Infantry Regiment "Margrave Karl" (7th Brandenburg) No. 60 - Infanterie-Regiment „Markgraf Karl“ (7. Brandenburgisches) Nr. 60

Infantry Regiment "Margrave Karl" (7th Brandenburg) No. 60

Siegelmarke Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 60 freendet.jpg

Seal of the regiment
active 1860 to 1919
State Prussia
Armed forces Prussian Army
Branch of service Infantry
Insinuation 31. Division
Location Weissenburg
Nickname Sixties
commander
Current
commander
See list of commanders

The Infantry Regiment "Margrave Karl" (7 Brandenburg) No. 60 was an infantry joined the Prussian army . The regiment was formed in Brandenburg in 1860 and moved to Alsace in 1871 . The most important garrison location there was Weißenburg . During its existence, the regiment took part in all major wars in Prussia and the German Reich , that is, in the three Wars of Unification 1864–1871 and in the First World War 1914–1918. After the war ended, the regiment was disbanded in 1919. As the namesake of the regiment wasMargrave Karl honored, who had distinguished himself as head of the regiment and commander under Frederick the Great .

story

Formierung (1860-1864)

At the end of the Sardinian War in the summer of 1859, the German Confederation mobilized 350,000 men at Prussia's request. The Prussian army did not intervene in the fighting, but weaknesses in the organization had come to light during the mobilization , especially in the Landwehr . In addition, the Prussian army with 150,000 men had an unchanged manpower since 1816, while the population of Prussia had risen sharply. The army reform carried out by the newly appointed Minister of War Albrecht von Roon on behalf of Wilhelm I was intended to compensate for these weaknesses. (In the further course this army reform led to the Prussian constitutional conflict.)

With AKO on May 5, 1860, 32 new infantry regiments were formed, referred to as 1st to 32nd combined infantry regiments. Landwehr units from the mobilization of 1859 as well as levies from existing line regiments were used for this purpose. The 20th combined infantry regiment was formed from the three main battalions Spandau , Treuenbrietzen and Potsdam of the 20th Landwehr regiment, which became the 1st, 2nd and fusilier battalions of the newly formed regiment. The regiment's first locations were Wriezen , Königsberg id Neumark and Strausberg .

On July 4, 1860, the name was changed to the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60. In the course of this renaming, the 1st Combined Infantry Regiment became Infantry Regiment No. 41 , and the 2nd Combined Infantry Regiment No. 42 , from the 3rd to No. 43, and so on, to the 32nd Combined Infantry Regiment, which became Infantry Regiment No. 72 .

The regiment formed together with the Infantry Regiment No. 20 and a Landwehr Regiment, the 11th Infantry Brigade , which the 6th Division and thus the III. Army Corps was subordinated. The regiment drew its recruits from the replacement districts Oberbarnim , Niederbarnim , Teltow and Berlin . The flag consecration took place in Berlin in January 1861 . [1]

German-Danish War (1864)

In the war against Denmark of 1864, the regiment took part as part of the 6th Infantry Division in the combined army corps. The first combat mission was the battle of Missunde on February 2, 1864. All three battalions of the regiment took part under the leadership of the regiment commander Lieutenant Colonel von Hartmann. The regiment suffered losses of 10 dead and 3 missing that day, plus 29 wounded. Except for five wounded, all casualties came from the 2nd Battalion, [2] which advanced on the right wing of the Ornumer Mühle against Bastion 60, and was exposed to grape and rifle fire in the open. [3]

The Infantry Regiment No. 60 belonged to the 12th Infantry Brigade under Major General von Roeder during the war against Denmark . With this large association , various exploration and outpost battles followed in front of Düppel and Rackebüll (today Sønderborg-Ragebøl), then participation in the enclosure and siege of the Düppeler Schanzen . During the encirclement of the entrenchments on March 17, 1864, four soldiers of Regiment No. 60 were killed and eight men wounded. [4] On April 18, 1864, the Prussian troops under Prince Friedrich Karl stormedfinally the jumps. Two companies of the regiment belonged to Storm Column 2, which was led by Major von Fragstein ( FR 35 ). [5] While storming the entrenchments , 18 members of the regiment fell, including one officer, plus 7 missing soldiers. 77 soldiers of the regiment were wounded, plus two wounded officers. [6]

