Catalan language - Idioma catalán

Catalan / Valencian [ Note 1 ]
Catalan , Valencian
Spoken in AndorraFlag of Andorra.svg Andorra
SpainFlag of Spain.svg Spain
Flag of France France
ItalyFlag of Italy.svg Italy
Minorities in:
Argentina's flag Argentina (200 000)[2]
MexicoFlag of Mexico.svg Mexico (64 000) [ 3 ]
VenezuelaVenezuela's flag Venezuela (5 500)[4]
CubaFlag of Cuba.svg Cuba (3 600)[5]
United States flag United States (1 000) [ 6 ]
Speakers 10020000 (2016) [ 7 ]
Position 88[9](Ethnologue, 2013)

Romance occidental

Writing Latin alphabet and Catalan alphabet
Official status
Officer in
Regulated by Catalan Studies Institute ( Catalonia ) [ 11 ]
Valencia Academy of Language ( Valencia ) [ 12 ] [ 13 ]
ISO 639-1 that
ISO 639-2 cat
ISO 639-3 cat
Catalan language in Europe.png
Catalan-speaking territories where Catalan is official Catalan-speaking territories where Catalan is not official Historically non-Catalan-speaking territories where Catalan is official

The Catalan or Valencian is a Romance language spoken by about ten million people, including non - native speakers in Catalonia , part of Valencia , the Balearic Islands , Andorra , the Gaza Aragón , the region of Murcia of the Carche , [ 14 ] the Roussillon , the city Sardinian of Alghero , and small communities around the world (among which that of Argentina , with 200 000 speakers). [15 ] It has about ten million speakers, of which about half are native; Its linguistic domain, with a surface area of ​​68,730 km² and 13,529,127 inhabitants (2009), [ 16 ] includes 1,687 municipalities. Like the other Romance languages, Catalan descends from the vulgar Latin spoken by the Romans who settled in Hispania during the Ancient Ages . [ 17 ]

Català is the autoglotónimo and the official name in the autonomous communities of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands , in Andorra , in the city Italian of Alghero , [ 18 ] on the eastern fringe of Aragon , [ 19 ] [ 20 ] and the traditional name in the French region of Roussillon . Valencià is the autoglotónimo and the official denomination in the Valencian Community [note 2 ] and the traditional one in the Murcian regionof El Carche .

The degree of use and official status of Catalan varies greatly depending on the territory, ranging from no official status in France to being the only official language in Andorra , passing through co-official status in three Spanish autonomous communities and in the city of Alghero , in Italy. . According to a study by the Catalan Institute of Statistics in 2008, Catalan is the second most commonly used language in Catalonia , after Spanish , which surpasses Catalan not only as a habitual language [ 21 ] but also as a mother tongue [ 21 ]And identification, although Catalan is the most used in five of the seven functional areas of Catalonia and 80% of the population can speak it. [ 21 ] Each aspect and social context of the use of the language in Catalonia is studied by the Generalitat of Catalonia in order to promote its use, where it is the main language in education, in public administrations and in the public media ; Furthermore, it invests annually in the promotion of Catalan both in Catalonia and in other territories. [ 22 ]


Catalan receives different names depending on where it is spoken, due to the large number of dialect variants that are included under the name of "Catalan language". Catalan is the most widespread glotonym and the official name of the language in Catalonia , the Balearic Islands and Andorra , while in the Valencian Community the official name is Valencian ( valencià ), and in the Italian city of Alghero the official name is Alghero . To avoid the connotations that the Catalan name has for some, different proposals have been sought, from compromise names such asCatalan-Valencia-Balearic [ 23 ] or neologisms as bacavés , or even the name of the singling Catalan Catalonia with neologismo catalunyès . [ 24 ] Another name that was used in ancient times is llemosí (limousin). [ 25 ]

Historical, social and cultural aspects

Geographical distribution

Catalan / Valencian territories
The Catalan / Valencian language in Spain Catalan-speaking territories where Catalan is official Catalan-speaking territories where Catalan is not official Historically non-Catalan-speaking territories where Catalan is official
Flags of the territories where Catalan / Valencian is spoken.

The Catalan (or Valencian ) language [ 26 ] is spoken in four different countries:

  • Andorra , where it is the own language and the only official language. It is the habitual language of 43.8% of the population. For more information, see the article Languages ​​of Andorra
  • Spain
    • Catalonia , where it is the own and co-official language together with Spanish and Occitan ( Aranese variant ). There are several dialect variants within the territory. It is the mother tongue of 31% of the population.
    • Balearic Islands , where it is the own and co-official language together with Spanish; various dialect variants are spoken. It is the habitual language of 46% of the population.
    • In most of the Valencian Community , where it is considered its own language under the historical, linguistic and statutory name of Valencian and is official together with Spanish . There are several dialect variants, including a common one between the north of the Valencian Community and the south of Catalonia. For the whole of the Valencian Community, it is the usual language of approximately 40% of the population.
    • In the eastern part of Aragón ( La Franja Oriental ), a territory formed by the regions of La Litera and Matarraña , and about half of the municipalities of Ribagorza , Bajo Cinca and Bajo Aragón - Caspe . About 29,000 people have the Catalan language as usual in Aragon , [ 27 ] and although it does not have official recognition, it is included in the regional legislation on the use, protection and defense of Aragon's own languages, but without it appearing in the text the word 'Catalan'. [ 28 ]
    • In the area of El Carche , in the Region of Murcia . Due to a repopulation of Valencians in the modern age.
  • France
  • Italy
    • The Italian city of Alghero on the island of Sardinia , where in its variant Alghero, in 2004, it was the first language of 22.4% and the usual language of 13.9% of the population. [ 30 ] Both the Italian State and the city of Alghero itself defend by law the official use of Catalan. [ 31 ] [ 32 ]

A denomination that tries to encompass all that linguistic area, not without discussion due to the ideological character that it has been acquiring, is that of Catalan Countries , coined at the end of the 19th century and popularized by Joan Fuster in his work Nosaltres els valencians («We the Valencians', 1962).

Sociolinguistic situation of Catalan

The most outstanding sociolinguistic characteristic of Catalan is that in all the territories in which it is spoken it is in a situation of social bilingualism : with French in Roussillon, with Italian (more than with Sardinian ) in Alghero , and with Spanish in the rest of its linguistic scope, including Andorra , [ citation required ] where it is the only official language according to the Andorran Constitution but where Spanish and French are also spoken.

Knowledge of Catalan (2003-2004)

Knowledge of Catalan by region in 2011. (Source: IDESCAT ). 61-70 % 71-80 % +81 %
Territory Speak To understand Read Write
Catalonia 84,7 97,4 90,5 62,3
Valencian Community 57,5 78,1 54,9 32,5
Balearic Islands 74,6 93,1 79,6 46,9
Roussillon 37,1 65,3 31,4 10,6
Andorra 78,9 96 89,7 61,1
Eastern Strip of Aragon 88,8 98,5 72,9 30,3
Alghero 67,6 89,9 50,9 28,4

(% of the population aged 15 and over).

Social use

Territory At home On the street
Catalonia 45 51
Valencian Community 37 32
Balearic Islands 44 41
Roussillon 1 1
Andorra 38 51
Eastern Strip of Aragon 70 61
Alghero 8 4

(% of the population aged 15 and over).

Mother tongue

Territory People Percentage
Catalonia 2 337 281 31 %
Valencian Community 1 047 000 21,1 %
Balearic Islands 392 000 36,1 %
Andorra 26 000 33,8 %
Eastern Strip of Aragon 33 000 70,2 %
Roussillon 35 000 8,5 %
Alghero 8000 20 %
TOTAL 4 353 000 31,2 %



Several languages ​​are spoken in Catalonia, the main ones being Catalan and Castilian or Spanish. According to the Statute of Autonomy, both languages, together with Occitan (in its Aranese variant ), are official. [ citation needed ] Furthermore, Catalan is considered the language of Catalonia, while Occitan is considered the language of the Valley of Arán . Generally, the citizens of Catalonia are bilingual and know the two main languages ​​although they differ with respect to the language they have as their mother tongue.. According to 2018 data, 99.8% of the citizens of Catalonia can speak Spanish, while 81.2% can speak Catalan. [ 36 ] In addition, the use by each speaker of one or another language often depends on the social environment in which it is expressed. According to data from the Statistical Institute of Catalonia , in 2018 36% of the citizens of Catalonia mostly used Catalan as their usual language, 49% mostly Spanish, 7% both and 0.03% Aranese. 6% of the resident population of Catalonia habitually uses other languages. [ citation required ] Aranese is the mother tongue of 22.4% of the population of the Arán Valley, 27.1% of the population and the usual 23.4%.[37]

In Catalonia the two main blocks of the Catalan language are spoken. Eastern has as its maximum exponent the central dialect , which is spoken in the northern regions of Tarragona , Barcelona , and Gerona , in whose Pyrenean region traces of northern Catalan can be seen. The western one is typical of the western regions of Catalonia (the province of Lleida and the southern province of Tarragona) and shows similar features to the Valencian one , with which it forms a continuum and at whose intersection is the Tortoise . Catalan is especially prevalent outside the metropolitan area of ​​Barcelona and the Campo de Tarragona. The Generalitat has been developing legislation that promotes and protects the social use of Catalan. In 2018, Catalan was considered the mother tongue of 34.3% of the citizens of Catalonia (31.5% exclusively Catalan and 2.8% bilingual in Spanish), and that of 43.2% (36.3% exclusively Catalan and 6.9% bilingual in Spanish) and that of habitual use of 43.5 (36.1% exclusively Catalan and 7.4% bilingual in Spanish). The percentages of bilingual speakers include those who jointly consider Spanish and Catalan as their mother tongue, their own or those of habitual use. [ 38 ]

