossini, trumpeter and horn player , and his wife Anna, née Guidarini, seamstress by trade and daughter of a baker. [ 7 ] Giuseppe Rossini was charming, but impetuous and irresponsible. The burden of supporting the family and raising the child fell primarily on Anna, with some help from her mother and mother-in-law. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Stendhal, who published a colorful biography of Rossini in 1824, [ 10 ] wrote:
Rossini's portion from his father, was the true native heirship of an Italian: a little music, a little religion, and a volume of Ariosto. The rest of his education was consigned to the legitimate school of southern youth, the society of his mother, the young singing girls of the company, those prima donnas in embryo, and the gossips of every village through which they passed. This was aided and refined by the musical barber and news-loving coffee-house keeper of the Papal village.[b]Rossini's portion of his father was the true native heritage of an Italian: a little music, a little religion, and a volume of Ariosto . The rest of his education was devoted to the legitimate school of the southern youth, the society of his mother, the young singers of the company, those prima donnas in embryo and the gossip of each town through which they passed. The music barber and news-loving papal people's cafe manager helped and refined him.
Giuseppe, known as Vivazza (vivacious), was imprisoned at least twice: first, in 1790, for insubordination to local authorities in a dispute over his employment as a city trumpeter; and, in 1799 and 1800, for his republican activism and the support of Napoleon's troops against the pope's Austrian benefactors. [ 12 ] In 1798, when Rossini was six years old, his mother began a career as a professional singer in comic opera and for little more than a decade had considerable success in cities such as Trieste and Bologna , before her inexperienced voice began to spread. fail. [ 13 ]
In 1802, the family moved to Lugo , near Ravenna , where Rossini received a basic education in Italian, Latin, and arithmetic, as well as music. [ 13 ] He studied horn with his father and other music with a priest, Giuseppe Malerbe, whose extensive library contained works by Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , both little known in Italy at the time, but inspiring to the young Rossini. He was a quick learner, and by the age of twelve he had composed a set of six sonatas for four stringed instruments , which were performed under the tutelage of a wealthy patron in 1804. [c ] Two years later, he was admitted to the recently opened Liceo Musicale de Bologna, under the tutelage of the priest Stanislao Mattei , where he initially studied singing , cello and piano , and soon after joined the composition class. [ 15 ] He wrote some substantial works while he was a student, including a mass and a cantata., and after two years they invited him to continue his studies. He declined the offer: the Lyceum's strict academic regimen had provided him with solid compositional technique, but as his biographer Richard Osborne asserts, "his instinct to continue his education in the real world was finally asserted." [ 16 ]
While still at the Lyceum, Rossini had performed in public as a singer and worked in theaters as a repeater and keyboard soloist . [ 17 ] In 1810, at the request of the popular tenor Domenico Mombelli , he wrote his first operatic score, a serious operatic drama in two acts, Demetrius and Polybius , with a libretto by Mombelli's wife. It was performed publicly in 1812, after the composer's first successes. [ 15 ] Rossini and his parents concluded that their future lay in the composition of operas. The main operatic center of northeastern Italy was Veniceand under the tutelage of the composer Giovanni Morandi , a friend of the family, he moved there at the end of 1810, when he was eighteen years old. [ 18 ]
First operas (1810-1815)
Rossini's first opera to be performed was The Marriage Contract , a one- act comedy , performed at the small Teatro San Moisè in November 1810. The piece was a great success and Rossini received what seemed to him at the time a considerable sum : "Forty escudos, an amount that I had never seen together." [ 19 ] Later, he described the San Moisè as an ideal theater for a young composer learning his craft - "everything tended to facilitate the debut of a novice composer": [ 20 ] it had no choir and a small troupe of protagonists ; his main repertoire consisted of comic operas in one act ( farces), staged with modest scenery and minimal rehearsals. [ 21 ] The success of his first piece followed with three more farces for the house: The Lucky Deception (1812), The Silk Scale (1812) and Il signor Bruschino (1813). [ 22 ]
He maintained his ties with Bologna, where in 1811 he succeeded in directing Haydn's Stations [ 23 ] and a failure with his first full-length opera, The Curious Misunderstanding . [ 24 ] [ 25 ] He also worked for opera in Ferrara and Rome. [ 26 ] In mid-1812, he received a commission from La Scala in Milan where his two-act comedy The TouchstoneHe had fifty-three functions, a considerable development for the time, which not only brought him financial benefits, but also the exemption from military service and the title of maestro di cartello (a composer whose name on billboards guaranteed a full theater). [ 21 ] The following year, his first serious opera, Tancredi , scored well at La Fenice in Venice and even better at Ferrara, with a rewritten tragic ending. [ 26 ] The success of Tancredimade Rossini's name known internationally; opera productions in London (1820) and New York (1825) followed. [ 27 ] A few weeks after Tancredi , Rossini had another blockbuster with his comedy italiana in Algiers , hastily composed and premiered in May 1813. [ 28 ]
1814 was a less remarkable year for the rising composer, neither The Turk in Italy nor Sigismondo pleased Milanese and Venetian audiences, respectively. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] 1815 marked an important step in their career. In May he moved to Naples, to assume the position of music director of the royal theaters. These included the Teatro de San Carlos , [ 26 ] the most important opera theater in the city. His manager, Domenico Barbaja , was to be a major influence on the composer's career there. [ 31 ]
Naples and the Barber (1815-1820)
The Naples musical establishment did not immediately welcome Rossini, who was seen as an intruder in its cherished operatic traditions. The city had once been the operatic capital of Europe; [ 32 ] Domenico Cimarosa's memory was revered and Giovanni Paisiello was still alive, but there were no local composers of any stature to follow them and Rossini quickly won over audiences and critics. [ 33 ] His first play for Saint Charles, Elizabeth, Queen of England was a dramma per musicain two acts, in which he reused substantial parts of his previous works, unknown to the local public. Experts Philip Gossett and Patricia Brauner write: "It is as if Rossini wanted to present himself to the Neapolitan public by offering a selection of the best opera music that is unlikely to be revived in Naples." [ 34 ] The new opera was received with tremendous enthusiasm, as was the Neapolitan premiere of La Italiana in Algiers, and the composer's position in the city was secured. [ 35 ]
For the first time, he was able to write regularly for a resident troupe of top-notch singers and an excellent orchestra, with proper rehearsals and schedules that made it unnecessary to compose in a rush to meet deadlines. [ 33 ] Between 1815 and 1822, he composed eighteen more operas: nine for Naples and nine for opera houses in other cities. In 1816, for the Teatro Argentina in Rome and with a libretto by Cesare Sterbini , he composed the opera that would become his best known: The Barber of Seville . A popular opera of that title by Paisiello already existed and Rossini's version was originally given the same title as its hero, Almaviva . [d ] Despite an unsuccessful opening night, with setbacks on stage and many audience members in favor of Paisiello and against Rossini, the opera quickly became a success and at the time of its first revival, in Bologna, a few months later, it was billed under its current title and quickly overshadowed Paisiello's work. [ 34 ] [ e ]