After a temporary armistice and breaking off the London Conference , the regiment took part on June 29, 1864 in the transition to the island of Alsen . The regiment suffered only very slight losses compared to other units involved. [7] In July 1864 the war ended victoriously for the Austro-Prussian alliance. In total, the 24th Infantry Regiment suffered irretrievable losses of 40 dead and 13 missing in the German-Danish War, plus 73 seriously wounded and 85 slightly wounded or sick people. [8th]

War against Austria (1866)

In 1866 the regiment took part in the German War , the opponent was the German Confederation under the leadership of Austria , the allied from the German-Danish War. The order to mobilize arrived on May 4, 1866, and in mid-May the regiment left the garrisons under the command of Colonel von Hartmann. [9] First the regiment moved to the Spremberg area , then at the beginning of June 1866 to Görlitz , both near the border with the Kingdom of Saxony , which was on the side of the opponents of Prussia. The replacement battalion remained in Torgau . During the war the regiment belonged to the 6th Infantry Divisionunder the leadership of Lieutenant General Gustav von Manstein , who inspected his division on June 11, 1866 in Reichenbach . [10]

On June 23, 1866, the 6th Division crossed the Prussian border into Bohemia and marched south via Friedland , Reichenberg , Liebenau and Münchengrätz . [11] On July 3, the regiment participated in the Battle of Hradec Kralove in part (Sadowa), initially classified as a reserve of the 6th Division. Shortly before noon the regiment, together with that of the 12th Brigade, was ordered to move forward as the bulk of the division, and advanced on the right wing towards Dohalitz , where it had to hold out for four hours in the enemy gunfire. [12]Overall, this battle was very costly. On the day of Königgrätz, the Infantry Regiment No. 60 suffered losses of 63 dead and 51 missing, 90 seriously wounded, plus around 200 lightly wounded. [13]

In the course of the army increase , the regiment built up several sub-units in order to hand them over to newly formed regiments. The first such delivery took place in 1866 with three companies that served to form Infantry Regiment No. 78 in Brandenburg. The newly formed regiment was then transferred to East Frisia .

Franco-German War (1870/71)

Pocket watch of the regiment with the inscription Gravelotte - St. Privat

The regiment took part in the war against France in 1870/71 and fought again as part of the 6th Infantry Division in the III. Army Corps . The 6th Division was under the command of General von Buddenbrock . Extremely heavy losses was the participation of the regiment at the Battle of Gravelotte (St. Privat) on 18 August 1870 when the regiment on a day losses has recorded more than 700 men, including 162 dead and 47 seriously wounded. [14]

Garrison period in Alsace-Lorraine (1872–1913)

In February 1871 the preliminary peace of Versailles was concluded, with which France ceded the territories that had formed the realm of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. After the end of the war and the occupation in France, the regiment remained in Alsace-Lorraine. For this purpose, the regiment was subordinated to the 30th Division , which was formed in March 1871 and based in Strasbourg . The initial garrisons were Weißenburg and Hagenau (both Alsace). In 1876 the 2nd Battalion moved from Haguenau to Bitsch (Lorraine), where it remained until 1897.

In 1887 a company was transferred to the newly formed Infantry Regiment No. 138 in Strasbourg . In 1897 a half- battalion set up four years earlier was given up to Infantry Regiment No. 171 in Bitsch.

From 1897 the staff and all three battalions of the regiment had their garrison in Weissenburg in Alsace.

First World War (1914-1918)

The regiment was mobilized in 1914 at the outbreak of the First World War , and fought until the end of the war as part of the 31st Division , first on the Western Front . In January 1915, the regiment moved with the 31st Division to the Eastern Front . After the October Revolution and the armistice in the East in December 1917, the regiment moved back to the Western Front to take part in the 1918 spring offensive, which was initially successful but was extremely costly . (See the battle calendar) After the armistice on November 11, 1918, the regiment did not march into its home garrison in Weissenburg, as Alsace was now part of France. Instead, the demobilization took place in Staßfurt , where the regiment was disbanded in January 1919.

