Estado del Japón |
Nihon-koku / Nippon-koku
| Hymn :君 が 代|
Kimi ga yo
( Japanese : "The kingdom of His Imperial Majesty")
| Capital |
(and most populous city)
| Tokyo [ 1 ] |
|Official language||None [ 2 ]|
|Demonym||Japanese -sa, Japanese -na|
|Form of government||Parliamentary monarchy|
|• Prime Minister||Suga Yoshihide [ 2 ]|
|Legislative body||Japan diet|
| Formation |
• Meiji Restoration
• Modern Constitution
11 February of 660 a. C. [ 3 ] (2681 years)
3 as January as 1868
3 as maypole as 1947
|• Total||377 975 km²|
|• Water (%)||1,40%(as of 2015)|
|Coast line||29 751 km|
|Highest point||Monte Fuji|
|Total population||11th position|
|• Estimate (2019)||126 150 000 [ 6 ] hab.|
|• Census (2015)||127 094 745 [ 7 ] hab.|
|• Density (est.)||334,23 hab./km²|
|Start ( PPA )||4th position|
|• Total (2018)||USD 5,619 trillion [ 8 ]|
|• Per capita||USD 44 426|
|START (nominal)||3rd place|
|• Total (2018)||USD 5,167 trillion [ 8 ]|
|• Per capita||USD 40 849|
|IDH (2020)||0.919 [ 9 ] ( 19th ) - Very high|
|Gini coefficient||33.9 means (2015) [ 10 ]|
|Currency|| Yen (¥, |
|ISO code||392 / JPN / JP|
|Internet domain|| |
|Telephone prefix|| |
|Radio prefix|| |
|Country acronym for aircraft||AND|
|Country acronym for automobiles||J|
Japan ( Japanese ,日本, Nippon /ɲippoꜜɴ/ ( listen ) or Nihon / ihoꜜɴ/ ( listen ) ), officially the State of Japan , is an island country in East Asia located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean . It borders the Sea of Japan to the west and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire , Japan comprises an archipelago of 6,852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers; The five main islands of the country, from north to south, are Hokkaidō , Honshū , Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa . Tokyo is the capital and largest city of Japan although Yokohama , Osaka , Nagoya , Sapporo , Fukuoka , Kobe and Kyoto are also large and important cities.
Japan is the eleventh most populous country in the world , as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanized. About three-quarters of the country's terrain is mountainous, and its population of 126 million concentrates on narrow coastal plains. It is divided into forty-seven administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions , including the Tokyo metropolitan area , the most populous metropolitan area in the world , with more than thirty-seven million residents.
Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic (30,000 BC), although the first mentions of the archipelago appear in 1st century Chinese chronicles . Between the 4th and 9th centuries , the kingdoms of Japan were unified under an emperor and his imperial court based in Heian-kyō . However, from the 12th century on , political power was in the hands of a series of military dictators ( shogun ) and feudal lords ( daimyō ), and was imposed by a class of warrior nobility ( samurai ). After a century of civil war, the country was reunited in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate , when it implemented an isolationist foreign policy . In 1854, a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade with the West , leading to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period , the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-style constitution. and a program of industrialization and modernization continued . In 1937, Japan invaded China and four years later entered World War II asAxis power . After suffering defeat in the War of the Pacific and two atomic bombings , Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation , in which it adopted a new constitution . Since 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature , the National Diet .
Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), the OECD, and the G7 . Although it has waived its right to declare war , the country maintains Self-Defense Forces that are classified as the fourth most powerful army in the world. After World War II, Japan experienced high economic growth , becoming the world's second-largest economy in 1990 before being overtaken by China in 2010. Despite stagnant growth since the lost decade , the country's economy remains the largest economy in the world.third largest by nominal GDP and fourth largest by PPP . A leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. Ranked as the second highest country on the Asian Human Development Index after Singapore , Japan has the second highest life expectancy in the world , although it is experiencing a decline in population . The Japanese culture is well known throughout the world, including its art , cuisine , music and popular culture, including prominent industries animationand video games .