Rossini's operas for the Teatro San Carlos were substantial pieces, mainly serious. His Othello (1816) caused Lord Byron to write: "They have been crucifying Othello in an opera: good music, but gloomy, but word wise!" [ 37 ] However, the piece proved popular in general and maintained frequent scenario in new mounts until it was eclipsed by the version of Giuseppe Verdi , seven decades later. [ 38 ] Among his other works for the house are Mosè in Egitto (1818), based on the biblical story of Mosesand The Exodus from Egypt , and The Lady of the Lake (1819), based on the homonymous poem by Walter Scott . For La Scala he wrote the semiserie opera La gazza barks (1817) and for Rome his version of the Cinderella tale , Cinderella (1817). [ 39 ] In 1817, the first performance of one of his operas ( La Italiana ) took place at the Théâtre-italien in Paris, the success of which led to other of his operas being performed there and eventually to his contract in Paris. 1824 to 1830. [ 40 ]
Rossini kept his personal life as private as possible, but he was known for his penchant for the singers of the companies he worked with. Among his lovers in his early years were Ester Mombelli (Domenico's daughter) and Marietta Marcolini of the Bologna troupe. [ 41 ] By far the most important of these relationships, both personal and professional, was with Isabella Colbran , prima donna of the San Carlos Theater (and Barbaia's former lover). Rossini had heard her sing in Bologna in 1807 and, when she moved to Naples, he wrote a succession of important roles for her in her operas. [ 42 ] 
Vienna and London (1820-1824)
In the early 1820s, Rossini was beginning to tire of Naples. The failure of his operatic tragedy Ermione the year before convinced him that he and the Neapolitan audience were fed up with each other. [ 44 ] An insurrection in Naples against the monarchy, although quickly put down , disturbed him. [ 45 ] When Barbaja signed a contract to bring the company to Vienna , the composer was happy to join them, but did not reveal to Barbaja that he had no intention of returning to Naples later. [ 46 ]He traveled with Colbran in March 1822, interrupting his trip in Bologna, where they were married in the presence of his parents in a small church in Castenaso a few kilometers from the city. [ 47 ] The bride was thirty-seven, the groom thirty. [ F ]
In Vienna, Rossini received a hero's welcome. His biographers describe it as "unprecedented feverish enthusiasm", [ 49 ] "Rossini fever" [ 50 ] and "almost hysteria." [ 51 ] The authoritarian Chancellor of the Austrian Empire , Klemens von Metternich , liked his music and considered it free from all possible revolutionary or republican associations. Therefore, he was willing to allow the San Carlo company to perform the composer's operas. [ 52 ] In a three-month season they played six of them, before an audience so enthusiastic that the assistant ofBeethoven , Anton Schindler , described it as "an idolatrous orgy." [ 50 ]
While in Vienna, he listened to Beethoven's Eroic Symphony and was so moved that he decided to meet the lonely composer. Eventually, he managed to do so and then described the encounter to many people, including Eduard Hanslick and Richard Wagner . He recalled that although the conversation was hampered by Beethoven's deafness and Rossini's ignorance of German, Beethoven made it clear that he thought Rossini's talent was not for serious opera [ 53 ] and that "above all" he should «Do more Barbiere » (Barbers). [ 54 ] [ g ]
After the Vienna season, Rossini returned to Castenaso to work with his librettist, Gaetano Rossi , at Semiramide , commissioned by La Fenice . His last work for the Italian theater was premiered in February 1823. Colbran starred in her, but it was evident to everyone that her voice was in serious decline, and Semiramide ended her career in Italy. [ 56 ] The work survived this great handicap and entered the international operatic repertoire and remained popular throughout the 19th century . [ 57 ] In the words of Richard Osborne, it brought "[Rossini's] Italian career to a spectacular end." 
In November 1823, Rossini and Colbran left for London, where they had been offered a lucrative contract. They stopped for four weeks in Paris. Although it was not as acclaimed by Parisians as it had been in Vienna, it had an exceptionally welcoming reception from the music establishment and the public. When he attended a performance of The Barber at the Théâtre-italien, the musicians applauded him, dragged him onto the stage and accompanied him with a serenade. A banquet was held for him and his wife, attended by leading French composers and artists, and he found the city's cultural climate pleasant. [ 59 ]
Once in the UK, King George IV received and valued Rossini, although the composer was no longer impressed by royalty and aristocracy. [ 60 ] Rossini and Colbran had signed contracts for an opera season at the King's Theater in Haymarket . His vocal deficiencies were a serious problem and he reluctantly withdrew from acting. Public opinion was not improved by the fact that Rossini did not provide a new opera, as promised. [ 61 ] The printer, Vincenzo Benelli, breached his contract with the composer, but this was not known to the press or the London public, who blamed Rossini. [ 61]
In a 2003 biography of the composer, Gaia Servadio comments that Rossini and the United Kingdom were not made for each other. He was prostrate by the Canal crossing and was unlikely to be enthusiastic about the weather or English cuisine. [ 63 ] Although his stay in London was financially rewarding, - the British press disapprovingly reported that he had earned more than £ 30,000 - [ h ] he was happy to sign a contract at the French embassy in London to return to Paris, where he had felt so much more at home. [ 65 ] [ 66 ]
Paris and last operas (1824-1829)
Rossini's new and highly paid contract with the French government was negotiated under the reign of Louis XVIII , who died in September 1824, shortly after the composer's arrival in Paris . It was agreed that the composer would produce a grand opéra for the Académie Royale de Musique and a comic opera or a semiserial opera for the Théâtre-italien. [ 67 ] He was also going to help direct the last theater and revise one of his early plays for a new montage there. [ 68 ] The death of the king and the rise of Charles Xto the throne they changed their plans and their first new work for Paris was The Voyage to Reims , an operatic entertainment given in June 1825 to celebrate the king's coronation. It was Rossini's last opera with an Italian libretto. [ 69 ] allowed just four performances of the piece, [ 70 ] [ i ] with the intention to reuse the best of music in a less ephemeral opera. [ 72 ] About half of the score for Count Ory (1828) comes from the previous work. [ 73 ]
Colbran's forced retirement put the Rossini marriage to the test, leaving her unoccupied while he continued to be the center of musical attention and constantly in demand. [ 56 ] He consoled himself with what Servadio describes as "a new pleasure in shopping." [ 74 ] For Rossini, Paris offered continual gourmet delights and its increasingly plump form began to appear. [ 74 ]
The first of the four operas that Rossini wrote with French librettos were Le Siège de Corinthe (1826) and Moïse et Pharaon (1827). Both were substantial reworkings of pieces written for Naples: Maometto II and Mosè in Egitto . He was very careful before starting work on the first one, as he learned to speak French and became familiar with the traditional French operatic ways of reciting the language. In addition to dropping some of the original music that had an ornate style old-fashioned in Paris, it accommodated local preferences by adding dances, hymn numbers, and a larger role for the choir . [ 75]