The Castilian that is spoken in Catalonia has disparate features, without showing a specific dialect. Some Spanish speakers who are originally from other regions of Spain show phonetic and dialect features typical of their land of origin, while others neutralized those features, either at will, by contact with Catalan speakers, by the influence of the media, etc. Catalan speakers who speak Spanish show some influences from their mother tongue [ 39 ]And their features are, at times, stereotyped like those of all the citizens of Catalonia when speaking in the Spanish language. Spanish is not considered the language of Catalonia due to its origin, since it comes from the center of the peninsula. However, its use has been increasing since the 16th century in certain sectors of the population, mainly in urban settings, linked to the publishing world and the reading market. [ 40 ] In spite of everything, the situation was in the practice of monolinguism until the end of the 19th century, when the mass schooling of the population began (in Spanish), according to a study by the Center for Research in Sociolinguistics and Communication of the university of Barcelona . [ 41] The Castilian-speakingimmigrants who arrived in Catalonia generally adopted Catalan, asthe language of the street, until at least the 1930s. [ 42 ] This situation changed radically with the great wave of migration that took place between 1950 and 1975, when In a short time, the 2 and a half millionnativeCatalanswere increased with a million and a half immigrants without training, coming from all over Spain and especially from the poorest areas. [ 43 ]

In 2018, Spanish was the mother tongue of 55.5% of the citizens of Catalonia (52.7% exclusively Spanish and 2.8% bilingual in Catalan), [ 38 ] that of 53.5% (46.6 % exclusively Spanish and 6.9% bilingual in Catalan), [ 44 ] and the usual 56% (48.6% exclusively Spanish and 7.4% bilingual in Catalan). [ 45 ] The percentages of bilingual speakers include those who jointly consider Spanish and Catalan as their mother tongue, their own or commonly used.

The immigrant or foreign community installed in Catalonia often maintains their mother tongue to communicate with their relatives or speakers of the same language who also reside in the territory. I Apart from the Castilian spoken by immigrants from the rest of Spain and Latin America, stand out above all the Arab and Romanian , although their number extends substantially in cities like Barcelona, with inhabitants of up to 131 nationalities, [ 46 ] shows a wide linguistic repertoire, of which, in addition to those mentioned, highlights the Berber , French , Portuguese , German , Russian, and English . The statistical survey of linguistic uses of the Generalitat carried out in 2003 also revealed the significant presence of Galician speakers . [ citation required ]

In Catalonia, the most important factor in social bilingualism is immigration from the rest of Spain in the 20th century. It has been calculated that, without migration, the population of Catalonia would have gone from about 2 million people in 1900 to 2.4 in 1980, [ 47 ] instead of the more than 6.1 million registered on that date (and exceeding the 7.4 million in 2009); that is, the population without migration would have been only 39% in 1980.

Currently, according to the Statistics Institute of the Generalitat, the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia , after the Spanish language , which surpasses Catalan not only as a habitual language, but also as a mother tongue and identification language, [ citation needed ] although Catalan is the most used in 5 of the 7 functional areas of Catalonia. [ citation required ] According to data from the Catalan Institute of Statistics (Idescat) for the year 2018, Catalan is the usual language of 43% of the population of Catalonia (36% as the usual language and 7% bilingual with Spanish). In absolute terms, 2,779,300 people have Catalan as their habitual language (2,305,100 as their habitual language and 474,200 bilingual with Spanish), [ 48 ]Compared to 3,566,700 (57.90%) who have Spanish. Compared to the previous Idescat survey, there is an increase in absolute figures in the habitual use of Catalan (2,933,300 versus 2,850,000 in 2003) but a decline in relative values ​​(47.6% versus 50.7%). There is also a growth, both in absolute and relative values, of the inhabitants of Catalonia who habitually use both Spanish and Catalan (in absolute values ​​there is almost a triplication, going from 265,400 to 736,700; in relative values, the growth is from 4.7% to 12%), which translates into a decrease in the number of people who habitually use only Catalan. [ 48 ]

The inhabitants of Catalonia who have a mother tongueCatalan are less than those who use it regularly. According to Idescat, in 2008, 2,186,000 people (34.60%) had Catalan as their mother tongue (compared to 3,625,500, 58%, who speak Spanish). These figures include 236,500 who also speak Spanish as their mother tongue. Similar phenomena to those described with the usual language are shown in relation to the 2003 data: stabilization of speakers whose mother tongue is Catalan (2,177,800 in 2003 compared to the aforementioned 2,186,000 in 2008), with a decline in terms relative (38.70 vs 34.6%); increase in the number of speakers whose mother tongue is Spanish and Catalan (from 141 600 to 236 500 speakers; increase from 2.5 to 3% in relative terms),[49]

In a similar sense, the citizens of Catalonia who consider Catalan as an identification language are fewer (but not as strongly) than those who use it on a regular basis. According to Idescat data, in 2008, 2,770,500 people (49.3%) had Catalan as their identification language (for 3,410,300, 55.30% who did so with Spanish). These figures include 542,800 people who also identify with Spanish. The same phenomena as those relating to the usual and mother tongue are shown with respect to the 2003 data: slight increase in the number of speakers who identify with Catalan (2,770,500 in 2003 compared to the aforementioned 2,770,500 in 2008), with a decline in relative terms (49.3 versus 46%); increase in speakers who identify with Catalan and Spanish (from 278,600 to 542,800 speakers;[50]

Regarding written knowledge, according to official data from 2007, 56.3% of the Catalan population knew how to write in Catalan. [ 51 ]

Knowledge of Catalan in Catalonia [ 52 ]
Knowledge People Percentage
Understand it 6 610 202 93,8 %
He knows how to speak 5 331 000 78,3 %
Can read it 5 143 100 75,0 %
Can write it 3 967 500 56,3 %
Total population older than 2 years 7 049 900 100 %
Catalan in Catalonia a
Year 2003 Year 2008
People Percentage People Percentage
Usual language 2 850 300 50,7 % 2 196 600 35,6 %
Mother tongue 2 177 800 38,7 % 2 186 000 34,6 %
Language identification [ 53 ] 2 770 500 49,3 % 2 295 300 37,2 %

a Figures including both speakers who consider only Catalan as their habitual, mother-tongue or identification language and those who consider both Catalan and Spanish in such a way.

It is observed that Catalan remained as the usual language in absolute terms between 1980 and 2008, although slowly, instead of declining as in the Valencian Community or Roussillon. The decline in relative terms that has occurred in the period 2003-2008 is due to the significant arrival of immigrants to Catalonia , more than half a million in that period, 36% of whom have Spanish as their mother tongue. [ 54 ] Other studies, such as The second generation in Barcelona: a longitudinal study (March 2009), [ 55 ]Applied to the Barcelona metropolitan area, they point out that approximately 80% of immigrants in the study area considered prefer to use Spanish, [ 56 ] a higher percentage than those who speak it by origin. The authors believe that this is the case because immigrants have settled in neighborhoods where Spanish is more common.

With regard to territorial distribution (2008 data), the use of Catalan (exclusive, not counting those who also speak regularly in Spanish) is predominant in the functional areas of the Girona Comarcas (50.9%), Tierras del Ebro ( 72.8%), Poniente (64.4%), Central Catalonia (56.7%) and Alto Pirineo and Arán (60.1%), where Catalan as the usual (exclusive) language is used by more than 50% of the population. The lowest levels of use occur in Campo de Tarragona (33.1%) and the Metropolitan Area of ​​Barcelona (27.8%). [ 57 ]With respect to the 2003 data, a percentage decline in exclusive habitual speakers of Catalan is observed in all areas, ranging from 8.8% in Poniente to 16.5% in Campo de Tarragona. [ 58 ]

The Government of Catalonia has carried out work to promote and promote the use of Catalan as the priority language in Catalonia. Both the 1979 and 2006 statutes of autonomy define Catalan as the language of Catalonia. The 2006 statute also states that: [ 59 ]

Catalan is the language of normal and preferred use of public administrations and the public media of Catalonia, and it is also the language normally used as a vehicle and for learning in teaching.
Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, article 6.a.

Valencian Community

Language use in the home in areas historically Valencian - [ 60 ]
Zone Castilian Valencian Indistinct use / Others
Alicante Region 78 % 12,2 % 4,5 % 5,3 %
Alcoy-Gandía Region 24,1 % 67,7 % 5,3 % 2,9 %
Valencia and AM 71,6 % 20,1 % 8,2 % 2,1 %
Valencia region 24,8 % 66,4 % 6,7 % 2,1 %
Castellón region 39,2 % 49,1 % 6,6 % 5,1 %
Total 56,5 % 33,4 % 6,9 % 3,2 %

The Valencian- speaking part [ 61 ] of the Valencian Community has a complex and plural sociolinguistic reality, due on the one hand to immigration from Spanish-speaking areas of Spain, and on the other hand to linguistic substitution , mainly in the cities of Valencia and Alicante. Currently, Spanish predominates in urban areas and Valencian in rural areas; the province of Castellón and the south of the province of Valencia are the areas where Valencian is spoken the most, and the province of Alicante and the metropolitan area of Valencia are the areas where it is least spoken.

In the Valencian Community there are two languages ​​of wide use and knowledge among the autochthonous population: Valencian and Spanish, declared as official languages ​​according to the Statute of Autonomy . Valencian is considered as its own language , although Spanish is the language used by most of the population and the media, but both have a broad literary and cultural tradition. Likewise, in the Valencian Community there are two territorially official linguistic predominance for Spanish and Valencian, defined by the Law of use and teaching of Valencian , based on the linguistic distribution of the 19th century .

The Castilian predominance is basically concentrated in a central and western interior strip, and an exclave ( Aspe and Monforte del Cid ) in the extreme south, comprising 25% of the territory and in which 13% of the population resides. In this territory some dialect variants are used which are Churra and Murcian , although the latter is not agreed upon by all linguists due to the dialect differences of the Vega Baja del Segura and Villena with the eastern area of Murcia . The Valencian has a limited degree of knowledge in this area.