The name of Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji "日本" and is pronounced Nippon or Nihon . [ 15 ] Before it was adopted in the early 8th century , the country was known in China as Wa (倭? ) And in Japan by the endonym Yamato . [ 16 ] Nippon , reading Sino-Japanese original characters, it is preferred today for official use, including notes of bank and postage. [ 15] Nihon is commonly used in everyday speech and reflects changes inJapanese phonologyduring theEdo period. [ 16 ] The combination of the characters "日本" means "origin of the sun", referring to the relatively eastern location of Japan. [ 15 ] It is the source of the popularwesternepithet"Land of the Rising Sun". [ 17 ]
The name "Japan" is based on Chinese pronunciation and was introduced into European languages through early business relationships. In the century XIII , Marco Polo recorded the early pronunciation of the Mandarin or the Wu Chinese characters "日本國" as Cipango . [ 18 ] The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun , was taken from a South Coast Chinese dialect and found by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century.. [ 19 ] The first version of the English name appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a Portuguese translation of a letter from 1565. [ 20 ] [ 21 ]
From prehistory to classical history
The first known settlement on the islands of Japan emerged about 30,000 BC. C. during the Paleolithic era . [ 22 ] This was followed around 14,500 BC. C. —the beginning of the Jōmon period - by a culture of semi - sedentary hunter-gatherers from Mesolithic to Neolithic characterized by having houses in ditches and rudimentary agriculture. [ 23 ] The clay pots of the time are among the oldest examples of pottery that are preserved. [ 24 ]Approximately in the year 1000 a. C., the Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu , mixing with the Jōmon ; [ 25 ] The Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices that included rice cultivation , [ 26 ] a new style of pottery , [ 27 ] and Chinese and Korean metallurgy. [ 28 ] According to legend, Emperor Jinmu - Amaterasu's grandson - founded a kingdomin central Japan in 660 BC. C., in which a continuous imperial line began . [ 29 ]
Japan appears for the first time in written history in the Book of Han , completed in 111 AD. C. [ 30 ] Buddhism was introduced from Baekje - a Korean- kingdom in 552, but the further development of the Japanese Buddhism was influenced mainly by China. [ 31 ] Despite initial resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class, including such figures as Prince Shōtoku , and gained wide acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710). [ 32 ]
The Taika reforms in 645 nationalized all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and mandated the compilation of a household register as the basis for a new tax system. [ 33 ] The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew, Prince Ōtomo , became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms, [ 34 ] culminating in the enactment of the Taihō Code., which consolidated the existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments. [ 33 ] They created the Ritsuryō state , a Chinese-style centralized system of government that lasted for half a millennium. [ 34 ]
The Nara period (710–784) marked the emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court at Heijō-kyō - present-day Nara . The period is characterized by the emergence of a nascent literary culture with the completion of Kojiki (712) and Nihonshoki (720), as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired works of art and architecture . [ 35 ] [ 36 ] It is believed that smallpox epidemic in 735-737 killed up to one third of the population of Japan. [ 37 ] [ 36] In 784,Emperor Kanmumoved the capital and settled inHeian-kyō-modernKyoto- in 794, [ 36 ] where it marked the beginning ofthe Heian period(794-1185), in which a distinctly Japanese culture emerged. indigenous. The Tale of Genji byMurasaki Shikibuand the lyrics of the national anthem of Japan ' Kimigayo ' were written during this time. [ 38 ]
It was feudal
Japan's feudal era was characterized by the rise and dominance of a ruling class of samurai warriors . [ 39 ] In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War , the samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government in Kamakura . [ 40 ] The Hōjō clan after Yoritomo's death came to power as ruler of the shōguns, [ 36 ] introducing the Zen schoolof Buddhism originating from China that became popular among the samurai class during the Kamakura period (1185-1333). [ 41 ] The Kamakura shogunate repelled the Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo . [ 36 ] This emperor was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336-1573), [ 42 ] however the next shogunate was unable to control the feudal warlords ( daimyōs) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("States at War"). [ 43 ]
During the 16th century , Japan began a commercial and cultural exchange with the West when Portuguese merchants and Jesuit missionaries arrived on the island for the first time. [ 36 ] [ 44 ] Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyos ; [ 45 ] his consolidation of power began what became known as the Azuchi-Momoyama period . [ 46 ] After Nobunaga's deathIn 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597 . [ 36 ]
Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son, Toyotomi Hideyori , and used his position to gain political and military support. [ 47 ] When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo (present-day Tokyo). [ 48 ] The shogunate enacted measures that included the buke shohatto , such as a code of conduct to control autonomous daimyōs ,[ 49 ] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as theEdo period(1603-1868). [ 50 ] [ 48 ] The economic growth of modern Japan began in this period, resulting inroadand water transport routes as well as financial instruments such asfutures contracts, banking and insurance ofbrokers ricein Osaka . [ 51 ] The study of Western sciences ( rangaku) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave at Nagasaki . [ 48 ] The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese. [ 52 ]
It was modern
In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the " black ships " of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Treaty of Kanagawa . [ 48 ] Later similar treaties with other Western countries caused economic and political crises. [ 48 ] The resignation of the shogun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a nominally unified centralized state under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration ). [ 53 ]Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council , introduced the Meiji Constitution, and convened the Imperial Diet . [ 54 ] During the Meiji era (1868-1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] After the victoriesFirst Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea, and the southern half of Sakhalin . [ 58 ] [ 54 ] The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million in 1935, with a significant shift towards urbanization. [ 59 ] [ 60 ]
