| Lema : God and my right|
( inglés : Dios y mi derecho )
| Himno : God Save the Queen ( in fact , [ 4 ] no de jure )|
|• Population||7 556 900|
• Anglo-Saxon invasion
Centuries V and VI
on July 12 to 927 [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
|• Total||130 395 km²|
|Borders||Scotland , Wales|
|Population ( 2020 )||22nd position|
|• Total||55,980,000 hab.|
|• Density||407 hab / km²|
|START (nominal)||6th position|
|• Total (2008)||2 680 000 mill. USD|
|• PIB per cápita||43 733 USD|
|• Currency|| Pound sterling (£, |
|IDH (2007)||0.947 (21st) - Very high|
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time , Europe / London and Western European Time|
|• in summer||UTC+1|
|ISO 3166-2||GB-ENG +|
|Patron (a)||Saint George|
|Official Web site|
England (in English , England ) is one of the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom . Its territory is geographically formed by the southern and central part of Great Britain , an island that it shares with Scotland and Wales , and about 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight . It is bordered to the north by Scotland , to the west by Wales - its two land borders - to the northwest by the Irish Sea , to the southwest by the Celtic Sea , to the east by the North Seaand to the south with the English Channel . England accounts for 84% of the population and 85% of the UK's GDP .
The current territory of England has been inhabited by various cultures for about 35,000 years, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic peoples who settled there during the 5th and 6th centuries . It became a unified state in 927 and since the Age of Discovery , which began in the 15th century , it has had a great cultural and legal impact around the world. The English language , the Anglican Church and the Law of England - taken as the basis for the legal systemfrom many other countries in the world - developed in England, and the parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.
The Kingdom of England - which from 1284 also included Wales - was an independent state until 1707, when the Act of Union with Scotland was signed to create the Kingdom of Great Britain . In 1801 the Kingdom of Ireland joined the Kingdom of Great Britain thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1922. With the independence and partition of Ireland since then it is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland .
At the end of the Roman mandate over Britain , (the southern part of Great Britain ), the island was invaded, both by Celtic peoples from Scotland and Ireland and by Germanic peoples from the present-day Netherlands , Germany , and Denmark , mainly Angles , Saxons and Jutes . These tribes eventually merged with each other and, in a way, with the local population, mainly the Britons., founding a series of kingdoms in southeastern Britain. This area was given the Latin name Anglae terra (Land of the Angles) by the Franks , which later came to be used in most of Europe. Later, the English themselves translated this name as England .
It is curious that the name of this territory varies depending on where the name comes from: for continental Europeans , the name "Land of the Angles" was the one that lasted, even though the Angles were further north than the Saxon kingdoms on the island. . Undoubtedly, it was influenced by the fact that the Anglo kingdoms of Northumbria , Mercia and East Anglia covered 80% of the territory of the Heptarchy and they corresponded to political supremacy during the 6th and 7th centuries, especially during the reigns of Edwin of Northumbria and from Penda and Offa from Mercia. To this political supremacy of the Angles was added a cultural primacy, since the monasteries of Northumbria, especially that of Lindisfarne, became cultural centers of the first order, from which great figures such as Alcuin of York and Bede the Venerable emerged , who had a great influence on the development of the culture of Merovingian and Carolingian Europe . In addition, there was a fact that played against a hypothetical Saxonland: and that is that on the continent, on the eastern border of the kingdom of the Franks, the people of the continental Saxons settled, which after being subdued by Charlemagne , became integrated into the Carolingian Empireand later in the Holy Empire . The use of the terms Anglia and angli avoided annoying homonyms and avoided the possibility of confusing the Anglo-Saxons with the Saxons of the continent.
Within the framework of the Anglo-Saxons themselves, the Ecclesiastical History Gentis Anglorum of Bede the Venerable sets a trend. In this work, the words Angli , angelfolc and gentis Anglorum are used in two ways: in a broad sense, designate those peoples of Germanic language that invaded Britain at the end of the V century and the beginning of the VI , whether Anglos, Jutes or Saxons. [ 6 ]In a strict sense, such terms referred exclusively to the tribe of Angles, excluding Jutes and Saxons. This terminology was accepted even by the Wessex Saxons, who, beginning with Alfred the Great , titled themselves Rex Saxonum et Anglorum (Kings of the Angles). Undoubtedly, it was influenced by the fact that from the treaty of Wedmore (878) and the conquest of London, large areas inhabited by Angles fell into the power of King Alfred. It was precisely this monarch who, despite being a Saxon, did his best to sponsor a Panninglese identity among the Anglo-speaking peoples of Britannia.