The predominance of Valencian is concentrated on the coast and contiguous regions, it covers 75% of the territory and 87% of the population resides there. In this area, 36.4% of the population claims to use it preferentially at home, according to a 2005 survey , compared to 54.5% who preferably use Spanish. [ 62 ] By area, the use of Valencian at home is predominant in the areas of medium or low urban concentration of the area, while Spanish is it in large urban concentrations. The Spanish spoken in this area is roughly a standard with some phonetic and lexical features of its own or influenced by Valencian.

Language development in areas considered historically Valencian - [ 62 ]
Year Castilian Valencian Bilingual Others
1989 49,6 % 45,8 % 4,5 % 0,1 %
1992 45 % 50,4 % 4,6 % 0 %
1995 47,2 % 50 % 2,8 % 0 %
2005 54,5 % 36,4 % 6,2 % 2,9 %
2008 56,8 % 32,3 % 7,6 % 3,3 %

In the part of the Valencian Community where it is its own language , there is a process of linguistic substitution of Valencian (or Catalan) for Spanish. This has been almost completely completed in the city of Alicante [ 63 ] and is well advanced in Valencia , although it is not yet important in rural areas. Until recently, many speakers were in a situation close to diglossia, which means that they used Catalan only in informal situations, while in institutionalized situations, Spanish was used exclusively. But since it is taught in schools, its written knowledge has increased a lot, although in recent decades its social use has regressed a lot. In addition, there has been significant immigration from other parts of Spain, which has contributed to the statistical predominance of Spanish in the community. [ 52 ]

Knowledge of the Valencian in Valencia [ 52 ]
Knowledge Percentage
Understand it 76 %
He knows how to speak 53,3 %
Can read it 47 %
Can write it 25,3 %
Total population older than 15 years 100 %

Balearic Islands

Catalan is the language of the Balearic Islands (thus defined in its Statute of Autonomy) and co-official, together with Spanish, as it is in the entire State. The Balearic case is similar to that of Catalonia, since here the main factor in the expansion of Spanish has been immigration, to a much greater extent than language substitution . [ 64 ] The sociolinguistic situation of Catalan in the Balearic Islands is different depending on the island and the area, in Menorca and in most of Mallorca , in the Foreign Part , it is where Catalan is most spoken, and in Palma and in IbizaIt is where it is least talked about. Also, in tourist areas, English and German are spoken . Although with less impact, Italian is also a frequent language, especially in Formentera, which has a high rate of tourism of that nationality.

According to the census data of the Balearic Islands Institute of Statistics of 2001 [ 65 ] and the sociolinguistic data of the IEC of 2002, [ 66 ] with respect to Catalan, the population would be distributed as follows: can speak it the 74.6%, 93.1% understand it, 79.6% can read it, 46.9% can write it. For its part, according to a survey carried out in 2003 by the Secretariat for Language Policy, [ 67 ] of the 1,113,114 inhabitants of the Balearic Islands, 749,100 (93.1%) understand it, 600,500 (74,1%) could speak it. 6%), and it is the usual language for 404,800 people (45.7%).

Knowledge of Catalan in the Balearic Islands [ 52 ]
Knowledge People Percentage
Understand it 749 100 93,1 %
He knows how to speak 600 500 74,6 %
Can read it 640 700 79,6 %
Can write it 377 200 46,9 %
Total population older than 15 years 804 800 100 %
Catalan in the Balearic Islands [ 68 ]
Year 2003
People Percentage
Usual language 404 800 45,7 %
Mother tongue 343 200 42,6 %

Eastern Strip of Aragon

The Catalan is the own traditional language of this territory called Franja Oriental de Aragón . It is spoken by a significant sector of the population, being the territory where oral knowledge of Catalan is the most universal. 80.2% of adults can speak it, representing 33,743 Catalan speakers in the Strip (data from the latest survey, from 2014). [ 69 ] In 2004 there were 42,000 people, 88.8% of the adult population. [ 70 ] The reduction is mainly due to demographic causes, rather than sociolinguistic causes. In all of Aragon there are 55,513 Catalan speakers, according to census data. [ 71 ]Despite all this, it is not an official language neither in the Strip nor in Aragon, and it has an almost null presence in public institutions, very limited in education, where it is only possible to study it as an elective, in the administration and in public events in general.


The Andorran case is similar to that of Catalonia, since here the main factor in the expansion of Spanish and French has been immigration to a much greater extent than language substitution . It is also the only territory where Catalan is the only official language and it is the only state in the world that has it as an official language. [ 72 ]

That an independent state has it as an official language allows Catalan to have a certain presence in the international arena. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] The entry of Andorra in the UN , the 28 of July of 1993 , allowed for the first time in history the use of Catalan in an assembly of this organization. [ 75 ] Andorra also brought the Catalan language to the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time in 2004 with Marta Roure and the song " Jugarem a estimar-nos ". [ 76 ]

Andorran mother tongues chart.

The official language of Andorra is Catalan, [ 77 ] although the linguistic reality is the result of the great demographic transformation that the country has undergone since the second half of the 20th century : in 1940, foreign residents in the country represented only the 17%; in 1989 they represented 75.7% —the historical maximum— and in 2007 they are around 65%. [ 77 ] French is also often heard , due to the border situation of the Principality. Recently there has been a significant increase in the Portuguese- speaking population . [ 78 ]

According to the Language Policy Service of the Andorran government, Catalan is the mother tongue of 49.4% of the Andorran population, but only 29.9% of the total population uses it. [ 79 ] On the contrary, Spanish is the most widespread mother tongue among the population of the Principality. Despite the growth in the population of Andorran and Portuguese nationalities, 43.4% declared that Spanish is their mother tongue. [ 79 ] The study shows that in recent years there has been a deterioration in the position of the Catalan language in favor of Spanish. [ 79 ]

Regarding literacy , 100% of citizens can read and write. [ 80 ] Spanish is the language that occupies the first place with respect to the proportion of the population that learned to read and write, followed by French, and Catalan in third place. [ 79 ]

According to the Social Observatory of Andorra of the Institute of Andorran Studies, language use in Andorra are: [ 81 ]





Flag of Andorra Catalan 38,8 % 58,3 %
Spanish flag Español 35,4 % 37,3 %
Portugal's flag Portuguese 15 % 3,5 %
Flag of France French 5,4 % 2,2 %
Other 5,5 % 0,5 %
Source: Observatory of the Institute of Andorran Studies


Traditional regions of the department of Eastern Pyrenees. Toponymy in Catalan.
Decree of Official Prohibition of the Catalan Language in Roussillon .

In Roussillon , as in most of France , the process of linguistic substitution of the local language for French is well advanced, with the classic pattern whereby the language changes first in the cities and only later in the countryside. Currently, about half of the population understands Catalan and between 20% and 30% is able to speak it, but their written knowledge and its social use is less than 10%. [ 82 ]

The French royal decree of Louis XIV of April 2, 1700, with an application date of May 1 of the same year, drastically prohibited the use of the Catalan language in official, notarial and other documents, under penalty of invalidating the content . Since then, French has remained the only official language, and the only one used in public education.

The latest sociolinguistic data available to the Generalitat de Catalunya [19] (2004) show that French is the majority language in Roussillon, with a minority presence of Catalan . Usually, despite the widespread Catalan environment, [ 83 ] 92% of the population speaks French, 3.5% Catalan, 1% both languages ​​and 3.5% speak other languages.

Regarding linguistic uses in various fields, it should be noted that 80.5% of those born in Roussillon speak only French in the family environment as opposed to 17.3% in which Catalan is present. In addition, the scope of the use of Catalan is increasingly reduced in the new generations and in immigrants. Only 6.3% of Roussillon students speak Catalan among themselves and 0.5% do so when they go to the doctor. However, linguistic awareness has not diminished and 62.9% of the inhabitants of Roussillon believe that children should learn Catalan. [ 83 ]

Likewise, according to official statistics, 65.3% of the population understands Catalan, 31.7% can read it and 10.6% can write it. [ 83 ] These results should be evaluated in parallel with the wishes in relation to the Catalan language. Thus, 57.9% of the population would like to speak Catalan and 62.9% would like their children to learn Catalan. [ 83 ]

Alghero (Sardinia)

The city of Alghero ( Sardinia , Italy ) has a population of 43 831 inhabitants ( 2009 ). The population of the city was replaced by Catalan settlers from the Penedès and Camp de Tarragona regions after a popular uprising against King Pedro el Ceremonioso . At the end of 1354 , the population was greatly reduced by hunger, after half a year of siege, and the resistant Algueres were expelled or enslaved.

That is why until relatively recently the majority language of the city was Catalan, in its variety from Alghero . Since the end of World War II , however, immigration of Sardinian- speaking people and Italian-speaking schools, television, and newspapers have meant that fewer families have passed it on to their children. In 2004 the linguistic uses of the population of Alghero were as follows: [ 84 ]

First language Usual language
Italiano 59.2 % 83 %
Catalan 22.4 % 13.9 %
Sardinian 12.3 % 2.8 %
Monument to the unity of the Catalan language in Alghero.
Wall of Alghero .

Until relatively recently, most of the inhabitants of the area spoke Alghero , a dialect variety of Catalan with influences from Sardinian and Italian . Catalan was replaced by Spanish as the official language during the 17th century , and, in the 18th century, by Italian.

In 1990, 60% of the local population still understood the spoken Alghero, although, for some time, few families have transmitted it to their children. Even so, the majority of people from Algiers over 30 years old know how to speak it and different entities promote the language and culture, such as Òmnium Cultural , the Center María Montessori and the Obra Cultural de l'Alguer.

The latest sociolinguistic data from the Generalitat de Catalunya (2004) [ 85 ] show that for 80.7% of the population of Alghero the vernacular language is Italian , the first language of 59.8% of the population and the usual one of 83.1%. Catalan is the first language for 22.4% of the population, but less than 15% have it as their usual language or consider it their own. The third language, Sardinian, shows a lower usage.