In the early 20th century , a period of Taishō democracy (1912-1926) was overshadowed by growing expansionism and militarism . [ 61 ] [ 62 ] The World War I enabled Japan, which joined the side of the allies victorious, capturing German possessions in the Pacific and in China. [ 62 ] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism , a period of anarchy after the Great Tokyo earthquake of 1923, the approval of laws against political dissent and a series of coup attempts . [ 60 ] [ 63 ] [ 64 ] This process accelerated during the 1930s, leading to a series of radical nationalist groups who shared a hostility toward liberal democracy and a commitment to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria ; Following international condemnation of the occupation , he resigned from the League of Nations two years later. [ 65 ] In 1936, Japan signed theAntikomintern Pact with Nazi Germany ; the Tripartite Pact of 1940 made it one of the Axis powers . [ 60 ]
The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). [ 66 ] In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina , after which the United States imposed an oil embargo on Japan. [ 60 ] [ 67 ] From 7 to 8 December 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor , as well as the British forces in Malaysia , Singapore and Hong Kong , among others, beginning the War World Cup in the Pacific. [ 68 ] In all the areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against the local inhabitants, many of them were forced into sexual slavery . [ 69 ] After Allied victories for the next four years, culminating in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender . [ 70 ] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. [ 60 ]The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of Japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over the territories it conquered. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] The Allies also convened the Military Tribunal for the Far East International to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes . [ 72 ]
In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution that emphasized liberal democratic practices. [ 72 ] The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, [ 73 ] and Japan gained membership in the United Nations in 1956. [ 72 ] A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second largest economy in the world; [ 72 ] this ended in the mid-1990s after the bursting of a financial and real estate bubble , beginning the 'Lost decade . [ 74 ] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes on record in its history , causing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster . [ 75 ] On May 1, 2019, after Emperor Akihito's historic abdication , his son Naruhito became the new emperor, beginning the Reiwa era . [ 76 ]
Japan is a unitary state with a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the emperor is limited to a ceremonial role. [ 77 ] Instead, executive power is exercised by the prime minister and his Cabinet , whose sovereignty rests with the Japanese people. [ 78 ] Naruhito is the emperor of Japan, having succeeded his father Akihito on his access to the throne of the Chrysanthemum in 2019. [ 77 ]
Japan's legislative body is the National Diet , a bicameral parliament . [ 77 ] It consists of a Lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an Upper House of Councilors with 245 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. [ 79 ] There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age, [ 80 ] with secret ballot for all elected positions. [ 78 ]The prime minister, as head of government , has the power to appoint and dismiss ministers of state, and is appointed by the emperor after being appointed from among the members of the Diet. [ 79 ] Elected in the 2020 Japanese prime ministerial elections , Yoshihide Suga is the current prime minister of Japan. [ 81 ]
Historically influenced by Chinese law , the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki . [ 82 ] However, since the late 19th century , the judicial system has relied heavily on the civil law of Europe , especially that of Germany . In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch , which remains in force with post- WWII amendments .[ 83 ] TheConstitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is theoldest unchangedconstitutionin the world. [ 84 ] Statutory law originates from the legislature, and the Constitution requires the emperor to enact legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the power to oppose the legislation. The main body of Japanese statutory law is called theSix Codes. [ 82 ] Japan's judicial system is divided into four basic levels: theSupreme Courtand three levels of lower courts. [ 85 ]
A member of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking to be a permanent member of the Security Council . [ 86 ] Japan is a member of the G7 , APEC and the ASEAN Free Trade Area, and participates in the East Asia Summit . [ 87 ] Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007 and with India in October 2008. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] It is the fifth largest donorofficial development assistance , with a donation of $ 9.2 billion in 2014. [ 90 ] In 2017, Japan had the fifth largest diplomatic network in the world. [ 91 ]
Japan has voluminous economic and military relations with the United States , with which it maintains a security alliance . [ 92 ] The United States is an important market for Japanese exports and an important source of Japanese imports, and it is committed to defending the country, with military bases in Japan. [ 92 ] After Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese-ruled Northern Mariana Islands came under the control of the United States. [ 93 ]
Historically, Japan's relationship with South Korea had been strained by Japan's treatment of Koreans during Japanese colonial rule , particularly on the issue of comfort women . In 2015, Japan agreed to resolve the comfort women dispute with South Korea by issuing a formal apology and paying money to the surviving comfort women. [ 94 ] The 1990s saw increased interest in Korean culture in Japan, particularly in relation to food, travel, and the World Cup . [ 95 ] The spread of the Korean waveIn the early 2000s (called the hanryu or kanryu wave in Japan) it accelerated this trend, manifesting itself, for example, in a cult following for the Korean television series Winter Sonata . [ 95 ] Japan is a major importer of South Korean music ( K-pop ), television ( K-drama ), and other cultural products. [ 96 ] [ 97 ]