In his translations of the works of Bede the Venerable the word englisc (English), and not saxisc (Saxon), is used to refer to the Anglo-Saxon language. Furthermore, the expression gentis Anglorum is translated by Alfredo as with the word Angelcynn (the people of the English). Not surprisingly, the kings of Wessex were descendants of the legendary king of the Angles Offa (not to be confused with Offa of Mercia), who reigned in Northern Germany centuries before the great migration to Britannia. The kings of the Anglo-Saxons, owners already from Athelstan of all England, adopted different titles such as Rex Angulsæxna (King of the Anglo-Saxons) or Rex Anglorum (King of the English) and finally in the 11th century the last expression was consolidated, and the word "English" definitively displaced that of "Saxons".
In the Celtic languages , the name of the Saxons was the one that had the greatest roots, such as: Sasana in Irish Gaelic ; Sasainn in Scottish Gaelic ; Lloegr for the territory, but saeson as a gentilicio , in Welsh and bro-saoz in Breton .
Prehistory and antiquity
The oldest human fossil discovered in the territory is more than 500,000 years old. [ 7 ] The discovery was made in present-day Norfolk and Suffolk . Modern man came to the territory 35 thousand years ago, but due to the difficult conditions of the last ice age , they fled from Great Britain towards the mountains of southern Europe. Only large mammals such as mammoths and rhinos remained . About eleven thousand years ago, when the ice began to melt, humans reoccupied the region. Genetic studies showed that they came from the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Sea level was lower than it is today, and Britain was connected by land to Ireland and Eurasia, [ 8 ] when the sea rose it separated from Ireland 9000 years ago and from Eurasia shortly thereafter.
The bell-shaped vase culture arrived around 2500 BC. With her began the construction of vessels made of clay and copper. [ 9 ] It was at this time that the great Neolithic monuments , such as those of Stonehenge and Avebury, were built. During the Iron Age the Celts came from central Europe. The development of iron foundry allowed the construction of better plows, the advancement of agriculture, and the production of more effective weapons. [ 10 ]
The Romans conquered Britain in AD 43, and under Claudius the area was incorporated into the province of Britain . [ 11 ] In 410, with the decline of the Roman Empire , the Romans left the island to defend its limits in Continental Europe.
After the withdrawal of the Romans, Great Britain was exposed to the invasion of warrior sailors such as the Saxons and Jutes , who gained control in areas of the southeast. Their advance could be held back for a time after the British victory at the Battle of Mount Badon . The post-Roman British kingdoms in the north, later collectively known to British bards as the Hen Ogledd , were, in turn, gradually conquered by the Angles during the 6th century. Given the paucity of reliable contemporary accounts of this period, as well as archaeological evidence, this period is described as a Dark Age.. There are several conflicting theories regarding the extent and process of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Great Britain ; Cerdic , founder of the Wessex dynasty , may have been a Briton. However, by the 7th century small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy had emerged in central and southern Britain: Northumbria , Mercia , Estanglia , Essex , Kent , Sussex, and Wessex .
In 927, King Athelstan of Wessex unified the Heptarchy and proclaimed himself "King of all Britain " ( Rex Totius Britanniae ), becoming the first Anglo-Saxon to rule over a unified England. [ 12 ] In 1066, England was conquered by an army led by William the Conqueror from the Duchy of Normandy , a fiefdom of the Kingdom of France . The Normans came from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy only a few centuries earlier. This people introduced feudalism and maintained power throughbarons .
Modern and Contemporary Age
Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, the impetus of the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment led to the creation of major innovations in science and engineering. This paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire , which at its territorial peak came to encompass nearly a quarter of the earth's surface. Domestically, the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound changes in the cultural and socioeconomic conditions of the country, meant the industrialization of agriculture, manufacturing, engineering and mining, as well as the development of new works in transportation and hydraulic infrastructure to facilitate its expansion and development, highlighting in this area the construction of the Bridgewater Canal , completed in 1761, and the opening of the Stockton-Darlington Railroad in 1825.
