Jewish community Bad Kissingen - Jüdische Gemeinde Bad Kissingen
The Jewish community of Bad Kissingen , a Lower Franconian health resort in the Bavarian district of Bad Kissingen , is first documented for the year 1298 and existed until the anti-Semitic persecution of National Socialism .
The first mention of Jews in Bad Kissingen is related to the rint meat pogrom of 1298, in which an alleged case of desecration of the host in Röttingen, Lower Franconia ( Würzburg district ) led to the persecution of Jews by rint meat (depending on the source, impoverished knights or butchers). It is not certain whether the pogrom took place in Kissingen, as there is no other evidence of Jews in the place for this time. Entries in this regard in the Nuremberg memorandum make it possible to confuse Kissingen with the town of Kitzingensuspect, but the graphically different spelling of both place names as well as the occurrence of persecution of Jews in the Kissinger area speak against such a mix-up.
As a result of Rintfleisch-pogrom against the Jews, the Kissinger pay duties were under the care of nobles such as (from 1500) of the family of Erthal to protect Jews ; they lived on the Judenhof in today's Bachstrasse, which is still preserved today . Over time, however, this measure led to the ghettoization of the Jews. In 1644 the number of protected Jews living in Kissingen was 163. In 1705 a Jewish prayer and school house was built near the Judenhof (at today's Bachstrasse 2).
After the Thirty Years' War , the appearance of foreign beggar Jews  led to a conflict between Christian and Jewish interests and, in 1740, an - albeit unsuccessful - complaint by the city council to Prince Bishop Friedrich Karl von Schönborn-Buchheim about too many people living in the village Jews.
Emancipation after 1813
The Jewish cemetery (first documented for 1817)
Drawing of the " Old Synagogue " (built 1851/52)
The " New Synagogue " (built in 1901/02)
The “ Israelitische Kinderheilstätte ” (built in 1905), photograph from 1940
|Name||Term of office|
|Gabriel Hirsch Lippman||1852–1864|
|Moses Löb Bamberger||1867–1899|
| Seckel Bamberger |
(nephew and son-in-law of Moses Löw Bamberger)
|year||Number of Jews in the place||Share in the total population|
|1816||181||17.0% of a total of 1,064|
|1837||210||13.1% of 1,600|
|1867||314||12.1% of 2,591|
|1880||356||9.2% of 3,873|
|1900||333||7.0% of 4,757|
|1910||307||5.3% of 5,831|
A first big step towards the social emancipation of the Jews was the Bavarian Jewish edict of 1813 , which guaranteed the Jews rights. A further improvement for the situation of the Jews occurred in 1861 with the abolition of the “matriculation paragraph”, which until then had limited the permitted proportion of Jewish residents in the population. With the establishment of the German Empire , Jews were given equal rights as German citizens. The Kissingen Jews were able to move out of the Judenhof and soon played an important role in the local trade and banking system.
The district rabbinate Bad Kissingen was established around 1839 . The Jewish cemetery of Bad Kissingen is documented for the first time in 1817 (the year 1801 for the inauguration of the cemetery, mentioned in many sources, could not be clearly proven), after the Jews who died in Kissingen had previously been buried in what is now the Hammelburg district of Pfaffenhausen . The prayer and school house built in 1705 in today's Bachstrasse was replaced in 1851/1852 by the " Old Synagogue " built at the same location and demolished in 1927/28 . At the beginning of the 1890s there were first plans for a new synagogue, which were implemented with the " New Synagogue ", inaugurated on June 16, 1902 .
Various hotels, guesthouses and sanatoriums were built that were run by Jewish families, such as the Hotel Ehrenreich ( Kurhausstrasse / corner of Lindesmühlpromenade, later Theresienstrasse; run by teacher Eliezer Lazarus Ehrenreich and later by his daughter Rifka and her husband Emil Jeidel), the Hotel Herzfeld , the Hotel Schwed and the Hotel Geschwister Seelig. Among the sanatoriums and spa houses, the Apolant diet spa (Menzelstrasse 8/9), the spa house "Villa Holländer" (Bismarckstrasse 12; managed by Nathan Bretzfelder ) and the spa houses of Dr. Philipp Münz(Theresienstraße 7), Ida Neuburger (Hartmannstraße 5) and Bella Regensburger and Klara Rosenau (Bismarckstraße 15). The spa guests of Bad Kissingenes also included numerous Jews, some of whom came from abroad such as England , the USA , France , Russia and Hungary . Some of them died during their stay in Bad Kissingen, such as wholesaler and philanthropist Michael Nassatisin , who died in Bad Kissingen in 1931 at the age of 54.