Japan is involved in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan challenges Russia's control of the Kuril Islands , which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. [ 98 ] South Korea's control over the Liancourt rocks is recognized but not accepted, as Japan claims it. [ 99 ] Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima . [ 100 ]
Japan is the second highest ranked Asian country on the global peace index . [ 101 ] Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets in the world. [ 102 ] The country's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces ) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution , which waives Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. [ 103 ] The army is governed by the Ministry of Defense and consists primarily of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force , theJapan Maritime Self-Defense Force and Japan Self-Defense Air Force . The Maritime Self-Defense Force is a regular participant in RIMPAC maritime exercises . [ 104 ] The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first use of Japan's armed forces abroad since World War II. [ 105 ]
The government of Japan has made changes to its security policy including the establishment of the National Security Council , the adoption of the National Security strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. [ 106 ] In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said that Japan wanted to shed the passivity it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. [ 107 ] Recent tensions, particularly with North Koreaand China, have rekindled the debate on the status of the JSDF and its relationship with Japanese society. [ 108 ] [ 109 ] [ 110 ]
Japan Police Forces
National security in Japan is provided primarily by the prefectural police departments, under the supervision of the National Police Agency . [ 111 ] As the central coordinating body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Security Commission . [ 112 ] The Special Assault Team comprises nationwide tactical counterterrorism units that cooperate with the Terrorism Anti-Firearms Squads and the NBC Counterterrorism Squads. [ 113 ]In addition, there is the Coast Guard of Japan that guards the territorial waters. The Coast Guard patrols the sea around Japan and uses surveillance and control measures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, piracy , spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing boats, and illegal immigration . [ 114 ]
The Law on Control of Possession of Firearms and Swords strictly regulates the civil ownership of weapons, swords and other weapons. [ 115 ] [ 116 ] According to the Office of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , among the member states of the UN reporting statistics, incidence rates of violent crimes such as murder , kidnapping , sexual violence and theft are very low in Japan. [ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ]
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Japan consists of 6,852 islands that stretch along the Pacific coast of Asia . It stretches for 3000 km northeast-southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea . [ 121 ] [ 122 ] The five main islands of the county, from north to south, are Hokkaido , Honshu , Shikoku , Kyushu and Okinawa . [ 123 ] The Ryukyu Islands , which include Okinawa, are a chain south of Kyushu. The Nanpō Islandsthey are to the south and east of the main islands of Japan. Together they are often referred to as the Japanese archipelago . [ 124 ] As of 2019, the territory of Japan is 377,975.24 km². [ 4 ] Japan has the sixth longest coastline in the world (29,751 km). Due to its many remote outlying islands, Japan has the sixth largest exclusive economic zone in the world, covering 4,470,000 km². [ 125 ] [ 126 ]
Approximately 73% of the territory of Japan is forested , mountainous and not suitable for agricultural, industrial or residential use. [ 125 ] [ 127 ] As a result, the living areas, mainly in coastal areas, have extremely high densities population: Japan is one of the countries with population density . [ 128 ] [ 129 ] Final draft of the century XX and principles of the XXI include artificial islands such as Chubu Centrair International Airportin Ise Bay , Kansai International Airport in the middle of Osaka Bay , Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise and Wakayama Marina City. [ 130 ]
Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes due to its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire . [ 131 ] It is ranked seventeenth in the highest risk of natural disasters as measured by the 2016 Global Risk Index. [ 132 ] Japan has 111 active volcanoes . [ 133 ] Destructive earthquakes, which often result in tsunamis, occur several times every century; [ 134 ] the 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed more than 140,000 people. [ 135 ]The most recent major earthquakes are the Great Hanshin earthquake of 1995 and the earthquake of 2011 , which triggered a large tsunami, killing more than 18,000 people. [ 75 ]
Japan's climate is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido , has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very hot to cool summers. The rains are not strong, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in winter. [ 136 ] In the region of the Sea of Japan on the west coast of Honshu, winter winds from the northwest bring heavy snowfall during winter. In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely high temperatures due to foehn . [ 137 ] The central highlandsIt has a typical humid continental interior climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions protect the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing a mild climate throughout the year. [ 136 ] The Pacific coast has a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers due to the seasonal southeast wind. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate , with warm winters and hot summers. Rainfall is very heavy, especially during the rainy season.
The average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 ° C and the average summer temperature is 25.2 ° C. [ 138 ] The highest temperature ever recorded in Japan is 41.1 ° C, recorded on July 23, 2018, [ 139 ] and repeated on August 17, 2020. [ 140 ] The main rainy season it begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north until it reaches Hokkaido in late July. In late summer and early fall, typhoons often bring heavy rains. [ 138 ] According to the Ministry of the Environment, strongRains and rising temperatures have caused various problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. [ 141 ]