In the First World War the regiment suffered losses of 173 fallen officers and Portepee NCOs . [15]

Subordination, structure and personnel

Association membership

From its establishment in 1860 to 1871, the regiment belonged to the 11th Infantry Brigade with staff in Berlin , this to the 6th Division ( Brandenburg an der Havel ), and thus to the III. Army Corps , (Berlin).

With the relocation to Alsace-Lorraine in 1871, the regiment was subordinated to the 59th Infantry Brigade (based in Metz ), which became the 30th Division (also Metz) and thus to the XV. Army Corps (Strasbourg) belonged.

After regrouping, the regiment belonged to the 62nd Infantry Brigade and the 31st Division from 1884 . This division belonged to the XV until 1912. Army Corps, then to the XXI. Army Corps .

When the war broke out in 1914, the regiment moved into the field, the XXI. Army Corps was subordinate to the 6th Army . In autumn 1916 the regiment left the 31st Infantry Division and went to the 218th Infantry Division, which was newly formed on the Eastern Front.

Uniform and equipment

Uniform colors of Infantry Regiment No. 60 before the introduction of the field gray uniform

Teams wore the blue uniform skirt with red Brandenburg cuffs with light blue piping . The shoulder pieces were red with the yellow number 60 on them. The emblem on the pimple hood was the yellow line eagle. In 1915, the Prussian Army introduced a field gray peace uniform in addition to the field gray field uniform.

The main armament of an infantry regiment of the Prussian army were the rifles of the musketeers and fusiliers . Even before the war against Denmark, the troops were equipped with the Dreyse needle gun. This was followed by the Gewehr 71 , the Gewehr 88 and finally the Gewehr 98 , the standard weapon of the German army during the First World War, with which the regiment went to war in 1914.

Even before the outbreak of World War I, the regiment exhibited a foot-operated MG company , equipped with a total of six MG 08s . This was a significant increase in firepower , especially on the defensive of trench warfare . Heavy weapons support was primarily provided by the two field artillery regiments ( No. 31 and No. 67 ) of the 31st Field Artillery Brigade, which belonged to the 31st Division. Usually a battery was assigned to a battalion, but in the event of attacks or skirmishes, the artillery could be concentrated in focus. In 1918 a company of mine throwers was set up in the regiment .

Regimentschef

The first head of the regiment was from December 7, 1864 until his death on October 14, 1872 General of the Cavalry Albrecht of Prussia . On February 2, 1891 proclaimed Emperor Wilhelm II. The Infantry General Paul von Leszczynski his successor as regimental commander. [16]

Commanders

Commanders of the regiment were by year of appointment: [17]

From commander Life dates Remarks
1860 Georg Alexander von Hippel 1806–1895 later retired as major general
1863 Ernst von Hartmann 1817–1883 later General of the Infantry, following the Regiments
1867 Theodor von Knobelsdorff 1817–1879
1870 Clemens von Dannenberg 1819–1897
1873 Julius von Katzeler 1822–1889
1878 Friedrich von Dorndorf 1827–1901
1883 Maxilian Richter 1837–1889
1886 Kurt von Hake 1835–1896
1887 Hermann Merker 1834–1892
1889 Werner von Otto 1838–1927
1892 Wilhelm Lademann 1840–1919 later major general and commander of the Küstrin fortress
1895 Friedrich Boelling 1844–1899
1899 Eduard von Hoffmeister 1852–1920
1900 Franz Kettler 1850–1920
1904 Traugott von Bötticher 1851–1931
1908 Walter Friedrich Stobbe 1853–1922
1911 Wilhelm Knoch 1860–1920
1914 Georg von Tschirschnitz 1861–1914
1914 Hans von Balluseck 1863–1931
1914 Camillo Rayle 1862–1915
1915 Friedrich Digeon from Monteton 1858–1934
1915 Ernst von Bagensky 1864–1937
1916 Julius Denicke 1867–1938
1918 Heinrich von Bünau 1873–1943 appointed in July 1918, last regimental commander