His mother died in 1827. He had devoted himself to her and deeply felt her loss. She and Colbran had never gotten along and Servadio suggests that after Anna's death, Rossini felt resentment towards the surviving woman in his life. [ 76 ]
In 1828, Rossini wrote Count Ory , his only comic opera in French. His determination to reuse the music from The Voyage to Reims caused problems for his librettists, who had to adapt its original plot and write French words to fit the existing Italian numbers, but the opera was a success and was seen in London at the six months after its premiere in Paris and New York in 1831. [ 73 ] The following year, Rossini wrote his long-awaited French grand opéra , William Tell , based on the 1804 play by Friedrich Schiller that was inspired by the legend of William Tell . [ 77]
Early retirement (1830-1855)
William Tell had a good reception. The orchestra and singers gathered outside Rossini's house after the premiere and performed the moving finale of the second act in his honor. Le Globe newspaper commented that a new era of music had begun. [ 78 ] Gaetano Donizetti commented that the first and last acts of Rossini wrote the opera, but the intermediate act God had written. [ 79 ] The play was an undoubted success, without being a great success; it took a while for the public to assimilate it and some singers found it too demanding. [ 80 ]However, it was produced abroad a few months after the premiere [ j ] and there was no suspicion that it would be the composer's last opera. [ 82 ]
Along with Semiramide , Guillermo Tell is Rossini's longest opera, at three hours and forty-five minutes, [ 83 ] and the effort of composing it exhausted him. Although within a year he was planning an operatic treatment of the Faust story , [ 78 ] events and ill health took hold of him. After the inauguration of Guillermo Tell , the Rossinis had left Paris and were staying at Castenaso. After a year, events in Paris caused Rossini to rush back. Charles X was overthrown in a revolution in July 1830and the new administration, headed by Luis Felipe I , announced radical cuts in public spending. Among the cuts was Rossini's life annuity, earned after tough negotiations with the previous regime. [ 84 ] Attempting to restore the annuity was one of the composer's reasons for returning. The other was to be with his new lover, Olympe Pélissier . He left Colbran in Castenaso and she never returned to Paris nor did they live together again. [ 85 ]
The reasons for his withdrawal from the opera have been continually discussed throughout his life and ever since. [ 86 ] Some have assumed that at thirty-seven years of age and in variable health, having negotiated a sizeable annuity with the French government and having written thirty-nine operas, he simply planned to retire and follow through on that plan. In a 1934 study of the composer, the critic Francis Toye coined the phrase "The Great Renunciation" and called Rossini's retirement a "unique phenomenon in the history of music and difficult to match in the entire history of art": " Is there any other artist who has thus deliberately, in the prime of life, renounced that form of artistic production that had made him famous throughout the civilized world? ' [ 87] The poetHeinrich Heinecompared Rossini's withdrawal toWilliam Shakespeare'sfrom writing: two geniuses who recognize when they have achieved the unsurpassed and do not seek to follow him. [ k ] Others, then and later, suggested that Rossini had retired due to resentment over the successes ofGiacomo MeyerbeerandFromental Halévyin the genre of great opera. [ l ] Modern Rossini scholars have generally dismissed such theories, holding that the composer had no intention of giving up operatic composition and that circumstances rather than personal choice madeWilliam Tell his last opera. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Gossett and Richard Osborne suggest that the disease could have been a major factor in his retirement. From about that point on, Rossini had intermittent poor health, both physical and mental. He had contracted gonorrhea in previous years, which later led to painful side effects, from urethritis to arthritis ; [ 95 ] suffered from bouts of debilitating depression , which commentators have linked to several possible causes: cyclothymia [ 96 ]Or bipolar disorder , [ 97 ] or reaction to the death of his mother. [ M ]
Rossini composed little during the next twenty-five years of William Tell , although Gossett comments that his relatively few compositions of the 1830s and 1840s show no decline in musical inspiration. [ 86 ] They include the musical Soirées (1830-1835: a set of twelve songs for solo voices or duo and piano) and his Stabat Mater (begun in 1831 and completed in 1841). [ n ] After winning his fight with the government for his annuity in 1835, Rossini left Paris and settled in Bologna. His return to Paris in 1843 to receive medical treatment from Jean Civialeit aroused the hope that he might produce a new grand opéra : it was rumored that Eugène Scribe was preparing a libretto on Joan of Arc for him . The Paris Opera moved to present a French version of Othello in 1844 that also included material from some of the composer's earlier operas. It is unclear to what extent, if at all, Rossini was involved in this production, which was ultimately poorly received. [ 100 ] More controversial was the opera pastiche Robert Bruce(1846), in which the composer, by then returned to Bologna, cooperated closely in selecting music from his past operas that had not yet been performed in Paris, in particular The Lady of the Lake . The Opera sought to present Robert Bruce as a new Rossini opera. But while Othello could at least pretend to be genuine, canonical Rossini, historian Mark Everist points out that detractors argued that Robert Bruce was simply "fake products of a bygone age"; quotes Théophile Gautierlamenting that 'the lack of unity could have been masked by a higher interpretation; sadly, the tradition of Rossini's music was lost at the Opera a long time ago. ' [ 101 ]
The period after 1835 saw Rossini's formal separation from his wife, who remained at Castenaso (1837), and the death of his father at the age of eighty (1839). [ 102 ] In 1845, Colbran became seriously ill and in September Rossini visited her; a month later he died. [ 103 ] The following year, Rossini and Pélissier were married in Bologna. [ 102 ] The events in the year of revolutions in 1848 led him away from the area of Bologna, where felt threatened by the uprising, and settled in Florence , where it remained until 1855. [ 104 ]
By the early 1850s, his physical and mental health had deteriorated to the point where his wife and friends feared for his sanity or for his life. By the middle of the decade, it was clear that he needed to return to Paris to receive the most advanced medical care available at the time. In April 1855, the Rossinis left for their last trip from Italy to France. [ 105 ] He returned to Paris at the age of sixty-three and made it his home for the rest of his life. [ 106 ]
Last years (1855-1868)
Gossett observes that although the account of Rossini's life between 1830 and 1855 is depressing, "it is no exaggeration to say that Rossini came back to life in Paris." He regained his health and the joy of living. Once established in the city, he kept two dwellings: a flat on rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin, an elegant central area, and a neoclassical villa built for him in Passy , a commune now absorbed by the city, but then semi-rural. . [ 107 ] He and his wife established a salon that became internationally famous. [ 86 ] [ 108 ] The first of their meetings Saturday night: the samedi soirsIt was held in December 1858, and the last two months before his death in 1868. [ 109 ]