During the Industrial Revolution many people moved from rural areas to new expanding industrial areas, such as Manchester or Birmingham . England maintained relative stability throughout the French Revolution , with William Pitt the Younger being the British Prime Minister during the reign of George III .
Since the 20th century there has been a significant movement of immigration to England, mostly from inhabitants from other parts of the British Isles , but also from countries of the Commonwealth of Nations , particularly from countries on the Indian subcontinent .
government and politics
Since England is one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom , the prevailing political system is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system . [ 13 ] There has been no Government of England since 1707, when the Act of Union of that year certified the union of England with Scotland , creating the Kingdom of Great Britain . [ 14 ] Before the union, England had its own monarch and its own parliamentwho took care of their government. Currently England is directly governed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , despite the fact that other constituent countries have developed their own governments. [ 15 ] The House of Commons , the Lower House of the British Parliament, which is based in the Palace of Westminster , is made up of 532 Members of Parliament representing the various constituencies located in England, out of a total of 650. [ 16 ]
In the general election in the UK in 2010 the Conservative Party won an absolute majority if they have only 532 seats for England, gaining 61 more seats than all other parties combined. However, if the results of Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales are added together, the result in England was not enough to ensure an absolute majority, resulting in a situation called hung parliament or hung parliament . [ 17 ] This situation forced the conservatives, led by David Cameron , to agree with the liberal democrats to form a government and be able to proclaim Cameron asprime minister .
Following the decentralization of powers, whereby each of the other constituent countries of the United Kingdom - Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland - obtained its own parliament or assembly to govern over local matters, a debate has opened on how to compensate this absence of its own parliament in England. Originally it was proposed that several regions of England have their own assembly, but the rejection of this idea in a referendum held in 2004 in the Northeast region of England stopped this reform.
The coldest months are January and February , with July being the warmest month. Rainfall is distributed evenly throughout the year, with the western region having the most rainfall. [ 18 ] Since the weather was recorded, the highest temperature was 38.5 ° C on August 10, 2003 in Brogdale , [ 19 ] while the lowest was −26.1 ° C on August 10. January 1982 in Edgmond . [ 20 ]
|England average climatic parameters|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||7||7||9||12||15||18||21||21||18||14||10||7||13|
|Temp. min media (° C)||1||1||2||4||6||9||11||11||9||7||4||2||6|
|Total precipitation (mm)||84||60||67||57||56||63||54||67||73||84||84||90||838|
|Source: Met Office [ 21 ]|
The organization of local government in England is complex, due to the fact that the distribution of functions varies according to local regulations. Local law rests with the British Parliament and the UK government , as England does not have a decentralized parliament. The top tier of subdivisions in England is made up of the nine regional government offices . [ 22 ] Since 2000, the London region has had an elected assembly and a mayor, following the great support that proposal received in the 1998 London referendum . [23 ] [ 24 ] It was intended that other regionsalso have its own regional assembly, but the rejection of this idea in a referendum in 2004 in the region North East England stopped the reform. [ 25 ] Below the regional level, London is made up of 32 municipalities while the rest of England has district councils and county councils or unitary authorities. The councilors are elected by direct suffrage , by simple vote or by block . [ 26 ]
The Bank of England , founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson , is the central bank of the United Kingdom. From its foundation it acted as a private bank for the Government of England, and continued in this role for the Government of the United Kingdom until it was nationalized in 1946. It also has a monopoly on the issuance of banknotes of the official currency of England and of all the United Kingdom, the pound sterling for both England and Wales , although not in Scotland and Northern Ireland, where some banks have the right to issue their own banknotes.
England alone accumulates 85% of the GDP of the United Kingdom . England is highly industrialized, although since the 1970s it has seen a decline in the traditional heavy industry and manufacturing sectors, in favor of an increasing emphasis on the service sectors. In addition, tourism has become a key factor in the English economy, which annually attracts millions of visitors. The main English exports are pharmaceuticals , automobiles , oil (extracted from the English part of the North Sea in conjunction with Wytch Farm), aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages . Another important part of the economy is agriculture , which in England is intensive and highly mechanized, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the workforce. Two thirds of agricultural production is dedicated to livestock, while the other third is dedicated to cultivation.
