Infantry Regiment Landgrave Friedrich I von Hessen-Cassel (1st Kurhessisches) No. 81 - Infanterie-Regiment Landgraf Friedrich I. von Hessen-Cassel (1. Kurhessisches) Nr. 81

Infantry Regiment Landgrave Friedrich I von Hessen-Cassel (1st Kurhessisches) No. 81

active October 20, 1866
State Kingdom of Prussia
Armed forces Prussian Army
Branch of service Infantry
Insinuation XVIII. Armee-Korps
Former locations Frankfurt am Main

The Infantry Regiment "Landgraf Frederick I of Hesse-Cassel" (1 Kurhessisches) No. 81 was an infantry joined the Prussian army .

Members of the regiment (left and right figure) around 1840

Garrison

The regiment's barracks in 1950. The block in the background is now the police station , all other buildings have been demolished, and the site is now the administrative center.

history

The traditional association of the regiment is the 1st Kurhessian Infantry Regiment "Kurfürst" , which was merged in 1789 from the Landgrave Hesse-Kassel Leib-Regiment-Infanterie and the regiment "Landgraf" under the name "Leibregiment-Infanterie". The Leib-Regiment-Infanterie formed the 1st Battalion, the Regiment "Landgraf" the 2nd Battalion. In 1803 the Leib-Regiment was named "Elector" and was given leave of absence by the Elector in 1806 when the French occupied Hesse-Kassel. It was not until 1813 that the regiment was reactivated as the “Elector” regiment. In the German Confederation the regiment was named 1st Line Infantry Regiment (1821), 1st Line Regiment "Kurprinz von Hessen" (1824), Leib-Regiment (1831), 1st Infantry Regiment, Leib-Regiment (1835), 1st Infantry Regiment "Kurfürst" (1856).

After the annexation of Kurhessen by Prussia after the German War in 1866, 21 officers and 520 NCOs and men joined the new regiment as a trunk to the new regiment, which was topped up by companies from various Prussian regiments. [2]

Reorganization after the German War 1866

The Gutleut barracks in Frankfurt was the regiment's location from 1880 to 1918 - now the police station

In the German War of 1866 , the Elector, who was very pro-Prussian and unwilling to go to war, felt compelled to mobilize against Prussia after the federal execution was declared . However, almost the entire Hessian army was designated as the garrison of the Mainz fortress . There was almost no hostility between the two armed forces.

However, since Hessen-Kassel stood in the way of Prussia's expansion efforts, the state was annexed by Prussia together with the Duchy of Nassau , which was occupied by Prussia in July 1866, and the Free City of Frankfurt as the province of Hessen-Nassau . The Hessian troops were integrated into the Prussian army.

On October 30, 1866, the regiment was reorganized as the 1st Hessian Infantry Regiment No. 81 . For this purpose had to submit:

  • the King Grenadier Regiment No. 7 the 8th, 13th, 14th companies
  • the infantry regiments 47, 58 and 59 each the 13th – 15th. company

There were also 21 officers and 520 crews of former Kurhessian soldiers.

To reinforce other units, the following had to be given:

  • on April 1, 1881, the 11th Company to Infantry Regiment No. 97
  • on April 1, 1887, the 8th Company to the Fusilier Regiment No. 80
  • on October 1, 1890, the 6th Company to Infantry Regiment No. 145

The regiment was later called Infantry Regiment Landgraf Friedrich I. von Hessen-Kassel (1st Kurhessisches) No. 81 and from 1909 1st Kurhessisches Infantry Regiment No. 81 .

The regiment belonged to the 42nd Infantry Brigade of the 21st Division in the XVIII. Army Corps and was initially stationed in Mainz. After the war of 1870/71 it came to Frankfurt am Main , where it was housed in the rooms of the former Carmelite monastery until 1879 . Due to the limited space in the Middle Ages, parts of the troops were quartered in private houses until 1879 . The III. Battalion was detached to Kassel until 1870, from 1870 to 1872 to Kastel and from 1872 to 1880 to Fulda .

In 1880 the regiment moved into the Gutleut barracks in Frankfurt am Main, which were built from 1877 to 1879 according to plans by Bruhns and Zacharias .

Franco-German War

The regiment was part of the 14th Division and took part in the siege of Metz from August 19 to October 27, 1870 . The 1st Battalion fought on August 26 at La Grange aux bois.