The Italian State, by virtue of the Norm on the protection of historical linguistic minorities, foresees the use of languages ​​such as Catalan in the public administration, in the educational system, as well as the launch of radio and television broadcasts by the RAI provided that the status of a language subject to guardianship is requested from the provincial council by municipalities in which fifteen percent of the population requests it. [ 31 ] Previously, the Regional Council of Sardinia had recognized the equality in dignity of the Sardinian language with Italian throughout the island, as well as with other languages ​​of a smaller scope, among which it cites Catalan, in the city of Alghero. [86 ] The city, for its part, promulgates its tutelage and normalization in its statutes. [ 87 ]

Due to its Catalan origin, the people of Algiers call their city Barceloneta, [ 88 ] and there are cultural links, promoted by the Government of Catalonia within its investment program in the spread of Catalan language and culture throughout the world, between Catalonia and Alghero. Among its living traditions, the Cant de Sibil·la stands out , which is sung on Christmas Eve (as it happens in Mallorca ).

In recent years there has been a resurgence of music sung in the local language. Among the most renowned protagonists of this new wave are artists such as the singer Franca Masu .

Dialect varieties

Like the other Romance languages ​​of the Peninsula, Catalan is notable for its uniformity and the dialect variants are not too divergent or compromise mutual understanding . The dialect division currently used is the one that Manuel Milá y Fontanals proposed as early as 1861 : the eastern dialect block (which includes the central, insular and French dialects) and the western dialect block.(which includes Valencian and Northwest). But even among these large groups the difference is small, and the discrepancies affect rather the phonetics (unstressed vowels), which are therefore not reflected in writing, and small morphological and lexical variants.

The dialect blocks cannot be delimited exactly because between one and the other there is always a transition band, more or less wide (except in the insular ones, obviously). In addition, no block is entirely uniform: any of those that exist can be divided into several dialects. Following this, the Catalan language can be divided into two dialect blocks and sub-dialects:

Catalan standards

Catalan speaking areas with different dialect groups.

There are two main standards for the Catalan language; the one regulated by the Institut d'Estudis Catalans , the general standard, which is based on the spelling established by Pompeu Fabra but with the characteristics of central Catalan closer to that of Barcelona, ​​not influenced by Spanish, and the one regulated by the Valencian Academy de la Llengua , standard used in the Valencian Community and Carche, which starts from the lexicographic and literary tradition, and the genuine Valencian linguistic reality, as well as the consolidated standardization, based on the so-called Castellón Norms . [ 89 ]

The IEC standard, apart from being based on the characteristics of central Catalan, also takes characteristics of other dialects, considering them as standard. Even so, the most notable difference between the two standards is the accentuation of many tonic "e", for example: French or English (IEC) / French or English (AVL), café (IEC) / café (AVL), conèixer (IEC ) / conéixer , buy (IEC) / buy(AVL) (English, French, Coffee, Know, Understand). This is due to the different pronunciation of some tonic "e", especially the Ē (long "e") and the Ǐ (short "i") tonic of Latin, in both blocks of Catalan (in the eastern block they pronounce [ɛ ] and in the western one they are pronounced [e]). Despite this, the standard of the AVL maintains the open accent "è", without pronouncing open in the western block, some words such as: què , Valencia , Sesam , Pléïade , bèstia , sèrie and època (however, since many words are admitted with the acute accent; such as coffee , French, Interest , stress , overcome , seem , church , cuttlefish , deer , ether , mercy , we were doing , we believed , etc.).

There are also other divergences such as the use of tl in some words by the AVL instead of tll as in ametla / ametlla (almond), espatla / espatlla (shoulder) or butla / butlla (bull), the use of the elided demonstrative determinants ( este , eixe ) as well as the reinforced ones ( aquest , aqueix ) or the use of many common verb forms in Valencian, and many of them extended by the western block, such as the subjunctive forms or the writing of the inchoatives both with - ix- as with-eix- or the preferential use of the morpheme -e of the first person singular of the present indicative in the first conjugation (-ar), since the other conjugations the morpheme is -ø: "jo compre " , "jo tem" , "ho sleep" .

In the Balearic Islands , the IEC standard adapted to the dialect framework is used by the philological section of the University of the Balearic Islands , the advisory body of the Balearic Government . In this way, for example, the IEC indicates that it is both correct to write " cantam " and " cantem " (we sing) and the University determines that the preferred form in the Islands has to be " cantam " even in formal settings. Another characteristic of the Balearic standard is the writing of the first person singular of the present indicative, where there is no ending: " jo cant " (I sing), " jo tem " (I fear), "" (I sleep).

In Alghero , the IEC has adapted the standard to the Alghero variety . In this standard one can find, among other characteristics, the article the general use, special possessives la mia , lo sou / la sua , lo tou / la tua , etc., use of the -v- in the past imperfect in all the conjugations: cantava (sang), creixiva (grew), llegiva (read); use of many words of archaic character that are very common in Alghero: manco for menys (less), calqui or for some(someone), qual / quala for who / who (which), etc. and adaptations of clitic pronouns.

Official Catalan certificates

It is necessary to differentiate between the certificates according to the territory in which they are obtained, since they are not exactly the same, although they are equivalent.

  • In Catalonia, the Permanent Board of Catalan manages the certificates of the General Directorate of Language Policy. [ 90 ]
  • In the Valencian Community, the Valencià Coneixements Qualifying Board is the entity that accredits knowledge of Valencian. There are other accredited certifying entities, they are the Interuniversity Commission for the Standardization of Knowledge Accreditations of Valencian (CIEACOVA) and the Official School of Languages ​​(EOI). [ 91 ] These certificates are obtained at various levels: A1; A2; B1; B2; C1; C2; Administrative language; Language in the media and proofreading. [ 91 ]
  • In the Balearic Islands, it is the General Directorate of Language Policy , which is in charge of this type of certificate. [ 92 ]
  • Abroad, the Ramon Llull Institute organizes tests to obtain the Catalan certificate. It allows certifying the following levels: A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2. Taking the test requires the payment of fees, but there are countries that are exempt from paying fees. The Ramon Llull Institute is a consortium made up of the Government of Catalonia, the Government of the Balearic Islands and the Barcelona City Council. [ 93 ]

Historical development

In the 12th century the first known literary text appeared, the Homilies of Organyà .

As in all Romance languages , the change from Vulgar Latin to Catalan was gradual and it is not possible to determine when its history begins. According to Coromines , the most radical changes must have occurred in the 7th and 8th centuries, but it is difficult to know precisely because the texts were written exclusively in artificial Latin, alien to the language of use. Already in the 9th century and especially in the 10th and 11th centuries, words and even whole phrases appear interspersed in something that can already be called Catalan, and short documents such as the feudal oath of 1028 or the Greuges de Caboet of 1080-1090, totally in Catalan. [ 94 ]The translation of the Forum Iudicum dates from the first half of the 12th century , a fragment of which is preserved in the library of the Abbey of Montserrat and which already has more modern linguistic characteristics. Since 1150 there are already numerous written documents and towards the end of the 12th century the first known text of a literary nature appears, the Homilies of Organyà , a collection of sermons.

The medieval Catalan of this stage has many similarities with the Occitan language , with which it forms a dialect continuum that will gradually differentiate over time until it forms clearly differentiated languages, as early as the 13th century. The first text printed in Catalan, the Obres e trobes en lahors de la Verge Maria , was published in 1474 in Valencia. [ 95 ]

Catalan was formed in communities that populated both sides of the Pyrenees (counties of Roussillon , Ampurias , Besalú , Cerdaña , Urgell , Pallars and Ribagorza ) and spread southwards during the Reconquest in several phases: Barcelona and Tarragona , Lérida and Tortosa, the former Kingdom of Valencia , the Balearic Islands and Alghero .

As for Catalan as a foreign language, although it is not a very widespread language, it has a long tradition that dates back to the Middle Ages, due to the medieval expansion of the Aragonese Crown, and at the time it left its mark especially on the Peninsula italics and in the Mediterranean nautical vocabulary. Currently, it is taught in several universities both in Europe and in the US and Latin America, as well as in numerous Catalan centers around the world. [ 96 ] [ 97 ]

Influence of Catalan on other languages

Throughout the Mediterranean, particularly in southern Italy and the islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea, there are languages ​​and dialects that have been influenced by the Catalan language, among them are:

Likewise, the influence of Catalan was felt in southwestern Andalusia due to Catalan emigration to these lands, with records still preserved in the living language of the 21st century.

Number of speakers

Territories where it has official status

Region Understands Can speak Usual language
Catalonia 5 837 874 4 602 611 2 742 600
Valencian Community 3 714 654 1 274 000
Balearic Islands 749 100 600 500 404 800
Andorra 62 762 51 587 30 405
Total 10 364 390 7 227 620 4 451 805

In addition, the following table shows the population has Catalan as mother tongue, in the eastern and western dialects, with 2004 data: [ 98 ]

Oriental Speakers Occidental Speakers
Girona counties 262300 Terres de l'Ebre 103900
Central Counties 211500 Western area 169300
Barcelona metropolitan area 1022800 High Pyrenees 34300
Tarragona field 145300 Valencian Community 1422590
Balearic Islands 479140 West Strip 45000
Andorra 61975
Total oriental 2121040 (54%) Total occidental 1837065 (46%)

Territories in which it has no official status


Region Understands Can speak Usual language
Europe 10 361 184 7 405 898 4 453 098
Rest of the world 350 000
Total 10 361 184 7 755 898 4 453 098



Educational field

With democracy , the Catalan language was recovered in education . However, the introduction of Catalan in classrooms was very uneven depending on the territory. Thus, while in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands a linguistic model has been adopted according to which Catalan is the main vehicular language, in the Valencian Community a model has been followed in which both Spanish and Valencian coexist as vehicles. [ 101 ]

Media in Catalan

In the Catalan-speaking territories there are different means of communication in Catalan, which make up the so-called Catalan communication space. In the field of the press, it is worth highlighting the Catalan edition of La Vanguardia and El Periódico de Cataluña , the newspapers published only in Catalan El Punt Avui , Ara and L'Esportiu ; the numerous regional press in Catalan ( Segre , Regió7 , Diari de Girona , El 9 Nou , etc.), the magazines in Catalan ( El Temps , Sàpiens , etc.) and the numerous digital newspapers in Catalan (VilaWeb , Racó Català , Nació Digital , , , Diari de Balears , etc.). In terms of radio, Catalunya Ràdio , IB3 Ràdio , À Punt FM and RAC 1 stand out as generalist stations, Catalunya Informació as a 24-hour news station, and Catalunya Música, Ràdio Flaixbac , Flaix FM and RAC 105 as music stations. Finally, with regard to television, mention should be made of TV3 , IB3 Televisió , À Punt, Andorra Televisió , 8tv and Canal 4 as general channels and El 33 , 3/24 , Canal Super3 , Esport3 , Barça TV and Fibracat TV as thematic channels.