With more than 50 million inhabitants according to the 2001 census, England is the most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the total population. If it were a sovereign state , these figures would make England the 25th most populous country in the world. In turn, with a density of 407 people per square kilometer, it would be the second most densely populated state in Europe after Malta .
As its name suggests, English , a language spoken by millions of people in the world, originated as the language of England, being the third most widely spoken language in the world after Chinese (Mandarin) and Spanish .
After Anglicanism (with 55% of the population), the Catholic Church is the confession with the largest number of faithful, with 4.2 million people, approximately 7.8% of the English and Welsh population. [ 27 ]
Especially since the 1950s, various religions practiced in the former British colonies began to appear due to immigration, Islam being the most common among them, representing approximately 3.1% of the population. It is followed by Hinduism , Buddhism and Judaism , which were introduced from India and Southeast Asia , which together reach 2%. In the 2001 census , about 14.6% of the population said they did not profess any religion.
It is difficult to clearly separate the culture of England from the culture of the United Kingdom, although English culture has influenced the other cultures of the British Isles, it remains to be clarified to what extent these other cultures have influenced that of England.
The architecture of England refers to the architecture practiced in the present-day territory of England and in that of the historic kingdom of England . The term is also used to refer to buildings created under English influence or by English architects in other parts of the world, particularly in the English and later British colonies, and in the British Empire which evolved into the British Commonwealth of Nations .
The main forms of non-vernacular architecture employed in England before 1900 originated in other parts of Western Europe, mainly France and Italy , and also in the 20th century modern architecture derived from both European and American influences. Each of these foreign modes assimilated into English architectural culture and gave rise to local variations and innovations, producing some distinct national forms and types. Among the most characteristic styles originating in England are the Perpendicular Gothic of the late Middle Ages , the High Victorian Gothic and theQueen Anne style . [ 28 ]
Many ancient stone monuments still standing were erected in the prehistoric period; Among the best known include Stonehenge , the menhirs known as the arrows of the devil , the monolith of Rudston and the circle of stones of Skiddaw . [ 29 ] With the Roman invasion , new types of buildings were introduced, basilicas , baths , amphitheaters , triumphal arches , villas , temples , roads ,fortresses , palisades and aqueducts . [ 30 ] It was the Romans who founded several cities and towns such as Londinium ( London ), Aquae Sulis ( Bath ), Eburacum ( York ), Deva ( Chester ) or Verulamium ( St Albans ). One of the best known Roman works is Hadrian's Wall , which runs through the entire north of England. [ 30 ] Another well-preserved example is theRoman baths in Bath .
The first civil buildings of medieval architecture were simple constructions, made mainly of wood and thatched roofs . Church architecture ranged from a synthesis of the monasticism hiberno-Saxon [ 31 ] [ 32 ] until the basilica paleocristiana , characterized by rows of pilasters, arcades blind shafts balusters and openings triangular head.
After the Norman conquest in 1066 the feudal lords built numerous castles from which they could hold power, and protect themselves from invasions in the north. Some of the finest medieval castles known are the Tower of London , the Warwick Castle , the Durham Castle and Windsor Castle , among others. [ 33 ]
Throughout the Plantagenet era, English Gothic architecture flourished , with outstanding examples such as the medieval cathedrals of Canterbury and York or Westminster Abbey . [ 33 ] With the expansion of Norman architecture in addition to castles, palaces, great houses , universities and parish churches arose . Medieval architecture was completed in the 16th century with the Tudor style whose most characteristic element is the four-center arch - the so-called Tudor arch - as well as the wattle and daub (bahareque ) of domestic houses. In the wake of the Renaissance, a form of architecture appeared that echoed classical antiquity synthesized with Christianity, it is the English Baroque style , particularly defended by the architect Christopher Wren . [ 34 ]
Medieval architecture in England perhaps offers a more complete evolution than in other countries: it is classified into periods that roughly coincide with the centuries and are defined by their special characters: Anglo-Saxon , Norman , Early English, decorated, perpendicular, and Tudor. . This classification is based on the historical stages and partly on the character of English architecture. The transition from one to the other was slow and gradual, almost imperceptible. The character of each style and its analysis indicate well the evolution of plants, openings, roofs, columns and ornaments. [ 35 ]Georgian architecture followed , with a more refined style, simply evoking Palladian architecture , the Royal Crescent in Bath being one of the best examples of this style. The emergence of romanticism during the Victorian era gave way to the Neo-Gothic , at the same time that the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as the Crystal Palace . Since the 1930s, various modern currents have emerged whose reception is often controversial, as there are still fiefdoms of traditionalist resistance. [ Nb 1 ]
English folklore has developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present throughout England, but most belong to specific regions.