Fauna and Flora
Japan has nine forest ecoregions that reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from humid subtropical broadleaf forests on the Ryūkyū and Bonin islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the temperate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold and winter parts of the northern islands. [ 142 ] Japan has more than 90 000 species of wildlife , [ 143 ] including the brown bear , the Japanese macaque , the Japanese raccoon dog , thesmall Japanese field mouse and giant Japanese salamander . [ 144 ]
A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna, as well as 37 Ramsar wetlands . [ 145 ] [ 146 ] Four sites have been inscribed on the List of World Heritage of UNESCO for its outstanding natural value. [ 147 ]
In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, the government and industrial corporations downplayed environmental policies; as a result, environmental pollution expanded in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. In response to growing concern, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970. [ 148 ] The 1973 oil crisis also encouraged the use of energy efficient due to Japan's lack of natural resources . [ 149 ]
Starting in 2020, more than 22 coal - fired power plants are expected to be built in Japan, following the cut-off of the Japanese nuclear fleet caused by the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011. [ 150 ] Japan is ranked 20th in the index. 2018 Environmental Performance Score, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability. [ 151 ] Japan is the 5th largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the world with 1 123 million tonnes in 2019. [ 141 ] As a host country and a signatory to the Kyoto ProtocolFrom 1997, Japan is bound by the treaty to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and take other measures to curb climate change . [ 152 ] In 2020, the government of Japan announced a carbon neutrality target for 2050. [ 153 ] Environmental issues include urban air pollution, waste management , eutrophication of water, nature conservation , climate change, chemicals management and international cooperation for conservation. [ 154 ]
Japan is the third largest economy in the world, after China and the United States , in terms of nominal GDP , [ 155 ] and the fourth largest economy in the world, after China, the United States, and India , in terms of parity. of purchasing power . [ 156 ] As of 2019, Japan's public debt was estimated at around 230 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the highest of all rated countries. [ 157 ] In 2019, Japan's workforce consisted of some 67 million workers. [79 ] Japan has alow unemployment rate of about 2.4 percent. [ 79 ] About 16 percent of the population was below the threshold of poverty in 2017. [ 158 ]
Japan's exports amounted to 18.5% of GDP in 2018. [ 159 ] In 2019, Japan's main export markets were the United States (19.8%) and China (19.1%) . [ 79 ] Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors, and automobile components. [ 125 ] Japan's main import markets in 2019 were China (23.5%), the United States (11%) and Australia (6.3%). [ 79 ]Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, food products, chemicals, and raw materials for its industries. [ 79 ]
Japan is ranked 29th out of 190 countries on the 2019 Ease of Doing Business Index. [ 160 ] The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinguishing characteristics: Keiretsu companies are influential, and lifetime employment and career advancement based in ancient times they are relatively common in the Japanese work environment . [ 161 ] [ 162 ] Japanese companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota Way", and shareholder activism is strange. [ 163 ] Japan also has a large sectorcooperative , with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer cooperative and the largest agricultural cooperative in the world. [ 164 ]
Agriculture and fishing
The Japanese agricultural sector accounts for about 1.2 percent of the country's GDP. [ 79 ] Only 11.5 percent of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation. [ 167 ] Due to this lack of arable land, a terraced system is used to cultivate in small areas. [ 168 ] This results in one of the highest levels of crop yield per unit area, with an agricultural self-sufficiency rate of around 50 percent. [ 169 ] However, Japan's small agricultural sector is also highly subsidized and protected. [170 ] There has been growing concern about agriculture as farmers are aging and struggling to find successors. [ 171 ]
Japan ranked seventh in the world in tonnage of fish caught, catching 3,167,610 metric tons of fish in 2016, down from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons during the previous decade. [ 172 ] Japan maintains one of the largest fishing fleets in the world, accounting for nearly 15 percent of the world's catch, [ 173 ] drawing criticism that Japanese fishing is causing the depletion of fish stocks such as the tuna . [ 174 ] Japan has also caused controversy by supporting commercial whaling . [ 175 ]
Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools , steel and non-ferrous metals, ships, chemicals , textiles and processed foods ." [ 173 ] Japan's industrial sector accounts for approximately 27.5% of its GDP. [ 173 ] Some of the major Japanese industrial companies are Canon Inc. , Toshiba, and Nippon Steel . [ 173 ] [ 177 ]The country's manufacturing output is the third highest in the world. [ 178 ]
Japan is the world's third- largest automobile producer and is home to Toyota , the world's largest automobile company. [ 176 ] [ 179 ] Despite facing competition from Korea South and China , is expected to industry Japanese shipbuilding remain strong through a greater focus on specialized high - tech designs. [ 180 ]
Services and tourism
Japan's service sector accounts for about 70 percent of its total economic output. [ 181 ] Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are important industries, and companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, NTT , AEON, Softbank , Hitachi, and Itochu are among the largest in the world. [ 182 ] [ 183 ]
Japan attracted 31.19 million international tourists in 2019. [ 184 ] For inbound tourism, Japan ranked 11th in the world in 2019. [ 185 ] The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index ranked Japan in fourth place out of 141 countries overall, which was the highest in Asia. [ 186 ]
Science and Technology