Writing system

The writing system also has certain particular characteristics. Catalan has a unique characteristic, the writing of the -l- geminate: - l·l - (as in intel·ligent –inteligente–). The other characteristic is the ny [ɲ] (in Spanish it is equivalent to the "ñ") which is also found in afaan Oromo , Aragonese , Hungarian , Quenya , Walloon , Ladino , Malay , Indonesian , ewe , , ganda , Lingala ,seSoto , Swahili , Zhuang and Zulu . It is also worth commenting on the spelling -ig (pronounced [t͡ʃ] if there is a vowel before and [it͡ʃ] if there is a consonant before) represented in a few words (such as faig –hago–, maig –mayo–, mig –medio–, desig -desire -, puig –monte–, raig –rayo–, roig –rojo–, vaig –voy–, veig –veo–) or the "t + consonant " for the representation of double consonants with: "tm", "tn", " tl "," tll ", or africation:" tg "and" tj "cotna , atlas , ticket , judge , beach ).

Linguistic description

Catalan has specific linguistic characteristics that differentiate it from neighboring Romance languages ​​and they became their own with the local and peculiar evolution of Vulgar Latin to what is known as the Catalan language. The language closest to Catalan is Occitan, together with the one that forms the Occitan-Romance group . It has been debated whether Catalan and Occitan should be considered a Gallo-Romance [ 102 ] or Iber-Romance language , without being able to establish a consensus. In a more conservative way, it can be affirmed that Catalan and Occitan are different elaborations of the same language, of a central Romanesque group, Occitan- Romanesque., the question whether this Occitan-Romance group is part of the Iberian-Romance or Gallo-Romance or Independent group remains open.


Typologically, Catalan, like the other western Romance languages, is a fusing inflectional language with SVO basic order and preference for the initial syntactic nucleus position ( regens ante rectum or nucleus-complement ).

The following characteristics are some of the Latin mutations that have been made during the consolidation of Catalan, although other general characteristics are also shown.


Catalan is a fusing inflectional language , with a morphology similar to that of the other western Romance languages. The nouns, adjectives and many determinants have different ways according to their number and gender grammatical. Personal pronouns also have different forms depending on the grammatical case , although the gender distinction is reduced to third-person subject pronouns. The verb has a relatively complex inflection system, where each verb belongs to a type of conjugation (in Catalan verbs are usually grouped into three conjugations characterized by the ending of the infinitive). All characteristics are shared by the western Romance languages.

Some peculiarities of Catalan are:

  • A part of Catalan (Balearic Islands, Girona Coast) has preserved the article called salat (<Latin IPSE, IPSA, IPSU (M) ), initially more widespread in Old Catalan than the derived form of ILLE, ILLU (M) . This form of article has only been preserved in a dominant way in Sardinian and is in danger, if not disappeared, in some areas of Provence and Sicily .
  • The most common (and normative) articles are el , la , els , les (now, in western speech, in the north of Castellón and in Alghero, the masculine forms lo , los still persist ).
  • Contrary to the Iberian-Romanesque varieties , Catalan practices certain final unstressed vowel elisions. Some are written, like el + home > l'home , and others are oral: quinze anys [kin'zaɲs].
  • The feminine plural is formed with -es ( house > cases ).
  • The formation of the past tense by means of periphrasis exists with auxiliary verbal forms similar to those of the present of the verb to go ("to go") derived originally from the Latin verb VADERE : I went , you went , he went , we went / went , you went , they went (conjugation of the periphrastic past of the verb ir ). This characteristic is shared by Occitan and some varieties of Aragonese .


Vowel allophones of Catalan.
Members of the western bloc.

The vowel system is made up of 8 different vowel sounds or vowel allophones :

  • [a]: "c a sa"
  • [e] ( and closed): «t e va»
  • [ ɛ ] ( open e ): «m e
  • [i] «cam í »
  • [or] ( or cerrada) "warp or "
  • [ ɔ ] ( or open): «h o me»
  • [u]: " a child"
  • [ ə ] (neutral vowel): «cas a » (intermediate sound between a and e ), only used in the eastern block.

There are minor differences in how these 8 allophones are grouped into phonemes. Standard Eastern Catalan has 7 vowel phonemes in opposition / to ɛ ei ɔ ou / , although in some Balearic varieties the previous eight allophones are in phonemic opposition. There are also differences in allophonic realization between Eastern and Western dialects.

In Catalan, any of the sounds [a ɛ ei ɔ ou] can appear in a stressed syllable. However, in unstressed syllable a good number of neutralizations occur. In eastern Catalan (central, Balearic, northern, Alghero), the following are given:

  • / ɔ ou / (that is, o and u ) are neutralized in [u]
  • / a ɛ e / (that is, a and e ) are neutralized in [ə]

While in western Catalan (north-west, Valencian), the unstressed system presents fewer reductions, presenting a system with 5 unstressed vowels [aeiou] , instead of the 7 that may appear in a stressed syllable. Note that these neutralizations have analogues in other Romance Occitan languages ​​such as Occitan .

Diphthongs and triphthongs

Unlike Spanish, they tend to be descending. The pronunciations are according to the central dialect (Barcelona and surroundings). Examples:

  • The following words include diphthongs and are therefore monosyllables:
    mai 'never' [maj] / noi 'boy' [nɔj] / rei 'king' [rej]
    pau 'peace' [paw] / bou 'ox' [bɔw] / neu 'snow' [new]
    diu 'dice' [diw] / vuit 'ocho' [bujt]
  • The following words include hiatuses and are therefore bisyllables:
    day 'day' ['di.ə]
    cua 'cola' ['ku.ə]
    diuen 'dicen' ['diwən]

The only ascending diphthongs are those of the type gu (a / o), gü (e / i) and qu (a / o), qü (e / i) :

water «water» ['aj.gwə] (2 syllables)
unguent "ointment" [uŋ.'gwɛnt] (2 syllable)
pingui "Penguin" [piŋ.'gwi] (2 syllable)
llenguota «lenguota» [ʎəŋ.gwɔ.tə] (3 sílabas)
quatre «four» ['kwa.tɾə] (2 syllables)
question "question" [kwəs.ti.'o] (3 syllables)
aquifer «aquifer» [ə.'kwi.fəɾ] (3 syllables)
quota «cuota» ['kwɔ.tə] (2 sílabas)

Triphthongs are formed from those:

aguaitar «observar» [ə.gwəj.'tɑɾ] (3 sílabas)
liqüeu «liquefy» [li.'kwɛw] (2 syllables))

To form the hiatuses, umlauts are added over the i or u :

grape «grape» (rə.'im] (2 syllables)
coffin "coffin" [tə.'ut] (two syllables)
ruïna «ruina» [ru.'i.nə] (3 sílabas)

Historical evolution

  • Common characteristics with the group called Occitan, Gallo - Romanesque and Gallo-Italian :
    • Fall of the final unstressed vowels except -A ( MŪRU, FLŌRE > mur , flor ) that oppose it to the Iberor-Romanesque group that preserves them with the exception of -E in certain endings ( wall but flower / chor ) or Italo-Romanesque that preserves everything ( wall , fiore ).
  • Common features with Occitan:
    • Catalan presents a wealth of diphthongs: ([aj] mai -nunca-, [ej] rei -eh interjection -, [aw] cau -cae-, [ew] beu -bebe-, [ow] pou -pozo-. ..)
  • Characteristics that oppose it to Occitan, Gallo-Romanesque and Gallo-Italian:
    • Preservation of the Latin -u (and absence of rounded anterior vowels) (Catalan lluna ['ʎuna] , Occitan luna [' lynɔ], French lune ['lyn], Gallo-Italian [' lyna]).
    • Eastern Catalan overture presents changes in E / E-i > * ɛ / * e * e > proto-Catalan and Balearic * e / * ə > Central Catalan and / ɛ ( Ligna > cat. Llenya [ʎeɲə] , occ . lenha [leɲɔ] , with exceptions phonetically conditioned and some fluctuations). In Western Catalan, Ē / Ĕ generally converge on e .
  • Characteristics that oppose it to Occitan (in a generic way):
    • Reduction of the AU diphthong to open O [ɔ] ( CAULIS, PAUCU > col -col-, poc- poco-).
  • Characteristics of southern western Romania:
    • The group -ACT- becomes -ET ( MILK, FACT > milk -milk-, fet -done-)

Differences in interdialectals:

  • The vowel system differs between the main dialect varieties of Catalan, the vowel system of the proto- Romance / * i, * e, * ɛ, * a, * ɔ, * o, * u / evolved into proto-Catalan / * i, * ə, * ɛ, * a, * ɔ, * o, * u / subsequently the different varieties of Catalan differ in the way these vowels evolved into stressed syllable and closed syllable. In central standard Catalan / * ə /> / ɛ / (so the evolutions / * e /> / * ə /> / ɛ / and / * ɛ /> / e / (except in contact with liquid / r, l, ʎ /), although with some additional complications), while in Western Catalan there is neutralization of / * e, * ɛ /. Finally, the varieties differ in the neutralization that occurs in unstressed syllables that has a greater scope in standard central Catalan.