  • August 31 to September 1: Battle of Noisseville
  • September 23rd: Battle of the Fusilier Battalion near Chieulles
  • 27. September: Kämpfe des II. Battalions and Füsilier-Bataillons bei Mercy-le-Haut
  • 0 OCTOBER 7: Battle of Bellevue
  • 0 November 2 to 10: at the siege of Diedenhofen
  • November 22nd to December 18th, 1870: observation of Mezières
  • 0 December 1st: Fusilier battalion fighting at Harcy
  • 0 December 9-11: The 8th Company conducts a skirmish near Ham
  • December 27, 1870 to January 9, 1871: Participation in the siege of Péronne
  • January 19, 1871: Battle of Saint-Quentin

German Empire

Since there was still widespread anti-Prussian resentment among the citizens of the former Free City of Frankfurt, which was annexed in 1866, the regiment was given police powers. On April 21, 1873 six companies of the regiment violently put down the Frankfurt beer riot . There were 20 fatalities, including a woman and a ten-year-old boy. On the regiment's side, a lieutenant's head injury from being thrown from a stone was the worst injury.

In 1901 the regiment was deployed in civil protection after a serious explosion in the picric acid production of the Griesheim-Elektron chemical factory on April 25 left 26 dead and 94 injured.

First World War

On August 1, 1914 at 6.15 p.m. the regiment received the order to mobilize , which began on August 2. Within five days it reached its intended war strength by calling up reservists . On August 7th, the regimental staff and the MG company, on August 8th, the three battalions moved by train to Kahren . The soldiers were bid farewell by Prince Friedrich Carl of Hesse and Queen Sophie of Greece, among others. [3] Together with the other troops belonging to the 4th Army under Albrecht Herzog von Württemberg , it marched against the Luxembourg border.

1914

(Franco-Belgian theater of war)

  • August 22nd: Battle of Bertrix
  • August 23: Battle of Orgeo
  • August 24th: Battle of Matton
  • August 28: Battle of Rancourt (Somme)
  • 0 6 to 11 September: Marneschlacht , Étrepy - Maurupt
  • September 22nd to October 8th: Battles at Champien, Roye, Villers les Roye and Andechy
  • from October 10th: Position battles in front of Roye (this is how it replaced the "Lübeck" infantry regiment (3rd Hanseatic table) No. 162 in the position near St. Aurin-Laucourt on the evening of October 14th )
  • from November 14: trench warfare in front of Andechy

1915

  • Trench warfare continued until October. Then the regiment was withdrawn in preparation for the Battle of Verdun

1916

  • January to February 21: preparation for the Battle of Verdun
  • February 22nd and 23rd: Battle of Verdun, storming of the Caures Forest
  • February 24th: Attack at height 344 (Samogneux)
  • February 25-28: Fight for and on the back of pepper
  • 0 March 2nd to 11th: Fights in the Chauffour and Albain Forest
  • 0 April 5-20: fighting in the Cailette forest
  • from May 15th: Relocation to Champagne , position battles at the Chemin des Dames
  • September 13-30: Battle of the Somme
  • 0 October 9 to November 5: rest and training in Favril and La Groise
  • from November 24th: Trench warfare on the Somme

1917

  • until February 10: trench warfare on the Somme
  • until March 3rd: rest period
  • from April 4th: Aisne - Champagne double battle
  • April 26th to May 5th: Trench warfare in Champagne

Relocation to the eastern theater of war

  • May 12th to June 11th: rest and training in Vilejka
  • June 12th to October 15th: Trench warfare near Krewo-Smorgon-Naroczsee

Relocation to the western theater of war

  • from October 24th: fighting in front of Reims

1918

  • 0 February 1 to April 20: trench warfare off Reims
  • 0 May 1 to the end of July: trench warfare on the Avre (Somme)
  • August: Defensive battles between the Somme and Oise
  • 0 September 1 to October 18: Defensive battle between Cambrai and St. Quentin
  • 0 November 2-11: trench warfare east of the Scheldt

After November 11th: march back home and demobilize the regiment.

The regiment's total losses in World War I amounted to 113 officers and 3,048 NCOs and men.

Whereabouts

After the end of the war , the 1st Battalion was in Wetzlar, the 2nd Battalion in Siegen and the III. Battalion in Frankfurt am Main. The regiment was demobilized through the Wetzlar liquidation center until May 5, 1919 and finally dissolved. The formation of a volunteer battalion had already started in January 1919, which then became the 2nd battalion of the "Hessen-Nassau" Freikorps. This became the 2nd battalion of the Reichswehr Infantry Regiment 22 with the formation of the Provisional Reichswehr . [4]

The tradition in the Reichswehr was adopted by the 10th Company of the 156th Infantry Regiment in Kassel by decree of the Chief of the Army Command, General of the Infantry Hans von Seeckt , on August 24, 1921 . In the course of the occupation of the Rhineland , the Wehrmacht set up the 81st Infantry Regiment on April 1, 1936. It was also stationed in Frankfurt am Main and subordinated to the 15th Infantry Division .