Rossini began to compose again. The music of his last decade was not generally intended for public performance and he did not often put compositional dates on manuscripts. Consequently, musicologists have found it difficult to give definitive dates for his later works, but the first, or among the first, was the song cycle Musique anodine , dedicated to his wife and presented to her in April 1857. [ 110 ] For his weekly classroom meetings he produced more than 150 pieces, including songs, solo piano pieces, and chamber works for many different combinations of instruments. He referred to them as his Péchés de vieillesse( Sins of old age ). [ 86 ] The salons were held both in Beau Séjour - the village of Passy - and, in winter, in the Paris flat. These gatherings were a regular feature of Parisian life (writer James Penrose observed that well-connected people could easily attend different salons almost every night of the week), but the Rossini samedi soirs quickly became the most in-demand. : "An invitation was the highest social award in the city." [ 111 ] The music, carefully chosen by Rossini, was not only his, but included works by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi ,Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and modern pieces by some of their guests. Among the composers who attended the salons and sometimes performed were Daniel Auber , Charles Gounod , Franz Liszt , Anton Rubinstein , Giacomo Meyerbeer, and Giuseppe Verdi . Rossini liked to call himself a fourth-class pianist, but the many famous pianists who attended the samedi soirs evenings were dazzled by his performance. [ 112 ] Violinists like Pablo Sarasate and Joseph Joachim, and the main singers of the moment were regular guests. [ 113 ] In 1860, Richard Wagner visited Rossini through an introduction from Rossini's friend, Edmond Michotte , who some forty-five years later wrote his account of the brilliant conversation between the two composers. [ 114 ] [ or ]
One of Rossini's few late works destined for publication was his Petite Messe Solennelle , released in 1864. [ 116 ] In the same year, Napoleon III made him Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor . [ 117 ]
After a brief illness and a failed operation to treat colorectal cancer , Rossini passed away in Passy on November 13, 1868 at the age of seventy-six. [ 118 ] He left Olympe with a life interest in his property, which after his death ten years later passed to the Pesaro Commune for the establishment of a Lyceum Musicale, and financed a house for retired opera singers in Paris. [ 119 ] After a funeral attended by more than four thousand people in the Church of the Holy Trinity in Paris and in which the prayer of his Mosè in Egitto was intoned , Rossini's body was buried in thePère Lachaise cemetery . [ 120 ] In 1887, his remains were transferred to the Basilica of the Holy Cross in Florence . [ 121 ]
"The Rossini Code"
The writer Julian Budden , taking note of the formulas adopted early on by Rossini in his career and constantly followed by him thereafter in regard to overtures , arias , structures and ensembles, called them "the Rossini code" in reference to to the Napoleon Code , the system established by the French emperor. [ 122 ] The composer's general style may have been more directly influenced by the French: historian John Rosselli suggests that French rule in Italy in the early 19th centuryit meant that "the music had acquired new military qualities of attack, noise and speed - to be heard at Rossini." [ 123 ] His approach to opera was inevitably tempered by the changing tastes and demands of the public. The formal "classicist" librettos of Metastasio that had underpinned the serious opera of the late eighteenth century were replaced by themes more to the taste of the Romantic era , with stories that demanded stronger characterization and faster action; a composer needed to satisfy these demands or he would fail. [ 124 ]Rossini's strategies responded to this reality. A formulaic approach was logistically indispensable to his career, at least initially: in the seven years from 1812 to 1819, he wrote 27 operas, [ 125 ] often on very short notice. For Cinderella (1817), for example, he had just over three weeks to write the music before the premiere. [ 126 ]
These pressures led to another significant element of Rossini's compounding procedures, not included in Budden's "Code," namely recycling. The composer would often transfer a successful overture to later operas: thus, the overture of The Touchstone was later used for the serious opera Tancredi (1813), and (in the other direction) the overture of Aureliano in Palmira (1813) it ended as (and today it is known as that) the overture to the comedy El barbero de Sevilla . [ 124 ] [ 127 ] also returned to employ generously ary and other sequences in later works. Spike Hughes points out that of the twenty-six numbers ofEduardo e Cristina , produced in Venice in 1817, nineteen from earlier works were used. "The audience ... were remarkably in good spirits ... and asked mischievously why the script had been changed since the last performance." [ 128 ] Rossini expressed his displeasure when publisher Giovanni Ricordi published a complete edition of his works in the 1850s: "The same pieces will be found several times, because I thought I had the right to remove from my fiascos those pieces that seemed better. , to rescue them from the shipwreck ... A failure seemed to be fine and dead, and now look that they have resurrected them all! ». [ 39 ]
Philip Gossett notes that Rossini "was from the beginning an accomplished composer of overtures ." Its basic formula for these remained constant throughout his career: Gossett characterizes as " movements of sonata without sections of development , usually preceded by a slow introduction" with " melodies clear, rhythms lush [and] simple harmonic structure 'and a crescendo climax . [ 124 ] Richard Taruskin also notes that the second issue is always announced in a solo woodwinds, Whose "catchy" "records a different profile in auditory memory" and that the richness and inventiveness of his handling of the orchestra, even in these early works, marks the beginning of "the great flowering of the century XIX of the orchestration ». [ 129 ]
Rossini's handling of arias (and duets ) in the cavatina style marked a development of the commonplace of the eighteenth- century recitative and aria . In Rosselli's words, in his hands "the aria became an engine to release emotions." [ 130 ] Its typical aria structure included a lyrical introduction ( cantabile ) and a more intense and brilliant ending ( cabaletta ). This model could be adapted in various ways to advance the plot (as opposed to typical 18th century handling that resulted in the action stopping when the required repetitions of the plotaria da capo were carried out). For example, they could be punctuated by comments from other characters (a convention known as pertichini ), or the choir could intervene between the cantabile and the cabaletta to stimulate the soloist. If such developments were not necessarily Rossini's invention, he made them his own through the expert handling he made of them. [ 131 ] A landmark in this context is Tancredi's cavatina "Di tanti palpiti" , which both Taruskin and Gossett (among others) point out as transformative, "the most famous aria Rossini has ever written", [ 132 ]With a "melody that seems to capture the melodic beauty and innocence characteristic of Italian opera." [ 39 ] [ p ] Both writers point out the typical rossiniano touch to avoid a cadence "expected" in the aria by a sudden change of tone start fa to that of the flat (see example). Taruskin notices the implied pun, as the words speak of returning, but the music moves in a new direction. [ 133 ] The influence was long-lasting; Gossett points out how the Rossinian cabaletta style continued to shape Italian opera even intoGiuseppe Verdi in Aida (1871). [ 39 ]
Such structural integration of the forms of vocal music with the dramatic development of the opera signified a radical change from the metastatic primacy of the aria. In the works of Rossini, the solo arias progressively occupy a minor proportion of operas, in favor of the duos (also typically in format cantabile - caballetta ) and sets. [ 39 ]