Garrisons and barracks

Headquarters of the new barracks in Weißenburg in Alsace

The new barracks in Weißenburg / Alsace (today Wissembourg) was built from 1893 to 1896, and in 1897 the regiment moved into it. The barracks buildings have a cellar and have two floors. The facades are partly made of plastered brick , the base, strips, cornices and posts are made of sandstone - all in all, this corresponded to a schematic architectural style for the numerous new German barracks in Alsace-Lorraine . [18] After the end of the First World War, Alsace came back to France, and the barracks were used by the 7th Battalion of the Chasseurs alpins (mountain troops) under the name Caserne Abel Douay . generalAbel Douay , after whom the barracks was renamed, died in the Battle of Weissenburg in 1870 . After 1945 parts of the barracks were converted into residential buildings, a tax office moved in and some of the buildings were demolished. The buildings still preserved today are located on Rue de l 'Industrie ( map ) and Rue de la Pépinière. [19]

literature

  • Hermann Cron: Infantry Regiment Margrave Karl (7th Brandenburgisches) No. 60 in the great war of 1914–1918. Verlag Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1926. (= Volume 155, memorial sheets of German regiments / Former Prussian troop units. ). Digitized version of the Württemberg State Library .
  • The 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No 60 from its origins to the present. Meidinger, Berlin 1882.
  • Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 on the campaigns of 1864 and 1866. AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869. ( Online )

Weblinks

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 of the campaigns of 1864 and 1866 . AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869, foreword, pp. VI – VII.
  2. Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2, S. 55.
  3. ^ Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 of the campaigns of 1864 and 1866 . AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869, pp. 11-13.
  4. Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2, S. 185.
  5. Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2, S. 253.
  6. Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2, S. 269.
  7. Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2, S. 321.
  8. ^ Lists of casualties for the Prussian Army in the German-Danish War . In: Militair-Wochenblatt , Mittler, Berlin 1864, supplements No. 1540, 1557, 1568, 1577, 1584, 1615, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10526056-1 . ( Online research )
  9. ^ Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 of the campaigns of 1864 and 1866 . AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869, p. 72.
  10. ^ Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 of the campaigns of 1864 and 1866 . AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869, p. 76.
  11. ^ Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 of the campaigns of 1864 and 1866 . AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869, pp. 78–84.
  12. ^ Memories of the 7th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 60 of the campaigns of 1864 and 1866 . AW Hayn's Erben, Berlin 1869, pp. 84-93.
  13. ^ Prussian loss lists 1866 . In: Military weekly paper . Berlin 1867, pp. 148–152. ( Online search )
  14. Loss lists of the Royal Prussian Army and the Grand Ducal Baden Division from the campaigns 1870-1871 . In: Military weekly paper . Berlin 1871, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-79262 , No. 41, 43, 45. ( online search )
  15. Loss list: Infantry Regiment Margrave Karl (7th Brandenburgisches) No. 60 , according to the sources given there: Hermann Cron: Infantry Regiment Margrave Karl (7th Brandenburgisches) No. 60 in the great war 1914–1918 . Stalling, Oldenburg 1926.
  16. Günter Wegmann (Ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The occupation of the active infantry regiments as well as Jäger and MG battalions, military district commandos and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , p. 172.
  17. Günter Wegmann (Ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The occupation of the active infantry regiments as well as Jäger and MG battalions, military district commands and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , pp. 172–173 .
  18. ^ Niels Wilcken: Architecture in the border area: the public building industry in Alsace-Lorraine, 1871-1918 (= Volume 38 of the publications of the Institute for Regional Studies of the Saarland). Institute for Regional Studies in Saarland, Saarbrücken 2000, ISBN 978-3-923877-38-6 , p. 178f.
  19. Caserne Abel-Douay , File IA67008073 von 1998. In: Service of the Inventory of the Heritage of the Alsace Region.