The typical evolution of the tonic vowel system can be seen in this table:

Classical latin

Central Catalan
/ * i /
* v i ta
/ i /
v i da [ˈbið̞ə]
/ * e /
* s e c
* p e go

* p e say
/ * ə /
* s ə c
* p ə l

* p ə s
/ ɛ /
s e c [sɛk]
p e l [pɛɫ]

p e s [pɛs]
/ e /
s and co
p e lo

p e so


/ * ɛ /
* t ę rra
* m ę l (e)

* n ę ve
* m ę mbrò
/ * ɛ /
* t ę rra
* m ę l

* n ę β
* m ę mbrę
terra [ˈtɛrə]
mel [mɛɫ]
neu [new]
membre [ˈmembɾə]
/ ie /
t ie rra
m ie l

n ie sees
m ie mbro
Ā /*a/ /*a/ /a/ /a/
/ * ɔ /
* m ǫ β
* m ǫ stra
* f ǫ g
/ ɔ /
m o u [mɔu]
m o stra [mɔstɾə]
f o c [fɔk]
/ we /
m ue ve
m ue stra
f ue go
/ * /

* FL is re
* ǫn it re
* r * f rca * f rnọ * f ndọs

/ * /

* fl r * r * r β.re * f RCA * f rn * f (d) s

/ o /

fl o r
hon o r [uˈn o ɾ]
r o ure [r o wɾə]

f o rca [foɾkə]
f o rn [foɾn]
f o ns [fons]
/ o /

fl o r
hon o r
r o ble

h o rca
h o rno
h o ndo
/ * u /
* l u na
* c u ńa
/ * u /
* ʎ u na
* c u ɲa
/ u /
ll u na [ʎunə]
c u nya [kuɲə]
/ u /
l u na
c u ña


The inventory of consonant phonemes in Catalan, specified by means of binary phonetic features , is summarized in the following table:

[+ consonant]
[-dorsal] [+dorsal]
[+lab][-cor] [-lab][+cor] [+ pal] [-vel] [-pal] [+ vel ]
[-son] [-cont] /b/ /p/ /d/ /t/ /g/ /k/
[-son] / ʣ / / ʦ / / ʤ / / ʧ /
[-son] [+ cont] (v), /f/ / z /, / s / / ʒ /, / ʃ /
[+ sound] [+ nas] /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
[+ son] [-nas] [+ years] /l/ / ʎ /
[+ son] [-nas] [-year] /ɾ/ /r/

As can be seen, usually ten binary phonetic features are required to define the anterior consonantal inventory in a unique way: [+/- dorsal], [+, - coronal], [+, - velar], [+/- voiced], [ +/- affricate], [+/- nasal], [+/- lateral], [+/- multiple vibrating] and [+/- voiced] (the rest of the features used [+/- palatal] and [+ / - labial] is redundant and can be deduced from combinations of the above). This number of features is high when compared to the minimum theoretical number of necessary "abstract" features which is 5, since 2 5 = 32> 23 (phonemes).


The occlusive become deaf in final position.

  • /p/ p
  • / b / b bilabial in those dialects where the distinction with / v / labiodental is preserved; in the other dialects v and b are mixed giving rise to the fricative [β]; [p] in final position.
  • /t/ t dental.
  • / d / d dental, but it is [ð] fricative between vowels or liquid; [t] in final position.
  • / k / c before a, o, u; qu ante e, i; qu for / kw / before a, o, u; for / kw / ante e, i; ch .
  • / g / g ante a, o, u; gu ante e, i; gu para / gw / ante a, o, u; for / gw / before and, i, articulated as / ɣ / fricative between vowels or liquids, [k] in final position.


The affricates become deaf in final position, but / ts / and / tʃ / / end followed vowel sound are (/ dz / and / /.

  • /ts/ ts
  • / div / tz
  • / / tx ; sometimes ig at the end of the word; there are many exceptions.
  • / / tj before a, o, u; tg before e, i; there are many exceptions.
    • In Valencian the j before a, o, u and the g before e, i are also pronounced ;


The fricatives in final position are pronounced deaf, but at the end of the word the / s / and / ʃ / followed by a vowel are voiced.

  • /f/ f
  • / v / v labiodental, in many dialects (those of Catalonia, northern and central Valencian) it has been mixed with b giving rise to the bilabial fricative / β /
  • / s / s ; ss between vowels; also c before e, i and ç .
  • / z / z ; s between vocals.
  • / ʃ / x ; ix before vowel or at the end of the word in x .
    • In western Catalan there are many exceptions.
  • / ʒ / j before a, o, u ; g before e, i ; ix at the end of a word when the next word begins with a voiced phoneme; there are many exceptions.
    • In Valencian and Western Catalan, this sound is only in ix
  • The H is silent


  • / l / The Catalan l is lateral alveolar velarized sonorous [ɫ] . It is different from the Spanish one.
    • l·l is l geminate , this is pronounced as ll and appears only in intervocalic position.
    • The digraph tl in intervocalic position resembles a geminate l ll, as in espatla (shoulder), except in borrowed words like athlete .
  • /ʎ/ ll, lateral palatal aproximante.
    • tll , is a trigraph assimilated to a geminate ll [ʎʎ] , as in rotllo «roll».


There are two vibrant sounds in Catalan.

  • Simple / ɾ / vibrant, written r in all positions except the initial one.
  • / r / multiple vibrating, written r in initial position, rr between vowels.


  • /m/ m
    • The digraph tm in intervocalic position is assimilated to a geminate [m:], as in September "week", except in loanwords as rhythm "rhythm".
    • The digraph mp at the end of a syllable is reduced to [m], as in compte "account", temptar "to try".
  • /n/ n
    • The digraph tn in intervocalic position is assimilated to a geminate [n:], as in cotna "leather, hard skin", except in loanwords such as' ètnia "ethnicity".
  • / ɲ/ ny , nasal palatal, as in Castellana .
  • / ŋ / velar nasal, written as nc or ng in final position.

Historical evolution

  • Characteristic of western Romania :
    • Sound of -P-, -T- C- Intervocalic in -b, -d-, -g- ( Capra chain SECURU > goat , chain , sure )
  • Common characteristics with the so-called Gallo-Romanesque ensemble :
    • Maintenance of the initial groups PL, CL, FL- ( PLICARE, KEY, FLORE > fold , clau , flower ). This characteristic opposes Catalan to the Iberian- Romanesque languages ​​(in Castilian arrive , in Portuguese chegar )
    • As in French and Occitan, voicing of final voiceless phonemes occurs when the first phoneme of the next word is a vowel or is a voiced consonant. These voices affect the phonemes [s], [t], [p], [ʃ] , [k] and [tʃ] becoming [z], [d], [b], [ʒ] , [g] and [dʒ] . Examples (in Valencian pronunciation): "els homes" ( the men ) [els] and [ɔmes] -> [el'zɔmes] ; "peix bo" ( good fish ) [pejʃ] and [bɔ] -> [pejʒ'bɔ] ; "blat bord"[blad'boɾ (t)] .
  • Common characteristics with Occitan (common tongue more precisely)
    • Final converted intervocalic -N drop in the lexicon ( PANE, VINU > pa -pan-, vi -vino-). Unlike the languedociano, the plural preserves this [n] (ex: pans , vins ) except in some northern speech.
    • Deafening of the final consonants: verd [t], Arabic [p] ...
  • Specific characteristics The most peculiar characteristics of Catalan are the following, which are hardly found in any other variety in Romania :
    • -D intervocalic converted implosive passes to -u ( PEDE, CRĔDĔRE > * PĔD, * CRĔD-RE foot 'foot', (he) believe 'believe')
    • -C + e, i, final> -u ( * CRUC (E) > believed 'cross', PACE (M) > stick 'peace')
    • Terminations -TIS in verbal inflection (2 to person plural) have derived -u (Example: MIRATIS 'Yep'> * miratz > * Mirau > Mirau / Mireu .
  • Other characteristics, also original, have a greater extension than the Romance languages.
    • Reduction of consonant groups -MB-, -ND- > -m-, -n- ( CAMBA, CUMBA, MANDARE, BINDA > bed -ant. Bed, leg-, coma -coma-, manar -mandar-, bena - venda-), a characteristic shared with Gascon Occitan and Southern Sole .
    • Palatalization of initial L- ( LUNA, LEGE > lluna -luna-, llei -ley-). This characteristic is found in Foixeño (Occitan) and Astur-Leonese .
    • Palatalization of the group -NN- ( ANNUS > any -year-, CANNA > canya -caña-), a characteristic shared with Spanish.
    • Palatalization of -is- from -X-, SC- ( THICK, FISH > thigh -thigh-, fish -fish, fish-)
    • Maintenance of proto-Romanesque affricates of J, G + e, i (JACTARE, GELARE> gitar -to lie down-, gelar -freeze-)
    • Presence of geminadas: week [mm], cotna [nn], shoulder [ʎʎ] (or shoulder [ll]), intelligent [ll]. These are only common to Occitan and Italic varieties.

Language loans

Most of the words in Catalan come from Latin , although there is also an appreciable fraction of historical loans from other languages ​​such as: Germanic languages ​​such as Gothic ( Ramon 'Ramón', espia 'espía', ganivet 'knife' ... and the place names ending in -reny , like Gisclareny ) and more recently English ( bar, web, revòlver ... ); other Romance languages ​​such as French ( brioix, garatge, fitxa ... ), Italian ( piano, macarró, pantà, pilot ... ),Occitan ( espasa 'sword', beutat , daurar , aimia , the suffix -aire ...) and that of Castilian ( bolero , lloro , burro ... ) ; the Arab (alcohol , sucre , alcova ... and many place names like Benicàssim , Albocàsser ... ) , also the Basque language ( esquerra 'left', Isard 'chamois, chamois, chamois' estalviar... 'save', and many place names like Aran and Benavarri ...).