During the late 18th century , the creators of the comic opera had increasingly developed a dramatic integration of the endings of each act. The endings began to "spread backward" and took on an increasing proportion of the act and structure of a musically continuous chain, accompanied at all times by the orchestral, of a series of sections, each with its own characteristics of speed and style. , thus staging a clamorous and vigorous final scene. [ 134 ] In his comic operas, Rossini took this technique to its peak and expanded its scope far beyond its predecessors. From the end of the first act of The Italian in AlgiersTaruskin writes that "traversing nearly a hundred pages of vocal score in record time is the single most concentrated dose of Rossini there is." [ 135 ]
Of greater importance to the history of opera was Rossini's ability to advance this technique in the serious opera genre. Gossett, in a very detailed analysis of the end of Tancredi's first act , identifies several elements in the composer's practice. These include contrasting 'kinetic' action sequences, often characterized by orchestral motifs, with 'static' expressions of emotion, the final 'static' section in the form of a caballetta , with all the characters joining in the final cadences . Gossett affirms that it is «from the time of Tancredi that the caballetta... it becomes the obligatory final section of each musical unit in the operas of Rossini and his contemporaries ». [ 136 ]
With very few exceptions, all of Rossini's compositions prior to his retirement Péchés de vieillesse involve the human voice. However, his first surviving work (apart from a single song) is a set of string sonatas for two violins , cello and double bass , written at the age of 12, when he had just begun his composition training . Melodious and engaging, they indicate how remote the talented boy was from the influence of advances in musical form developed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Joseph Haydn, and Ludwig van Beethoven ; the accent is on the melodycantabile , color, variation and virtuosity rather than transformational development . [ 137 ] These qualities are also evident in Rossini's early operas, especially in his farces (one-act farces), rather than his more formal serious operas. Gossett notes that these early works were written at a time when "the deposited cloaks of Cimarosa and Paisiello were empty": these were Rossini's first steps, and increasingly appreciated, in trying them on. The Teatro San Moisè in Venice, where his farce was first performed, and the Teatro La ScalaMilan, who premiered his two-act opera The Touchstone (1812), were looking for works in that tradition. Gossett notes that in these operas "Rossini's musical personality began to take shape ... many elements emerge that remain throughout his career," including "[a] love for pure sound, for sharp and effective rhythms. ». The unusual effect used in the overture to Il signor Bruschino (1813) displaying violin bows playing rhythms on music stands is an example of such ingenious originality. [ 124 ] [ q ]
The great success in Venice of Tancredi's premieres and the comic opera La Italiana in Algiers within a few weeks of each other (February 6, 1813 and May 22, 1813 respectively) put the stamp on Rossini's reputation as the composer. rising opera house of his generation. From the end of 1813 to the middle of 1814 he was in Milan creating two new operas for La Scala, Aureliano in Palmira and The Turk in Italy . The castrato Giambattista Velluti sang the role of Arsace in Aureliano and it was the last opera role the composer wrote for a castrato singer, as the norm became the use of contralto voices.—Another sign of change in operatic taste. Rossini was rumored to dislike Velluti's ornamentation of his music; but in fact, throughout his Italian period, up to Semiramide (1823), Rossini's written vocal lines become more and more flowery and this is more appropriately attributed to the changing style of the composer himself. [ 39 ] [ s ]
Rossini's work in Naples contributed to this stylistic development. The city, which was the cradle of the operas of Cimarosa and Paisiello, had been slow to recognize the composer of Pesaro, but Domenico Barbaja invited him in 1815 with a seven-year contract to manage its theaters and compose operas. For the first time, he was able to work for a long period with a company of musicians and singers, including Isabella Colbran , Andrea Nozzari , Giovanni David and others, who, as Gossett points out, “all specialized in flowery singing” and “whose vocal talents left an indelible mark and not entirely positive in the style of Rossini ». Rossini's first operas for Naples, Elizabeth, Queen of Englandand La gazzetta were largely recycled from earlier works, but Othello (1816) is marked not only by his virtuous vocal lines, but by his masterfully integrated last act, with its drama underlined by melody, orchestration, and tonal color. Here, in Gossett's view, "Rossini came of age as a dramatic artist." [ 33 ] He also comments:
The growth of Rossini's style from Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra to Zelmira and, ultimately, Semiramide, is a direct consequence of th[e] continuity [he experienced in Naples]. Not only did Rossini compose some of his finest operas for Naples, but these operas profoundly affected operatic composition in Italy and made possible the developments that were to lead to Verdi.The growth of Rossini's style from Elizabeth, Queen of England to Zelmira and ultimately Semiramide , is a direct consequence of the continuity [that he experienced in Naples]. Rossini not only composed some of his best operas for Naples, but these operas profoundly affected operatic composition in Italy and made possible the developments that would lead to Verdi.
By now, Rossini's career was sparking interest across Europe. Others came to Italy to study the revival of Italian opera and used their lessons to progress. Among them was the Berliner Giacomo Meyerbeer who came to Italy in 1816, a year after Rossini's establishment in Naples, and lived and worked there until he followed him to Paris in 1825. He used one of Rossini's librettists, Gaetano Rossi , for five of his seven Italian operas, which were produced in Turin, Venice, and Milan. [ 140 ] In a letter to his brother of September 1818, he includes a detailed critique of Othellofrom the point of view of an informed non-Italian observer. He is scathing about personal loans in the first two acts, but acknowledges that the third act "established Rossini's reputation in Venice so firmly that not even a thousand follies could rob him. But this act is divinely beautiful, and what is so strange is that [its] beauties ... are blatantly non-Rossinian: exceptional recitatives, even passionate ones, mysterious accompaniments, a lot of local color. [ 141 ] Rossini's contract did not prevent him from undertaking other commissions and before Othello , it had premiered in Rome (February 1816) The Barber of Seville, a great culmination of the tradition of comic opera. Richard Osborne lists his excellences:
Beyond the physical impact of ... Figaro's "Largo al factotum", there is Rossini's ear for vocal and instrumental timbres of a peculiar astringency and brilliance, his quick-witted word-setting, and his mastery of large musical forms with their often brilliant and explosive internal variations. Add to that what Verdi called the opera's "abundance of true musical ideas", and the reasons for the work's longer-term emergence as Rossini's most popular opera buffa are not hard to find.Beyond the physical impact of ... " Largo al factotum " by Figaro, there is Rossini's ear for vocal and instrumental timbres of peculiar astringency and brilliance, his ingenious definition of words and his mastery of the great musical forms with their often brilliant and explosive internal variations. Add to that what Verdi called the opera's "abundance of true musical ideas," and the reasons for the long-term emergence of the work as Rossini's most popular comic opera are not hard to find.