Japan is a leading nation in scientific research , particularly in natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg innovation index . [ 187 ] Relative to gross domestic product, Japan's research and development budget is the second highest in the world , [ 188 ] with 867,000 researchers sharing a research and development budget of $ 19 trillion in 2017. yen. [ 189 ] The country has won 22 Nobel prizes in physics, chemistry or medicine.[ 190 ] and threeFields medals. [ 191 ]
Japan leads the world in robotics production and use , supplying 55 percent of the 2017 global total. [ 192 ] Japan has the second highest number of science and technology researchers per capita in the world with 14 per 1,000 employees. [ 193 ]
The Japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is in a state of decline as competition arises in countries such as South Korea, the United States and China. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] However, video games in Japan remains an important industry. The Japanese have made video game consoles have been popular since the 1980s, [ 196 ] and Japan was dominated industry until the Xbox from Microsoft began to challenge Sony and Nintendo in the 2000s [197 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] In 2014, the video game market for consumers in Japan raised $ 9.6 billion, with $ 5.8 billion from mobile games. [ 200 ]
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan's national space agency ; conducts space, planetary and aviation research, and directs development of rockets and satellites. [ 201 ] It is a participant in the International Space Station : the Japanese experimental module ( Kibō ) was added to the station during the assembly flights of the STS Shuttle in 2008. [ 202 ] The Akatsuki space probe was launched in 2010 and reached orbit around Venus in 2015. [ 203 ]Japan's plans for space exploration include building a lunar base and landing astronauts by 2030. [ 204 ] In 2007, it launched the lunar rover SELENE (selenology and engineering rover) from the Tanegashima Space Center . The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program , its purpose was to collect data on the origin and evolution of the moon . The explorer entered a lunar orbit on October 4, 2007, [ 205 ] [ 206 ]and deliberately he crashed into the Moon on 11 June 2009. [ 207 ]
Japan has invested heavily in transportation infrastructure. [ 208 ] The country has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers of highways made up of 1,000,000 kilometers of roads in cities, towns and villages, 130,000 kilometers of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers of national general highways, and 7,641 kilometers of national highways . [ 209 ]
Japan has 27,311 kilometers of rail . Since privatization in 1987, [ 210 ] dozens of Japanese rail companies compete in regional and local passenger transport markets; the main companies include seven Japan Railways companies , Kintetsu , Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation . The high-speed Shinkansen (bullet trains) connecting major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. [ 211 ]
There are 175 airports in Japan. [ 125 ] The largest domestic airport, Haneda International Airport in Tokyo , is the second-busiest airport in Asia . [ 212 ] The superports of Keihin and Hanshin are among the largest in the world, with 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively. [ 213 ]
As of 2017, 39% of energy in Japan is produced from oil , 25% from coal , 23% from natural gas , 3.5% from hydroelectric power, and 1.5% from nuclear power . Nuclear power was reduced by 11% in 2010. [ 214 ] In May 2012, all nuclear power plants in the country went offline due to ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, although government officials continued to try to influence public opinion in favor of returning at least some to service. [ 215 ] TheSendai nuclear power plant was restarted in 2015, [ 216 ] and several other nuclear power plants have since been restarted. [ 217 ] Japan lacks significant national reserves and therefore has a heavy dependence on imported energy . [ 218 ] Therefore, the country has sought to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency. [ 219 ]
Water supply and sanitation
Responsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare , in charge of supplying water for domestic use; the Ministry of Lands, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism , in charge of the development of water resources and sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment , in charge of the quality of environmental water and the preservation of the environment; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications , in charge of benchmarking the performance of public services. [ 220 ] Access to an improved water sourceit is universal in Japan. Approximately 98% of the population receives running water from public services. [ 221 ]
According to a 2015 NHK survey of television viewing in Japan, 79% of Japanese people watch television (TV) on a daily basis. [ 222 ] The Japanese drama is both in Japan and internationally; [ 223 ] other popular shows belong to the genres of variety shows, comedy, and news shows. [ 224 ] Japanese newspapers are among the most widely circulated in the world. [ 225 ]
Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries in the world. [ 226 ] The film Godzilla of Ishiro Honda became an international icon of Japan and spawned a film subgenre called Kaiju , as well as the longest - running film franchise in history. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] The films and animated television series Japanese, known as Anime , were greatly influenced by Japanese manga and have been very popular in the West. Japan is a world-renowned animation powerhouse.
Japan has a population of 126 million, [ 231 ] of which 124 million are Japanese citizens (2019). [ 232 ] In 2019, ninety-two percent of the total Japanese population lived in cities. [ 233 ] The capital, Tokyo, has a population of thirteen million (2018). [ 234 ] It is part of the Tokyo metropolitan area , the largest metropolitan area in the world with 38,140,000 inhabitants (2016). [ 235 ]
Japan's population is ninety-eight percent ethnic Japanese, [ 125 ] with small populations of foreign workers. [ 236 ] The primary minority groups include indigenous Ainu and ryukyu , [ 237 ] and social minority groups such as Burakumi , [ 238 ] Korean zainichi , [ 239 ] Chinese , [ 240 ] Philippines, [ 241 ]Brazilians and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent who are among the small minority groups in Japan. [ 242 ] [ 243 ]