Other representations

Braille signage of Catalan characters. [ 103 ]

See also



  1. 5. The name "Valencian" is also the one established in the Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community. Consequently, in accordance with tradition and statutory legality, the AVL considers that the most appropriate term to designate one's own language in the Valencian Community is "Valencian", a name that has been legally preserved, since it is one of the the main hallmarks of the Valencian people. This name can designate both the globality of the language that we share with the territories of the former Crown of Aragon already mentioned, as well as, with a more restricted semantic scope, the idiomatic modality that characterizes us within that same language. Likewise, the denomination of "Valencian language" is fully valid,[1]
  2. Article 6 of the Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community says: 2. The Valencian language is the official one in the Valencian Community, as is Spanish, which is the official language of the State. Everyone has the right to know and use them and to receive the teaching of, and in, the Valencian language.


  1. "Opinion on the principles and criteria for the defense of the denomination and entity of the Valencian." .
  2. ^ Project, Joshua. "Catalonian in Argentina" . (in English) . Retrieved May 15, 2020 .
  3. ^ Project, Joshua. "Catalonian in Mexico" . (in English) . Retrieved May 15, 2020 .
  4. ^ Project, Joshua. "Catalonian in Venezuela" . (in English) . Retrieved April 27, 2020 .
  5. ^ Project, Joshua. "Catalonian in Cuba" . (in English) . Retrieved May 15, 2020 .
  6. " Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak Inglés for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United States: 2006-2008" (in English) . US Census. April 2010 . Retrieved June 23, 2017 . ( broken link available on the Internet Archive ; see history ,first and last version ).
  7. “INFORMECAT - 50 data on the Catalan language” (in Catalan) . Accessed January 14, 2017 .
  8. ^ "Catalan" .
  9. «Catalan is ranked 88th in the ranking of the most spoken languages ​​in the world» . The Vanguard . June 22, 2007 . Retrieved January 18, 2021 .
  10. ^ "The Perpignan City Council proclaims Catalan as a co-official language together with French" .
  12. Congress of Deputies (April 25, 2006). "Title I. The Valencian Community" (html) . Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community . Retrieved October 6, 2019 .
  13. Congress of Deputies (April 25, 2006). «Chapter VI. Of the other Institutions of the Generalitat » (html) . Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community . Retrieved October 6, 2019 .
  14. «The AVL emphasizes that the Valencian is still alive in the Murcian region of El Carche» . July 23, 2013 . Retrieved March 21, 2016 .
  15. ^ Joshua Project. " Catalonian :: Joshua Project " . . Retrieved November 3, 2016 .
  16. Catalan, language of Europe . 2009.
  17. (Vallverdú, Baths , Moran and Ocerinjauregui, 2002, Encyclopedia of the Catalan Language , p. 37)
  18. «Regional Law 15 October 1997, n. 26 - Autonomous Region of Sardinia » . . Consult on the 26th of April of 2020 .
  19. Official Gazette of Aragon electronic n. 252 of December 30, 2009. Law of Languages ​​of Aragon . Article 2.-The languages ​​of Aragon. 2. Aragonese and Catalan are the original and historical languages ​​of our Autonomous Community.
  20. «The web of the languages ​​of Aragon - Languages ​​of Aragon» . . Retrieved April 26, 2020 .
  21. a b c «».
  22. «Linguistic data in Catalonia» . Archived from the original on April 15, 2014.
  23. Although the most frequent scientific denomination is, by far, that of Catalan , this is the most widespread syncretic denomination in the academic field. Josep Calveras used it for the first time in 1925, in his work The reconstruction of the Catalan literary language : "Catalan-Valencian-Balearic" would be his own [name] and everyone would be happy, if it were not too long, and in fact philologists [...] have become accustomed to saying it briefly: Catalan language. ” The official dictionary of the IEC is called the Catalan-Valencian-Balearic Dictionary .
  24. Meyer-Lübke, Wilhelm; Castellano, Guillem Calaforra and (1998). Catalan (in Catalan) . Institute of Catalan Studies. ISBN 9788472834033 . Accessed June 2, 2019 .
  25. «The relationship between Catalan and Occitan in the work of Manuel Milà i Fontanals» .
  26. "Opinion of the Valencian Academy of Llengua on the principles and criteria for the defense of the denomination and the entity of the Valencian" .
  27. Survey of linguistic uses in the eastern regions of Aragon. Year 2003. ( broken link available on the Internet Archive ; see history , first and latest version ). Government of Aragon - Aragonese Institute of Statistics, Statistics of linguistic uses in the Strip of Aragon. Year 2004. Government of Catalonia
  28. "Opinion of the Education, Culture and Sports commission on the proposed law for the use, protection and promotion of Aragon's own languages . "
  29. Only 1.3% use Catalan daily and only 5.7% understand it in Roussillon.
  30. ^ "Survey of linguistic uses in l'Alguer 2004" (in Catalan) . Archived from the original on April 12, 2012 . Retrieved October 9, 2012 .
  31. a b «Law 15 December 1999, n. 482. Rules on the protection of historical linguistic minorities . Official Gazette no. 297. December 20, 1999 " .
  32. Communal Statute . Art.9. City of Alghero , 8 of August of 2000 (in Catalan)
  33. Red Cruscat of the Institute of Catalan Studies
  34. «Tv3 - Telediario: The health of Catalan - YouTube» .
  35. «2013 Language Policy Report of the Generalitat de Catalunya, consulted on November 4, 2014» . Archived from the original on November 4, 2014.
  36. [1] , Knowledge of languages ​​2018
  37. Survey of linguistic uses of the population 2008 , no. 8. The Val d'Aran
  38. a b [2] . Survey of linguistic uses of the population 2018. Institute of Statistics of Catalonia (Idescat).
  39. Congress of Valladolid , Cerdà Massó, Ramón; Spanish and Catalan in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands
  40. ^ Peña Díaz, Manuel (1997). "Castilian in the Catalonia of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries" . Manuscrits (Autonomous University of Barcelona) 15 : 149-155 . Retrieved June 26, 2020 .
  41. Since we are bilingual Catalans? First study of the process of introduction of Spanish]
  42. "The bilingualization of Catalonia during the twentieth century", with Francesc Bernat, Mireia Galindo and Carles de Rosselló ... the first non-Catalan-speaking immigrants, who are mainly concentrated in the Barcelona area, generally adopt Catalan because it remains the predominant street language.
  43. Fishman, Joshua (1991). Multilingual Matters, ed. Reversing language shift: theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-85359-121-1. "While the repressive policy of the central authorities had an undeniably negative impact on Catalan use and even on Catalan competence (e.g. an entire generation went through school without any opportunity to acquire or polish Catalan literacy, a limitation that has very recognizable consequences to this very day among most older Catalans), an indirect development of those same years has had even more massive and more devastating consequences for the language. Catalonia had long been one of the most economically advanced areas of Spain and, as a result, its cities (most particularly Barcelona) had long attracted unemployed Spaniards from the rest of the country. These immigrants came in numbers that did not demographically swamp the indigenous (or indigenized) Catalans, and within a generation or more the latest newcomers too were recurringly Catalanized. [...] However, the immigration that transpired between 1950 and 1975 was so huge, relative to Catalonia’s absorptive capacity, that the rather effortless and rapid ethnolinguistic transformation of its members that had formerly been the rule was no longer possible. The economic consequences of the rapid addition of nearly one and a half million unskilled immigrants to the previous two and a half million 'native Catalans' were not seriously problematic ones for the host population. [...] However, the cultural and intercultural consequences became doubly problematic as social class differences compounded the ethnolinguistic differences separating the two populations. Even now, decades after the end of massive immigration (an immigration that would have been even larger had not whole trainloads of newcomers been turned back prior to their arrival) only slightly more than half of the adult population of Catalonia habitually speaks Catalan, a percentage which is halved again in the immigrant 'industrial belt' surrounding Barcelona where Spanish-speaking newcomers and their children, many of the latter born in Catalonia, are overwhelmingly concentrated."
  44. 2008. Statistical Institute of Catalonia (Idescat). </ Ref Population according to identification language. Catalonia. Year 2008 . Survey of linguistic uses of the population
  45. Population according to habitual language. Catalonia. Year 2008 . Survey of linguistic uses of the population 2008. Institute of Statistics of Catalonia (Idescat).
  46. Barcelona City council, the foreign population in Barcelona, ​​January 2008
  47. "Anna Cabre: Immigration and the Welfare State " . Filed from the original on December 28, 2009.
  48. a b Linguistic uses of the population. Initial, identification and habitual language , Survey of Linguistic Uses of the population (2018), Institute of Statistics of Catalonia.
  49. Population according to initial language. Data compared 2003-2008. Catalonia. Year 2008 , Survey of linguistic uses of the population (2003 and 2008), Statistical Institute of Catalonia.
  50. Population according to language of identification. Data compared 2003-2008. Catalonia. Year 2008 , Survey of linguistic uses of the population (2003 and 2008), Statistical Institute of Catalonia
  51. Knowledge of Catalan. Catalonia. Year 2007 , Statistical Institute of Catalonia.
  52. a b c d «Statistics of Linguistic Uses in Catalonia» . Filed from the original on October 23, 2014.
  53. Population according to language of identification. Related data 2003-2008 Catalonia. Year 2008. Institute of Statistics of Catalonia (Idescat)
  54. "Catalan loses weight as a habitual language due to immigration." El País , June 30, 2009.
  55. ^ The Second Generation in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Study , by Alejandro Portes (University of Princenton), Rosa Aparicio (Pontifical University of Comillas) and Wiliam Haller (University of Clemson).
  56. «Less than one in four children of immigrants say they speak Catalan.» La Vanguardia , June 29, 2009.
  57. Linguistic uses. Population aged 15 and over. By linguistic identification. Areas , Survey of Linguistic Uses of the population (2008), Statistical Institute of Catalonia.