Apart from Cinderella (Rome, 1817) and the farce "pen and ink sketch" Adina (1818, not represented until 1826), [ 142 ] Rossini's other works during his contract with Naples were all in the tradition of the serious opera. Among the most notable, all with virtuous singing roles, were Mosè in Egitto (1818), The Lady of the Lake (1819), Maometto secondo (1820), all performed in Naples, and Semiramide , his last opera written for Italy, staged at La Fenice in Venice in 1823. Both Mosè and Maomettolater they would undergo a significant reconstruction in Paris. [ 33 ]
As early as 1818, Meyerbeer had heard rumors that Rossini was seeking a lucrative position at the Paris Opera : "If [his proposals] are accepted, he will go to the French capital and perhaps we will experience curious things." [ 144 ] It would take about six years for this prophecy to come true.
In 1824, Rossini, by contract with the French government, became director of the Théâtre-italien de Paris, where he presented Meyerbeer's opera The Crusader in Egypt and for which he wrote The Journey to Reims to celebrate the coronation of Charles X ( 1825). This was his last opera with an Italian libretto, and he later reused it to create his first French opera, Count Ory (1828). A new contract in 1826 meant that he could concentrate on Opera productions and, to this end, he substantially revised Maometto secondo as Le Siège de Corinthe (1826) and Mosé as Moïse et Pharaon.(1827). In keeping with French taste, the plays were expanded (each one act), the vocal lines of the revisions were less flowery, and the dramatic structure was enhanced, with the proportion of arias reduced. [ 145 ] One of the most striking additions was the chorus at the end of Moïse's Act III , with a crescendo repetition of a diatonic rising bass line , rising first in a minor third , then a major third , at each occurrence, and a descending chromatic upper line, which aroused the emotion of the public. [ 146 ]
The government contract required him to create at least one new grand opéra and Rossini settled on the William Tell story and worked closely with the librettist Étienne de Jouy . The story in particular allowed him to satisfy "an underlying interest in the related genres of folk, pastoral, and picturesque music." This is clear from the overture, which is explicitly programmatic in describing the weather, landscape and action, and presents a version of the ranz des vaches , the call of the Swiss shepherd, which "undergoes a series of transformations during the opera" and expresses in Richard Osborne's opinion "something of the character of a leitmotif ." [147 ] [ u ] Accordingmusic historian Benjamin Walton, Rossini 'saturates work with local color to suchextent that thereroom for little else. " Thus, the role of the soloists is significantly reduced compared to other of his operas, the hero does not even have an aria of his own, while the Swiss people's choir is constantly in the musical and dramatic foregrounds. [ 149 ] [ 150 ]
William Tell premiered in August 1829. Rossini also provided a shorter version for the Opera, in three acts, incorporating the final pas redoublé (fast march) section of the overture at its end. It was first performed in 1831 and became the basis for future Opera productions. [ 147 ] The play was very successful from the beginning and was frequently revived. In 1868, the composer was present at his 500th performance at the Opera. Le Globe had enthusiastically reported at its opening that "a new era has opened up not only for French opera, but also for dramatic music elsewhere." [ 151 ]It turned out that this was a time when Rossini would not participate.
Rossini's contract required him to provide five new works for the Opera over 10 years. After the premiere of William Tell was already considering some opera themes, including Faust of Johann Wolfgang Goethe , but the only significant works completed before leaving Paris in 1836 were the Stabat Mater , written for a private commission in 1831 (then completed and published in 1841), and the Soirées musical salon vocal music collection published in 1835. Residing in Bologna, he dedicated himself to teaching singing at the Liceo Musicale, and also created a pastiche by Guillermo Tell , Rodolfo di Sterlinga, for the benefit of singer Nikolai Ivanov, for whom Giuseppe Verdi provided some new arias . [ 86 ] Continued demand in Paris resulted in the production of a "new" French version of Othello in 1844 (with which Rossini did not participate) and a "new" opera, Robert Bruce , for which Rossini cooperated with Louis. Niedermeyer and others to reformulate the music of The Lady of the Lake and other of his little-known works in Paris to fit a new libretto. The success of both was, to say the least, limited. [ 152 ]
Until Rossini returned to Paris in 1855 there were no signs of a revival of his musical spirit. A torrent of pieces, for voices, choir, piano and chamber ensembles, written for their evenings, the Péchés de vieillesse were published in thirteen volumes from 1857 to 1868. Of these volumes 4 to 8 they comprise «56 semi-comic piano pieces .. Dedicated to fourth-class pianists, to whom I have the honor of belonging ”. [ 153 ] These include a simulated funeral march , Marche et reminiscences pour mon dernier voyage . [ 154 ] Gossett writes about Péchés"Its historical position remains to be evaluated, but it seems likely that its effect, direct or indirect, on composers like Camille Saint-Saëns and Erik Satie was significant." [ 155 ] [ v ]
Rossini's most substantial work of the last decade, the Petite Messe Solennelle (1863), was written for small forces (originally voices, two pianos, and harmonium ) and therefore unsuitable for concert hall performances; and because it included women's voices, it was unacceptable for church performances at the time. For these reasons, Richard Osborne suggests, the piece has been somewhat overlooked among his compositions. [ 116 ] It is neither especially petite (small) nor completely solennelle (solemn), but stands out for its grace, counterpoint, and melody. [ 157 ]At the end of the manuscript, the composer wrote:
Influence and legacy
The popularity of Rossini's melodies led many contemporary virtuosos to create transcriptions for piano or fantasies based on them. Examples include Sigismond Thalberg's fantasy on themes by Moïse et Pharaon , [ 159 ] sets of variations on Cinderella's "Non più mesta" by Henri Herz , Frédéric Chopin , Franz Hünten , Anton Diabelli, and Friedrich Burgmüller , [ 160 ] And the transcripts ofFranz Liszt from the overture of William Tell (1838) and the musical Soirées . [ 161 ] [ w ]
The continued popularity of his comic operas (and the decline in staging of his opera series), the overthrow of the singing and staging styles of his period, and the emerging concept of the composer as a "creative artist" instead As a craftsman, he diminished and distorted his place in the history of music even though the forms of Italian opera continued until the period of verismo to be indebted to his innovations. [ 163 ] Rossini's status among his contemporary Italian composers is reflected in the Messa per Rossini , a project started by Giuseppe Verdia few days after Rossini's death, which he and a dozen other composers created in collaboration. [ X ]