From folklore or common tradition come the goblins, the giants, the elves, the "coconut" , the trolls and the dwarves. Although it is believed that many popular legends date back, such as Offa de Angeln or Völundr , others date back to the Norman invasion, perhaps among these the story of Robin Hood the best known.
During the High Middle Ages, stories from the British tradition entered English folklore. Such is the case of the well-known myth of King Arthur . These myths derive from Anglo-Norman, French and Welsh legends, in which characters and places such as King Arthur, Camelot , Excalibur , Merlin or the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot appeared . These stories were compiled by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae ( History of the Kings of Britain ). Another of the figures of the English tradition was that of King Cole, a myth that may be based on a real figure from pre-Roman Great Britain. Many of these tales and pseudo-stories are part of the broad Matter of Brittany ; a compilation of traditional British legends and stories.
Some popular figures are based on semi-real characters or figures or historical events of people from centuries ago. For example Lady Godiva , who is said to have walked naked on horseback through Coventry. Hereward the Outlaw was another English heroic figure in resisting the Norman invasion. Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost, associated with the Windsor forest and park, while Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
Since the modern age the food of England has been characterized by its simple approach and by reliance on the high quality of its natural products. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, which began to decline during the Industrial Revolution with the rural exodus and the increase of the urban population. However, in recent times it has undergone a renaissance, which has been recognized by food critics with good scores on the lists of the best restaurants in the world.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , a dish generally made with beef, lamb or chicken, served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy . Other outstanding foods are fish and chips , and the full English breakfast , which generally consists of bacon , roasted tomato, baked beans, fried mushrooms, sausages, and eggs. Also typical are meat pies: beef, kidney, cottage pie, cottage cheese pie, Cornish pie, or pork pie, the latter of which is eaten cold. Lancashire stew is also a popular stew. Some of the most popular cheeses are Cheddar and Wensleydale . Many hybrid dishes in Anglo-Indian cuisine include curries , chicken tikka masala, and balti . Traditional English sweets include apple pie, mince pies , spotted dick , or Eccles pie , as well as a wide variety of cookies and pastries. Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages, while the most common alcoholic beverages are wine, cider andEnglish beers .
The earliest known examples are prehistoric rocks and pieces of rock art, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also present in the south, for example at Creswell Crags . With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, artistic disciplines related to the use of statues, busts, glass and mosaics became general. Numerous objects still survive from that time, such as those from Lullingstone and Aldborough. During the High Middle Ages, sculpted crosses, ivories, illustrated manuscripts , and gold and enamel jewelry were frequent , showing a great predilection for complex interlocking designs, as in the treasure.discovered in Staffordshire in 2009. Some of these styles mixed Gaelic and Anglo traditions, as in the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Vespasian Psalter .
The Tudor era enjoyed prominent artists among its court, portrait painting, which would later remain a prominent activity of English art, was promoted by the German Hans Holbein . Local artists like Nicholas Hilliard would build on this legacy. Under the Stuarts , continental artists exerted great influence, especially the Flemish ones, such as Anthony van Dyck , Peter Lely , Godfrey Kneller or William Dobson . The 18th century was a time of great importance with the founding of the Royal Academy, prevailing a classicism based on the High Renaissance. Thomas Gainsborough andJoshua Reynolds would become two of England's most esteemed artists.