  58. Linguistic uses. Population aged 15 and over. By linguistic identification. Areas , Survey of Linguistic Uses of the population (2003), Statistical Institute of Catalonia.
  59. «Preliminary title of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006» . Archived from the original on September 29, 2011.
  60. Service of Investigation and Sociolinguistic Studies , [3] , of the Consellería de Cultura, Generalitat Valenciana. Survey in June of 2005 where 6666 people ask "What language is the one you use at home?". For the study, the Valencian-speaking area has been divided into four areas: Those who answered that they always use that language at home , generally or more than Valencian , have been grouped for the preferential use of Spanish , and for the preferential use of Valencian those who use that language always, generally or more than Spanish .
  61. Research and Sociolinguistic Studies Service, of the Department of Culture, Generalitat Valenciana. Survey in June of 2005 where 6666 people ask "What language is the one you use at home?". For the study, the Valencian-speaking area has been divided into four areas: Alicante Region : municipalities in the regions of Marina Baja , Medio Vinalopó , Bajo Vinalopó , Campo de Alicante and Vega Baja , all in the province of Alicante. Region Alcoy-Gandia : municipalities in the counties of Hoya de Alcoy , the County of Cocentainaand the Marina Alta in the province of Alicante, and the Costera and La Safor in the province of Valencia. Valencia and Metropolitan Area : municipalities in the Huerta de Valencia region that make up the current regions of Valencia , Huerta Norte , Huerta Oeste and Huerta Sur . Region of Valencia : municipalities in the regions of Canal de Navarrés , Ribera Alta , Ribera Baja , Campo de Turia and Campo de Morvedre, all in the province of Valencia. Region Castellon : considered historically Valencian municipalities speakers in the province of Castellón. Those who answered that they always use that language at home , generally or more than Valencian , have been grouped for the preferential use of Spanish , and for the preferential use of Valencian those who use that language always, generally or more than Spanish .
  62. a b Research and Sociolinguistic Studies Service , Numerical Data Fund , of the Department of Culture, Generalitat Valenciana. "Language spoken at home" data.
  63. Montoya, Brauli: The social diffusion of the linguistic substitution in the city of Alicante: Essay of a chronology Archived the 27 of September of 2007 in the Wayback Machine ., Works of Catalan sociolinguistics 13, pp. 25-38
  64. Bernat Joan i Marí: Demographic change and linguistic substitution in the Pitiüses Islands Archived on April 15, 2009 on the Wayback Machine . Institut d'Estudis Eivissencs Territoris (1999), 2: 103-111
  65. “Data of the census of the year 2001, Institute of Statistics of the Balearic Islands, Government of the Balearic Islands” .
  66. Sociolinguistic data of the IEC, year 2002 . Filed from the original on February 16, 2007.
  67. «Sociolinguistic Survey carried out in 2003 by the Language Policy Secretariat, Government of the Balearic Islands» . Archived from the original on January 23, 2009.
  68. Population according to language of identification. Related data 2003-2008 Catalonia. Year 2008. Institute of Statistics of Catalonia (Idescat)
  69. Sorolla, Natxo (coord); Gimeno, Chabier; Giralt, Javier; Montañés, Miguel; Moret, Maria Teresa; Reyes, Anchel; Sisas, Ramon; Solé, Joan et al. (2018). Language and society in the Strip: Analysis of the Survey of Linguistic Uses (2004-2014) . Presses of the University of Zaragoza. p. 51. ISBN 9788417633509 . Accessed September 16, 2019 .
  70. Template: Ref-book
  71. ^ Reyes, Anchel; Gimeno, Chabier; Montañés, Miguel; Sorolla, Natxo; Esgluga, Pep; Martínez, Juan Pablo (2017). L'aragonés and the Catalan in l'actualidat. Analysis of the Population and Housing Census of 2011 . p. 29 . Retrieved September 16, 2019 .
  72. Population according to language of identification. Related data 2003-2008 Catalonia. In 2008 . Institute of Statistics of Catalonia (Idescat).
  73. Admission of Andorra to the United Nations
  74. [4] Members of the Council of Europe .
  75. [ Speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Andorra to the United Nations.
  76. "Andorra at the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest." .
  77. ^ A b «La llengua a Andorra» (in Catalan) . Archived from the original on July 22, 2011 . Retrieved September 5, 2008 .
  78. Teaching of the Spanish language to Portuguese adolescents, secondary school students and those enrolled in the Spanish Institute of Andorra . Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine . «The Institute has 454 students who come from immigrant families in the Principality of Andorra. But not all the students of the Institute are children of Spaniards. Currently, and behind only the Spanish, Portuguese students constitute the second largest group. »
  79. a b c d « Sociolinguistic study of 2004. Comparison with the data of 1995 and 1999 » (in Catalan) . Filed from the original on July 6, 2011 . Accessed September 5, 2008 .
  80. «CIA World Factbook (2013): Andorra.».
  81. ^ " Observatori de l'Institut d'Estudis Andorrans " (in Catalan) . Archived from the original on August 22, 2013 . Retrieved June 20, 2013 .
  82. Population according to language of identification. Related data 2003-2008 Catalonia. Year 2008. Institute of Statistics of Catalonia (Idescat).
  83. a b c d La catalanitat a Catalunya Nord Archived 2011-03-09 at the Wayback Machine . Conseil General Pyrinees-Orientales (in French and Catalan )
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  85. Back to top«Enquesta d'uses linguístics a l'Alguer 2004» (in Catalan) . Archived from the original on September 12, 2006.
  86. «Regional Law 15/10/1997, N. 26. Promotion and enhancement of the culture and language of Sardinia . Art. 2.1, 2.4. Regional Council of Sardinia » . Archived from the original el 30 de junio de 2008 . Consulted on the 10th of julio de 2013 .
  87. Communal Statute . Art.9. City of Alghero , August 8, 2000 (in Catalan).
  88. «Barceloneta de Sardenya, on the page of the Obra Cultural de l'Alguer» . Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 . Retrieved July 10, 2013 .
  89. «Law 7/1998, of September 16, of the Generalitat Valenciana, of Creation of the Valencian Academy of the Language» .
  90. «Generalitat de Catalunya - Catalan language» .
  91. ^ A b «Certification bodies approved by the Board» .
  92. “General direction of linguistic policy” .
  93. Ramon Llull Institute .
  94. MORAN, J. and JA RABELLA (ed.) First texts of the Catalan language . Barcelona: Proa, 2001. ISBN 84-8437-156-5
  95. Manuel Llanas “First printed texts” , Letter , UOC.
  96. «The Catalan celebrates 40 years of teaching in Moscow» . The Vanguard . March 22, 2018 . Retrieved March 24, 2018 .
  97. “Minor in Catalan Studies” . University of Montreal . 2018 . Consultado el 24 de marzo de 2018 .
  98. Data compiled from the total number of speakers per region and the percentage that has Catalan as their mother tongue , and the data compiled in the blog Avaibilitat Permanent .
  99. Sources: Catalonia : Statistical data from the 2001 census, from the Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, Catalan Government [5] . Valencian Community : Statistical data from the 2001 census, from the Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalidad Valenciana [6] . Balearic Islands : Sociolinguistic Survey carried out in 2003 by the Language Policy Secretariat, Government of the Balearic Islands [7] . Roussillon : Media Pluriel Survey commissioned by the prefecture of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region carried out in October 1997 and published in January 1998 [8] . Andorra: Survey of linguistic uses carried out by the Government of Andorra, 2004 [9] . Aragon : Statistics of linguistic uses in the Strip of Aragon carried out in 2004 by the Government of Catalonia [10] . A study carried out on the same dates by the Aragonese Institute of Statistics shows similar figures [11] ( broken link available in Internet Archive ; see history , first and latest versions ). . Alghero : Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [12] . The Carche: The population of this area of Murcia according to the census of the National Statistics Institute of Spain of 2006 was of 697 inhabitants. Rest of the World : 1999 estimate of the Federació d'Entitats Catalanes abroad.
  100. Sources (for habitual language): Catalonia, Roussillon and Alghero : Data from the Survey of Linguistic Uses in Northern Catalonia of the year 2004, of the Catalan Government [13] in which 400 people are asked "What language do you usually use? ". Andorra : Survey of linguistic uses carried out by the Government of Andorra, 2004 [14] . Valencian Community : June 2005 survey of the Sociolinguistic Research and Studies Service , of the Department of Culture, Generalitat Valenciana [15] , where 6,600 people are asked "What language do you use at home?". Balearic Islands: Sociolinguistic Survey carried out in 2003 by the Language Policy Secretariat, Government of the Balearic Islands [16] . Aragon : Statistics of linguistic uses in the Strip of Aragon carried out in 2004 by the Government of Catalonia [17] . A study carried out on the same dates by the Aragonese Institute of Statistics shows similar figures [18] ( broken link available in Internet Archive ; see history , first and last versions ).
  101. "Catalan in the educational field" . Culturcat ( Government of Catalonia ) . Archived from the original on December 11, 2013 . Retrieved March 26, 2013 .
  102. Studies carried out by Germà Colón based on the presence of certain common aspects of Romance languages, morphology, phonetics, syntax, lexicon, conclude that this language, together with Occitan and French , dates back to a particular diasystem , «Gallic Latin» , as a term without any connotation, strictly according to the linguistic typology (Enciclopèdia de la Llengua Catalana 2002: 32).
  103. World Braille Usage (in English) (3rd edition). Perkins. 2013. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-8444-9564-4 .


  • Badia and Margarit, AM (1984). Catalan Historical Grammar (in Catalan) . Library of Studies and Research. ISBN 84-7502-111-5 .
  • Vallverdú, Francesc (director), Bañeres, Jordi (coordinator), (2002) Enciclopèdia de la Llengua Catalana Vol. XII. Barcelona: Edicions 62, SA, director. Photo: Ramon Bastardes. ISBN 84-297-5026-6
  • Veny, Joan (1998). Els Parlars Catalans (in Catalan) . Barcelona: Moll. ISBN 84-273-1038-2 .
  • Wheeler, Max W (1997). "5. Catalan » . In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel, ed. The Romance Languages (English) . Taylor & Francis Routledge. pp. 170-208. ISBN 9780415164177 . Retrieved February 29, 2012 .

external links

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