Regimentschef

Rank Name Date [5]
Wilhelm I. December 5, 1813 to February 27, 1821
Friedrich Wilhelm I. 1824 to 1866
Ludwig IV. June 19, 1871 to March 13, 1892
Major general Friedrich Karl of Hesse January 24, 1911 until dissolution

Commanders

Rank Name Date [6]
Oberst Theodor von Sell October 30, 1866 to June 19, 1871
Oberst Hermann von Langen June 20, 1871 to March 17, 1876
Oberst Enno from Conring March 18, 1876 to October 16, 1881
Oberst Karl von Struensee October 17, 1881 to May 17, 1887
Oberst Otto von der Groeben May 18, 1887 to June 13, 1888
Oberst Rudolf d'Orville von Löwenclau June 14, 1888 to February 13, 1891
Oberst Albrecht von Sydow February 14, 1891 to June 16, 1893
Oberst Eduard von Kehler June 17, 1893 to March 21, 1897
Oberst Günther von Werder March 22, 1897 to March 21, 1900
Oberst Arthur von Wrochem March 22, 1900 to April 17, 1903
Oberst Max von Hanstein April 18, 1903 to May 16, 1904
Oberst Maximilian von Wartenberg May 17, 1904 to March 20, 1908
Oberst Friedrich Karl of Hesse March 21, 1908 to January 30, 1911
Oberst Paul von Drabich-Waechter January 31, 1911 to March 21, 1914
Oberst Julius of Dawans March 22 to August 1, 1914
Lieutenant General Friedrich Karl of Hesse 02. August 1914
Major Hans von Schleinitz August to November 14, 1914 (in charge of the tour)
Lieutenant colonel Dietrich von Grone November 18, 1914 to September 23, 1915
Major Georg von Goerne September 24, 1915 to February 26, 1916 (in charge of the tour)
Lieutenant colonel Hans von Joeden 0 March 4 to August 12, 1916
Lieutenant colonel Paul Zimmer August 13, 1916 to September 22, 1918
Major Heinrich von Schenckendorff 23 September 1918 to 1919 (in charge of the tour)
Lieutenant colonel Paul Zimmer 1919

See also

→ see also: Hessen-Kassel Army

literature

  • Max Hein: The Little Book of the German Army. A manual and reference book for instruction on the German war power. Processed according to the latest regulations. Lipsius & Tischer, Kiel et al. 1901.
  • Loeffelholz von Colberg, Baron and Captain von Cochenhausen: History of the 1st Kurhessian Infantry Regiment No. 81 from the year 1866 to the year 1888 (completed up to the most recent time). Self-published by the regiment (printed by Reinhard Mahlau & Waldschmidt), Frankfurt am Main 1903.
  • v. Cochenhausen: Brief history of the 1st Kurhessian Infantry Regiment No. 81 and its regular troops. M & S publishing house, Berlin 1913.
  • Otto Schwalm: The Royal Prussian Infantry Regiment Landgrave Friedrich I. von Hessen-Kassel (1st Kurhessisches) No. 81 in the World War 1914-1918. 1932.
  • HA Eckert, Dietrich Monten: The German Armed Forces. Dortmund 1990.
  • Henning Roet de Rouet: Frankfurt am Main as a Prussian garrison from 1866 to 1914. Frankfurt am Main 2016.

Weblinks

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Alfred Börckel : Mainz as a fortress and garrison from Roman times to the present . Verlag von J. Diemer, Mainz 1913, p. 293.
  2. ^ Regiments of the Prussian Army on preussenweb.de , accessed on April 1, 2011.
  3. ^ Roet de Rouet, Henning: Frankfurt am Main as a Prussian garrison from 1866 to 1914. Frankfurt am Main 2016. p. 300.
  4. ^ Jürgen Kraus : Handbook of the units and troops of the German army 1914-1918. Part VI: Infantry. Volume 1: Infantry Regiments. Verlag Militaria, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-902526-14-4 , p. 148.
  5. ^ Günter Wegmann (ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The staffing of the active infantry regiments, as well as jäger and machine gun battalions, military district commands and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , p. 210.
  6. ^ Günter Wegmann (ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The occupation of the active infantry regiments as well as Jäger and MG battalions, military district commands and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , pp. 211-212 .

Coordinates: 50 ° 6 ′ 9 ″ N , 8 ° 39 ′ 39 ″ E