Japan has the second longest life expectancy at birth of any country in the world, at eighty-four years. [ 244 ] The Japanese population is aging rapidly as a result of a post-World War II baby boom followed by a decline in birth rates. [ 245 ] As of 2019, more than twenty percent of the population is over sixty-five years old, and this is projected to increase to one in three by 2030. [ 246 ]Changes in the demographic structure have created a number of social problems, in particular a decrease in the labor force in the population and an increase in the cost of social security benefits. [ 246 ] An increasing number of young Japanese do not marry or have no children. [ 246 ] [ 247 ] It is expected that Japan's population drops to about one hundred million by 2050. [ 248 ] Sometimes incentives immigration and birth are suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the population that ages in the nation. [ 249 ][ 250 ] On April 1, 2019, Japan's revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of foreign workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors. [ 251 ]
|1||Such||Such||9 272 740||11||Hiroshima||Hiroshima||1 194 034|
|2||Yokohama||Kanagawa||3 724 844||12||Sendai||Miyagi||1 082 159|
|3||Osaka||Osaka||2 691 185||13||Chiba||Chiba||971 882|
|4||Nagoya||Aichi||2 295 638||14||Kitakyushu||Fukuoka||961 286|
|5||Sapporo||Hokkaidō||1 952 356||15||Sakai||Osaka||839 310|
|6||Fukuoka||Fukuoka||1 538 681||16||Niigata||Niigata||810 157|
|7||Kobe||Hyōgo||1 537 272||17||Hamamatsu||Shizuoka||797 980|
|8||Kawasaki||Kanagawa||1 475 213||18||Kumamoto||Kumamoto||740 822|
|9||Kyoto||Kyoto||1 475 183||19||Sagamihara||Kanagawa||720 780|
|10||Saitama||Saitama||1 263 979||20||Okayama||Okayama||719 474|
Japan's constitution guarantees full religious freedom. [ 252 ] Higher estimates suggest that 84-96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto as their native religion. [ 253 ] [ 254 ] However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Many Japanese practice both Shinto and Buddhism ; they can identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or spiritual. [ 255 ]The level of participation in religious ceremonies as a cultural tradition remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first visit to a shrine at the beginning of the new year . [ 256 ] The Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. [ 257 ]
The Christianity was first introduced in Japan by the Jesuit missions from 1549. Today, between 1 percent [ 258 ] and 1.5 percent of the population are Christians. [ 259 ] Over the past century, some Western customs originally related to Christianity (including Western-style weddings, Valentine's Day, and Christmas ) have become popular as secular customs among many Japanese. [ 260 ]
About 80 to 90 percent of those who practice Islam in Japan are foreign-born immigrants and their children. [ 261 ] In 2018, there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of these were ethnically Japanese. [ 262 ] Other minority religions include Hinduism , Judaism, and Baha'ism , as well as the animistic beliefs of the Ainu. [ 263 ]
More than 99 percent of the population speaks Japanese as their first language. [ 125 ] The writing Japanese used kanji ( Chinese characters ) and two sets of the kana ( syllabaries based cursive and radical of kanji ) and the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals . [ 264 ] The teaching of English became compulsory in Japanese elementary schools in 2020. [ 265 ]
In addition to Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami , Okinawan , Miyako , Yaeyama , Yonaguni ), also part of the Japanese language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands. [ 266 ] Few children learn these languages, [ 267 ] but local governments have tried to increase their knowledge of traditional languages. [ 268 ] The Ainu language , which is an isolated language , is under threat, and only a few native speakers remain. [ 269 ]
Elementary schools, secondary schools, and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. [ 270 ] Since the Basic Law of Education of 1947, compulsory education in Japan comprises primary and secondary school , which together last nine years. [ 271 ] Almost all children continue their education in an upper secondary school for three years. [ 272 ] The two most important universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and the University of Kyoto . [ 273] As of April 2016, several schools started the academic year with primary and secondary school integrated into a nine-year compulsory schooling program; theMEXTplans this approach is adopted throughout the country. [ 274 ]
The general knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds according to the PISA Report coordinated by the OECD are ranked as the third best in the world. [ 275 ] Japan is one of the best performing OECD countries in reading, mathematics and science, with an average student score of 529 and has one of the most highly educated workforces among OECD countries. [ 276 ] [ 275 ] [ 277 ]As of 2017, Japan's public spending on education amounted to just 3.3 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percent. [ 278 ] In 2017, the country ranked third in the percentage of people aged 25 to 64 who have obtained tertiary education at 51 percent. [ 279 ] In addition, 60.4 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education degree and 30.4 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 64 hold bachelor's degrees, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. [ 279 ]
Health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal health services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. [ 280 ] Since 1973, all the elderly have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. [ 281 ]
Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world . [ 282 ] Another major public health problem is smoking among Japanese men . [ 283 ] Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD and the lowest level of dementia in the developed world. [ 284 ]
Contemporary Japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe, and North America. [ 285 ] Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as pottery , textiles , lacquerware , swords, and dolls ; performances of bunraku , kabuki , noh , dance and rakugo ; and other practices, tea ceremony , ikebana , martial arts , calligraphy , origami , onsen , geishaand traditional games. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of tangible and intangible cultural property and national treasures . [ 286 ] Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of these are of cultural significance. [ 147 ]
Art and architecture
The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and imported ideas. [ 287 ] The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example, ukiyo-e prints , which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism , had a significant influence on the development of modern art. in the West, especially in post-impressionism . [ 287 ] The manga Japanese developed in the century XX and has become popular worldwide.