If Rossini's main legacy to Italian opera was in vocal forms and dramatic structure for serious opera, his legacy to French opera was to provide a bridge from opera bufa to the development of opéra-comique (and hence, through bouffes opéra by Jacques Offenbach to the genre of operetta ). Opéras comiques showing a debt to Rossini's style include The White Lady (1825) by François-Adrien Boieldieu and Fra Diavolo (1830) by Daniel Auber , as well as works by Ferdinand Hérold , Adolphe Adam andFromental Halévy . [ 165 ] [ 166 ] Hector Berlioz was critical of the style of Rossini, who wrote about his "melodic cynicism, his contempt for the dramatic and good sense, their endless repetition of a single form of cadence, its crescendo puerile eternal and his brutal percussion ». [ 167 ]
Perhaps it was inevitable that the formidable reputation Rossini had built during his lifetime would fade thereafter. In 1886, less than twenty years after the composer's death, Bernard Shaw wrote: "The once universal Rossini, whose Semiramide seemed to our naive grandparents a Ninvescan marvel , finally ceased to be considered a serious musician." [ 168 ] In a review of The Barber of Seville from 1877, he noted that Adelina Patti sang as an encore in the lesson scene for " Home! Sweet Home! » [ And ]But that "the opera was so intolerably boring that some of its audience had already shown their appreciation for the feeling of the ballad in the most practical way." [ 169 ]
At the beginning of the 20th century , Rossini received tributes both from Ottorino Respighi , who had orchestrated excerpts from the Péchés de viellesse both in his ballet La Boutique fantasque (1918) and in his suite Rossiniana from 1925, [ 170 ] and from Benjamin Britten , which adapted Rossini's music for two suites, Soirées Musicals ( Op . 9) in 1936 and Matinées Musicals (Op. 24) in 1941. [ 171 ] Richard Osborne highlights Giuseppe Radiciotti's three-volume biography of Rossini(1927-1929) as a major turning point toward positive appreciation, which may also have been aided by the trend for neoclassicism in music. [ 172 ] A firm reassessment of Rossini's importance began only later in the 20th century in light of the study and creation of critical editions of his works. One of the main drivers of these developments was the Fondazione G. Rossini which was created by the city of Pesaro in 1940 using the funds that the composer had left to the city. [ 4 ] [ 163 ] Since 1980, the Foundation has supported the Rossini Opera Festivalannual in Pesaro and is dedicated to preserving the documents that belonged to him, to make his life and work known, to treasure the autograph scores and to produce critical editions of his compositions, among other tasks. [ 4 ] [ 173 ] There is also the Foundation Rossini of Mexico that, like the Italian, presents the Festival Rossini in the country with a circulation figure of the Italian musician.
In the century XXI , the website list of performances Operabase records 532 2319 performances of Rossini opera productions in 255 locations around the world between 2017 and 2019. [ 174 ] The Barber of Seville was the sixth most performed opera in worldwide, with 965 performances from 217 different productions, and Cinderella was the nineteenth, with 414 performances from 78 productions. [ 175 ] Other operas are regularly produced, such as Count Ory , The Lady of the Lake , The Gazza Barks , William Tell ,The Italian in Algiers , La scala di seta , The Turk in Italy and The trip to Reims . [ 174 ] Other Rossini pieces in the current international repertoire, featured from time to time, include Adina , Armida , Isabel, Queen of England , Ermione , Mosè in Egitto, and Tancredi . [ 174 ] In Bad Wildbad ( Germany ) presents Rossini in Wildbad an annual music festival with short operas and less known. [z ] All of Rossini's operas have been recorded. [ Aa ]
In popular culture
The composer has been shown biographically on several occasions in the cinema , most of them briefly as a secondary character, [ 177 ] although he has also been the protagonist, as in Rossini (1942) directed by Mario Bonnard and with Nino Besozzi in the composer character; [ 178 ] or in Rossini! Rossini! (1991) by Mario Monicelli , with Sergio Castellitto and Philippe Noiret playing Rossini as young and old, respectively, and with Jacqueline Bisset in the role of Isabella Colbran. [ 179 ] His music has been used in more than 750 movies and television shows. [ 180 ]
Rossini was a great gourmet and several haute cuisine dishes were named after him. Some of them later appeared on menus at his home after he returned to live in Paris in the 1850s. They included Turnedó Rossini , Crema alla Rossini , Frittata alla Rossini and were sophisticated dishes that generally involved the use of truffles and foie gras. gras . [ 181 ] The cocktail Rossini , made with sparkling white wine (usually Prosecco ) and pulp of strawberriesit is also named after the composer. [ 182 ]
The asteroid (8181) Rossini , discovered by Liudmila Zhuravliova on September 28, 1992, is named in her honor. [ 183 ] The Rossini point , snow covered point the south coast of the island Alexander I in Antarctica , is named after the composer. [ 184 ]
During his lifetime, Rossini received the most important awards in France and Italy, as Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus , [ 185 ] Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy , [ 185 ] Caballero of the Order of the Legion of Honor , [ 186 ] Grand officer of the Order of the Legion of Honor [ 185 ] [ 187 ] and Knight of the Order Pour le Mérite . [ 188 ] In addition, he was a member of theAcademy of Fine Arts [ 187 ] and foreign Associate. [ 189 ]
Notes and references
- In the baptismal certificate it appears as "Giovacchino Antonio" [ 1 ] and is thus mentioned in at least one later document from his early years. [ 2 ] In Cambridge Companion to Rossini , the publisher, Emanuele Senici, writes that Rossini spelled the name in various ways as Gioachino or Gioacchino in his early years, before finally settling on the former in the 1830s. The last spelling it is now more common among name-bearers, but Rossini's experts generally regard "Gioachino" as the proper form as far as the composer is concerned. [ 3 ]Authorities favoring this spelling include the Fondazione G. Rossini in Pisa, [ 4 ] the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , [ 5 ] and the Centro Italo-Americano per l'Opera (CIAO). [ 6 ]
- The Memoirs of Rossini Stendhal, cited here are not the same as his Life of Rossini and is believed to have been compiled from the first draft of the author. The musicologist Henry Prunières commented in the 20th century , “From a historical point of view this [that is, the Memoirs ] is the first and undoubtedly the best book written on Rossini in the first half of the 19th century . However, for Stendhalians, it is far from having the same interest as Life of Rossini , which is an improvisation of genius, exuberant with life, brimming with ideas. ' [ 10 ]