The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, with its vivid and detailed style, revived the early Renaissance style, with Holman Hunt , Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and John Everett Millais as prominent leaders. During the 20th century, Henry Moore was considered the voice of the British in sculpture and of British modernity in general. Notable contemporary painters include Lucian Freud , whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping (2008) set a world record for the sale price of a painting by a living artist. [ 37 ]
Literature, poetry and philosophy
The Old English Literature period was always supported by the epic Beowulf , the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with the Christian writings Judith, Hymn of Caedmon, and holy hagiographies. After the Norman conquest, America continued among the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature. English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer , author of The Canterbury Tales , along with Gower, the Poet Pearl, and Langland. The Franciscans, William of Ockham and Roger Baconthey were the main philosophers of the Middle Ages and the other ages. Juliana of Norwich was with her Revelations of the Divine. Love was a prominent Christian mystic. During the Renaissance period, William Shakespeare was the great exponent, with works such as Hamlet , Romeo and Juliet , Macbeth and A Midsummer Night's Dream , he remains one of the most defended authors in English literature. Marlowe , Spenser , Sydney , Thomas Kyd , John Donne , Johnson are other established authors of the Elizabethan era. Francis Bacon andThomas Hobbes wrote on Empiricism and Materialism, including the scientific and social method of contract. Robert Filmer wrote about the divine right of kings. Andrew Marvell was the best known poet in the Fellowship, while John Milton, author of Paradise Lost , was during the Restoration.
Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were Locke , Paine, Johnson, and Bentham . The more radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke , who is considered the founder of conservatism. The poet Alexander Pope , with his satirical verses, became well regarded. English performance is a significant role in romanticism; Coleridge , Byron , Keats , Shelley , Blake, and Wordsworththey were important figures. In response to the Industrial Revolution, writers seemed to find a way between freedom and tradition; Cobbett, Chesterton and Belloc were the main exponents and Penty of the cooperative movement defending Cole. Empiricism continued through Mill and Russell, while Williams was involved in analysis. Authors from the Victorian era include Dickens , the Brontë Sisters , Jane Austen , Eliot, Kipling , Hardy, HG Wells , Lewis Carroll, and Evelyn Underhill . Since then England continued to produce novelists such asC. S. Lewis, Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, Enid Blyton, Huxley, Christie, Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, y J. K. Rowling.
The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several prominent genres; especially sailor songs, jigs, shawms and dance music. It has its own regional variations and peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde , with 16th century Robin Hood ballads, are an important artifact, as are John Playford ("The Dancing Master") and Harley Robert Roxburghe ( Collectible Ballads ). Some of the best-known songs are "The good old road", "Pasatiempo con good company", "Maggie May" and "Spanish ladies", among others.
Many nursery rhymes are of English origin, or associated with English culture, such as "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" (" Tinkerbell of the place "), "Roses are red", "Jack and Jill", "Here we go around the mulberry bush "And" Humpty Dumpty. " The earliest composers in classical music are Renaissance artists such as Thomas Tallis and William Byrd , followed by Henry Purcell , of the Baroque era. Of German origin, Georg Friedrich Haendel became a British citizen and spent most of his life composing, in London, the creation of some of the best-known works of classical music: The Messiah , Water Music andMusic for the royal fireworks . There was a revival in the profile of 20th century England composers led by Benjamin Britten , Frederick Delius , Edward Elgar , Gustav Holst , Ralph Vaughan Williams, and others. Among the modern composers of England is Michael Nyman , known for The Piano .
In the field of popular music, many English bands and soloists have been cited as the best and most influential in music sales of all time. These include The Beatles , Led Zeppelin , Eric Clapton (or the same soloists), The Rolling Stones , The Who , The Kinks , Cream , Black Sabbath , Queen , David Bowie , Sex Pistols , The Clash , Oasis , The Cure , The Smiths , Morrissey , Joy Division, New Order , Iron Maiden , Judas Priest , Deep Purple , Motörhead , UFO , Coldplay , One Direction , Pink Floyd , Elton John , Rod Stewart , Arctic Monkeys , Gorillaz , McFly , Radiohead , Blur , The Police , Muse , etc. Many artists have an origin or a close relationship with England, through hard rock , glam rock ,heavy metal , mod , britpop , drum and bass, progressive rock , punk rock , indie rock , gothic rock , shoegazing , acid house , garage , trip hop and dubstep .
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and fall are popular internationally, such as Glastonbury , V Festival, Reading, and Leeds Festival. The most important opera house in England is the Royal Opera House , Covent Garden. The Proms , the orchestral classical music season, performs concerts at the Royal Albert Hall , being one of the main cultural shows held annually. The Royal Ballet is one of the world's leading classical ballet companies and its reputation was built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance: ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton .
England has a great sports tradition, and during the 19th century it was the cradle of several sports that are currently played around the world. Among the sports originated, or rather, regulated for the first time in England counted the football , [ 38 ] the cricket , the rugby , the tennis , the badminton , the hockey , the boxing , among many others. At the international level, England has an independent representation from the rest of the United Kingdom in most of the team sports, which is why it has participation in events such as the World Cup and theRugby World Cup , as well as the Commonwealth Games . However, in the Olympic Games the United Kingdom participates as a single team, represented by the British Olympic Association , the United Kingdom's national Olympic committee .
The most popular sport in England is soccer . The national representative, the England soccer team , won the 1966 Soccer World Cup , which was held in England itself. The Football Association of England is the oldest of its kind and the FA Cup and Football League are the oldest cup and league competitions respectively. There is also the oldest club in the world, the Sheffield Football Club which was founded in 1857. [ 38 ] The highest category of English football, the Premier League, is the soccer league with the largest audience in the world, as well as the most lucrative. English teams have performed well in European competitions and the European Cup has been won by Liverpool , Manchester United , Nottingham Forest , Aston Villa and Chelsea while Arsenal , Tottenham Hotspur and Leeds United have reached the final.
It is believed that cricket began its development in the medieval period among the metallurgical and agricultural communities of the Weald . The members of the English team are of Welsh and English nationality, unlike the teams of other sports in which only English enter, and one of their biggest rivalries is with the Australian team with which they play an annual match called The Ashes . England has hosted the Cricket World Cup four times and various championships such as the County Championship are held locally .
As for rugby , the English team was crowned champion of the 2003 Rugby World Cup , the same tournament that it organized in 1991 and which it hosted in its 2015 edition . In turn, the national team plays annually in the Six Nations Tournament . At club level, with the English Premiership being the highest national category , the Leicester Tigers , London Wasps , Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints teams have won the Heineken Cup , the highest European competition in sport.
A variant of rugby, rugby league or rugby at 13, originated in Huddersfield in 1885, is played throughout England, but in some northern areas it is the most important sport in many areas, especially in Yorkshire , Cumbria and Lancashire . Previously, there was only one team representing the United Kingdom in international competitions, but since 2008 each nation has had its own rugby league team, including England , which participated in the 2013 Rugby League World Cup . Clubs in this sport play in the Super League , Europe's largest rugby league competition.
Other popular sports include tennis , with the Wimbledon Championship being the oldest tournament and one of four Grand Slam , and horse racing . In addition, annually at the Silverstone Circuit there is a Grand Prix valid for Formula 1 .
The flag of England , known as the Cross of St. George , has been used as such since the 13th century. Originally this was the flag used by the Republic of Genoa , which hegemonically controlled the Mediterranean maritime trade . From 1190 the English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa so that English ships could fly it and thus be protected when entering the Mediterranean. This red cross was used by a large number of crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries, as well as by cities and nations that had Saint George as their patron saint.. Since 1606 the Cross of St. George has been part of the design of the flag of the United Kingdom , which was designed by James I .
The coat of arms of England , in which three lions appear, dates back to its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. The coat of arms, similar to the Normandy coat of arms , is defined in heraldic language as: «in a field of gules , three leopard lions of gold , armed and linguados of azure ». England does not have an officially designated national anthem, as is " God Save the Queen " with the UK as a whole. However, some songs have been considered as the national anthem of England such as " Jerusalem ", " Land of Hope and Glory"Which was used as such in the 2002 Commonwealth Games , and" I Vow to Thee, My Country. "
There are many other symbols of England, official or not, such as the Tudor Rose - national flower -, the white dragon and the three lions that appear on the coat of arms of England . The Tudor Rose, also known as the English Rose, was adopted as a national emblem after the War of the Two Roses and is formed by the union of the symbols of the sides that fought in that war: the white rose of the House of York with the red rose of the House of Lancaster ; both with common origin in the House of Plantagenet and who claimed the throne of England. Another symbol is the oak, which represents strength and endurance. The term Royal Oak is used to designate the oak in which Charles II hid from the parlamentaristas after the execution of his father, Carlos I . The national holiday of England is the St George 's Day , patron saint English, which is held every April 23 .
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- Wikimedia Commons houses a multimedia gallery about England .
- Wikinews has news related to England .
- Wikisource contains original works from England .
- Wikiquote hosts famous quotes from or about England .
- Wikivoyage houses travel guides to or about England .
- Wikimedia Atlas: England
- UK Government Official Website
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