The Japanese architecture is a combination of local influences and other. Traditionally it has been characterized by wooden structures, slightly raised from the ground, with tile or straw roofs. [ 289 ] The Ise Shrines are known as the prototype of Japanese architecture. [ 290 ] In traditional dwellings and in many temples the use of tatami mats and sliding doors can be observed, breaking the distinction between the rooms and the interior and exterior space. [ 291 ] However, since the 19th century, Japan has incorporated much of modern western architecture in construction and design. [ 292 ] In contrast, it was not until after World War II that Japanese architects left a mark on the international image, first with the work of architects such as Kenzō Tange and later with movements such as Metabolism . [ 293 ]
Literature and philosophy
The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Chronicles of Kojiki and Nihonshoki and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology , all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters. [ 294 ] [ 295 ] At the beginning of the Heian period, the system was developed phonograms known as kana ( hiragana and katakana ). [ 296 ] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Japanese narrative that exists. [ 297 ]A story of life is offered in court in The Pillow Book of Sei Shōnagon while Genji Monogatari of Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the first novel in the world. [ 298 ] [ 299 ]
During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") surpassed the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of Saikaku's works , for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revived the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai ( haiku ) and wrote the poetic travel notebook Oku no Hosomichi . [ 300 ] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgaiwere major novelists in the early 20th century , followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa , Jun'ichirō Tanizaki , Kafū Nagai, and more recently Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami . Japan has two Nobel Prize winning authors : Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994). [ 301 ]
Japanese philosophy has historically been a fusion of foreign philosophies, particularly Chinese and Western , and Japanese elements. In its literary forms, Japanese philosophy began about fourteen centuries ago. Confucian ideals are still evident today in the Japanese concept of society and nature, and in the organization of government and the structure of society. [ 302 ] Buddhism has profoundly impacted Japanese psychology, metaphysics, and aesthetics. [ 303 ]
Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments, such as the koto , were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries . The folk music popular with the shamisen as a guitar, dates from the century XVI . [ 304 ] Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century , is an integral part of Japanese culture. [ 305 ] The kumi-daiko (joint percussion) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. [ 306 ]Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, leading to the evolution of J-pop . [ 307 ] The karaoke is a significant cultural activity. [ 308 ]
Customs and holidays
Ishin-denshin (以 心 伝 心? ) Is a Japanese idiom denoting a form of interpersonal communication through tacit mutual understanding. [ 311 ] The isagiyosa (潔 さ? ) Is a virtue of the ability to accept death with serenity. The cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in that embrace the transience of the world. [ 312 ] The Hansei (反省? ) Is a central idea in Japanese culture, which means recognizing the error itself as a basis for improvement. Thekotodama (言 霊? ) refers to the Japanese belief that mystical powers reside in words and names. [ 313 ]
Officially, Japan has 16 government-recognized national holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holidays Law (国民 の 祝 日 に 関 す る 法律Kokumin no Shukujitsu nor Kansuru Hōritsu ? ) Of 1948. [ 314 ] Starting in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System , which moved several national holidays to Monday for a longer weekend. [ 315 ] National holidays in Japan are January 1 New Year 's Day , the Day of Age on the second Monday of January, the National Foundation DayFebruary 11, the Day of the emperor on February 23, the day of the spring equinox on 20 or 21 March, Showa Day on April 29, Memorial Constitution Day on May 3, the day the Greenery on May 4, Children's Day on May 5, Sea Day on the third Monday in July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Elderly Day on the third Monday in September, Autumn Equinox Day on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the second Monday in October, Culture Day on November 3 and Thanksgiving Day for Work on November 23.
Japanese cuisine offers a wide variety of regional specialties using traditional recipes and local ingredients. [ 317 ] Seafood and Japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. [ 318 ] The curry Japanese , since it was introduced in Japan from British India , as widely consumed can be considered a national dish , along with ramen and sushi . [ 319 ] [ 320 ] [321 ] Traditional Japanese sweets are known as wagashi , [ 322 ] and ingredients such as anko and mochi are used to make them. More modern tastes include green tea ice cream . [ 323 ]
Popular Japanese beverages include sake , which is a brewed rice drink that typically contains 14 to 17 percent alcohol and is made by multiple fermentation of rice. [ 324 ] Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late 17th century . [ 325 ] The green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in various forms, such as matcha , which is used in the ceremony of the Japanese tea . [ 326 ]
Sumo is traditionally considered the national sport of Japan. [ 327 ] Japanese martial arts such as judo and kendo are taught as part of the compulsory high school curriculum. [ 328 ] The baseball is the most popular sport for spectators of the country. [ 329 ] Japan's main professional league, the Japan Professional Baseball League , was established in 1936. [ 330 ] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football Leaguein 1992, soccer has also gained a large following. [ 331 ] The country co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. [ 332 ] Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times, [ 333 ] and the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. [ 334 ] The golf is also popular in Japan . [ 335 ]
Japan has a significant stake in motorsports . Japanese automakers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and series victories such as Formula 1 , MotoGP , IndyCar , the World Rally Championship , the FIA World Endurance Championship , the World Touring Car Championship , the Championship. British Touring Car and the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship . [ 336 ] [ 337 ] [ 338 ]Three Japanese drivers have achieved podiums in Formula 1, and the Japanese drivers also have victories in the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans , in addition to success in national championships. [ 339 ] [ 340 ] The Super GT is the most popular national series in Japan, while the Super Formula is the national series of top - level open - wheel. [ 341 ] The country is also home to major races such as the Japanese Grand Prix . [ 342 ]
Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998 . [ 343 ] In addition, the country hosted the 2006 World Basketball Championship [ 344 ] and will co-host the 2023 World Basketball Championship . [ 345 ] Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Olympics , making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice. [ 346 ] The country obtained the rights to host theWomen's Volleyball World Championship five times, more than any other nation. [ 347 ] Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country [ 348 ] and hosted the 2019 Rugby World Cup . [ 349 ]
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