- wrote the quartets for an unusual combination of two violins , a cello, and a double bass . They achieved some popularity in 1825 and 1826 when five of the six were published in an arrangement for the traditional composition of a quartet (two violins, a viola, and a cello). The remaining Sonata was not published until 1954. [ 14 ]
- Cuyo título complete was Almaviva, ie The useless precaution ( Almaviva, or la precaución inútil ). [ 34 ]
- Paisiello's version had disappeared from the operatic repertoire in the 1820s, along with his other once popular operas, such as Nina . [ 36 ]
- Stendhal , whose dislike for Colbran is not hidden in his 1824 biography of Rossini, put the bride's age between 40 and 50, and suggested that Rossini married her for her (considerable) money. [ 48 ]
- "Above all, you still do a lot of barbers". [ 55 ]
- The equivalent in 2020 would be more than 3.5 million. [ 64 ]
- The score was reconstructed from manuscripts rediscovered in the 1970s and has been performed and recorded ever since. [ 71 ]
- The London production was "selected and adapted to the English stage" by Henry Rowley Bishop and James Planché , "with taste and skill" according to The Times , and was presented at the Drury Lane Theater in May 1830 under the title Hofer, the Tell of the Tirol . [ 81 ]
- Heine added that the title "The Swan of Pesaro", sometimes applied to Rossini, was clearly wrong: "Swans sing at the end of their lives, but Rossini has fallen silent in the middle of his." [ 88 ]
- These suggestions often took on a tint of hatred for Jews , for example, the claim that Rossini had withdrawn "until the Jews finished their Sabbath " (a joke sometimes attributed, without foundation, to Rossini himself), [ 89 ] or Richard Wagner's attack (in his 1851 Opera and Drama ), referring to the Rothschild family's friendships with Rossini and Meyerbeer (who came from a banking family): '[Rossini] could never have dreamed that someday it would occur to the bankers, for whom he had always made his music, that they would make it themselves. [ 90 ][ 91 ] Such accusations were misplaced; Rossini was on friendly terms with Meyerbeer, visited him regularly, and wrote a commemorative elegy for the male voice choir for Meyerbeer's death in 1864,Pleure, muse sublime! (Cry, sublime muse!). [ 92 ]
- Daniel W. Schwartz hypothesizes that Rossini's failure to write more operas after 1829 was due to " narcissistic withdrawal and depression" that followed the death of his mother two years earlier. [ 98 ] Richard Osborne rejects this as "idle speculation", "less investigated" than other psychological theories. [ 99 ]
- The first version of the Stabat Mater consisted of six sections by Rossini and six by his friend Giovanni Tadolini . Under pressure from his publisher in Paris, Rossini then replaced Tadolini contributions and the full version of Rossini was published in 1841. [ 86 ]
- Michotte would later bequeath an extensive collection of Rossini's scores, documents and other works to the Library of the Royal Conservatory of Brussels . [ 115 ]
- On his notoriety, Rossini wrote mocking himself in an 1865 letter to his publisher Ricordi as "the author of the all too famous cavatina" Di tanti palpiti "". Another clue to his familiarity with 19th- century audiences is that Richard Wagner mocked the aria by deliberately quoting the "Tailor's Choir" in The Master Singers of Nuremberg (1868). [ 132 ]
- Although it did not always seem so attractive to the public or contemporary musicians: a review of Bruschino's premiere commented that “it is absolutely incomprehensible how a maestro could write such a meaningless overture, one in which the members of the orchestra play their music stands ; it was sinking so low that the first night the musicians refused to cooperate. [ 138 ]
- The magpie is also a reference to La gazza barks , oriental clothing refers to Othello or perhaps to The Turk in Italy . [ 139 ]
- But there were limits. When Adelina Patti performed at one of Rossini's Saturday evenings during his retirement, an exaggerated version of "Una voce poco fa" from The Barber , the composer kindly asked "Very well, my dear, and who wrote the piece that did you just represent? ». [ 127 ]
- Apparently the first musical quote printed in a Paris newspaper, the excerpt describes the choral music that thrilled the audience at the end of the third act of the opera. [ 143 ]
- The ranz des vaches had already been used to characterize Switzerland opera William Tell of André Grétry 1791. [ 148 ]
- The popular Duetto buffo di due gatti , often attributed to Rossini, is not his, but is a confection of "Katte-Cavatine" by Danish composer Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse with music from Rossini's Othello . [ 156 ]
- Liszt wrote fantasies and variations (some now lost) based on many of Rossini's operas, including Ermione (1824), The Lady at the Lake (1825), Le Siège de Corinthe (1830, also for piano and orchestra), Othello ( 1834 and 1859), Maometto secondo (1839) and Moïse (1841). [ 162 ]
- The premiere of the mass was scheduled to take place in Bologna in 1869, but the performance was abandoned amid bitter intrigue and adverse political circumstances. Verdi later reworked his own contribution, " Libera me " in his own Messa da Requiem , 1874. The manuscript remained lost until 1970 and the first performance of the Messa took place in 1988. [ 164 ]
- Ballad composed by Henry Rowley Bishop in 1823.
- In 2018, the company's recent and planned productions included Eduardo e Cristina , Juana de Arco , The Curious Misunderstanding , Maometto secondo , Zelmira, and Moïse et Pharaon . [ 174 ]
- For recordings like 2005, see Richard Farr's survey. [ 176 ]
- Servadio, 2003, p. 84.
- Kendall, 1992, p. 9.
- Senici, 2004, p. xiv.
- "La fondazione" . Fondazione G. Rossini (in Italian) . Retrieved September 10, 2020 .
- Gossett, 2001, Introduction.
- "Italo-American Center for Opera" . University of Chicago (in English) . Archived from the original on September 24, 2013 . Retrieved July 11, 2018 .
- Osborne, 2007, p. 4.
- Kendall, 1992, pp. 10-11.
- Servadio, 2003, p. 9.
- Prunières, 1921 , p. 143.
- Stendhal, 1824, p. 4.
- Osborne, 2007, p. 5.
- Osborne, 2004, p. 11.
- Kendall, 1992, p. 13.
- Gossett, 2001, § 1. Early years.
- Osborne, 2004, pp. 11-12.
- Kendall, 1992, p. 16.
- Servadio, 2003, pp. 25-25.
- Servadio, 2003, p. 27.
- Gossett, 2001, § 2. 1810-1813.
- Osborne, 2004, p. 13.
- Osborne, 1993, p. 274.
- Ricciardi, 2003, p. 56.
- Gallo, 2012, p. xviii.
- Osborne, 2007, pp. 17-18.
- Gallo, 2012, p. xix.
- Gossett y Brauner, 1997 , p. 328
- Gossett y Brauner, 1997 , p. 331.
- Gossett y Brauner, 1997 , p. 332.
- Osborne, 1994, p. 44.
- Osborne, 2007, p. 24.
- Servadio, 2003, p. 46.
- Gossett, 2001, § 4. Naples and the opera seria, 1815-23.
- Gossett y Brauner, 1997 , p. 334.
- Servadio, 2003, p. 48.
- Robinson , Michael (2002). "Paisiello, Giovanni (opera)". Grove Music Online 1 . Oxford University Press . doi : 10.1093 / gmo / 9781561592630.article.O006978 .
- Osborne, 1994, p. 65.
- Kendall, 1992 , pp. 74 and 76-77.
- Gossett, 2001 , § 3 From 'Tancredi' to 'La gazza ladra'.
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