In 1905, on the initiative of the rabbi Dr. Seckel Bamberger the Israelitische Kinderheilstätte at Salinenstrasse 34; In 1927 a spa hospice for adults followed at Altenberg , which by the summer of 1928 was already looking after 196 Jews in need of spa and relaxation.  In March 1923, despite efforts, a Jewish elementary school was not established. Cantor Ludwig Steinberger, the father of the later Nobel laureate in physics, Jack Steinberger , had applied to the elementary school as a religion teacher, but to no avail.
The fallen from Bad Kissingen during the First World War also included eight members of the local Jewish community; Their names can be found on memorial plaques in the Tahara House of the cemetery and mostly on the memorial for the fallen of World War I on the western wall of the chapel cemetery .
Weimar Republic and Third Reich
In 1925 the Jewish community of Bad Kissingen had 504 members and was one of the 10 largest Jewish communities in Bavaria. But as early as the 1870s, the economic crisis and the fall of liberalism , among other things, created a new breeding ground for anti-Semitism . A first incident of this kind was the Louis Stern affair , in the context of which the trial of the New York merchant Louis Stern for alleged threats of violence in 1895 led to violent arguments with an anti-Semitic character, including in the press. Louis Stern had attended a reunion with his wife Lisette and son Louis Jr. and the deputy bathroom inspector(now the office of the spa director) Friedrich Freiherr von Thüngen (1861–1931), who wanted to expel the underage son of the Stern couple, threatened to slap the face. In the process initiated by the deputy bath inspector von Thüngen, Louis Stern was sentenced to a fine and imprisonment. It is unclear whether Friedrich von Thüngen acted out of anti-Semitic motives. Friedrich von Thüngen's superior, the bath commissioner Hermann von Mauchenheim called Bechtolsheim , who was not present on the evening in question, had tried to mediate the affair.
Anti-Semitism was later fueled by the turmoil of the Weimar Republic . In 1920, the Bad Kissingen branch of the Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith saw itself compelled to appeal to the citizens against an anti-Semitic poster campaign in the town. In October 1929, local NSDAP members carried out an attack on the tabernacle . After the protest of headmaster Gustav NeustädterThe Schweinfurt public prosecutor successfully appealed the verdict against the mild punishments of the perpetrators. In 1925 the Jewish cemetery was desecrated. The perpetrators were not identified. On July 5, 1930, an anti-Semitic march by NSDAP members to the synagogue took place. The people who acted anti-Semitic at the time included the Bad Kissingen jeweler and later district manager Karl Renner and the later lawyer Peter Deeg . When a Jewish charitable organization based in New York accepted 300 students in 1934 , Cantor Ludwig Steinberger and his wife sent their sons Herbert Lazarus and Hans Jakob “Jack” Steinberger to the United States; they themselves followed in 1937/38 with their son Rudolf.
Shortly after the seizure of power by the Nazis occurred in March 1933 the first arrests and house searches against Jews. I.a. Rabbi Max Ephraim and the community council Nathan Bretzfelder were taken into “ protective custody ”. Secondary school teacher Dr. Robert Hofmann turned against the discrimination against Jews and provided the prisoners with kosher food.
Jewish traders were boycotted. On November 16, 1934, the merchants Daniel and Louis Liebmann, owners of a manufactory and haberdashery store in Untere Marktstrasse 1 , were arrested for alleged "unjustified price increases"  . Angry crowds broke out in front of their shop, but the allegations against the merchants turned out to be baseless based on the testimony of a former employee. On the morning of August 14, 1935, 74-year-old Wilhelm Wittekind was beaten up by two SS men. The two perpetrators got away with it; their act was advocated by SS leader Karl Meder. In March 1933, the then neighboring village and today's district of WinkelsResident Jewish textile merchant Julius Neumann, originally from Bad Kissingen, imprisoned despite proven innocence for Marxist and communist activities and sentenced to sweep the streets; his textiles were confiscated (his further fate is unknown).  On June 1, 1942, the Jew Emil Weber from Winkels was arrested on suspicion of black slaughter and died on October 29, 1942 at the age of 56 in the Nuremberg prison for unknown reasons; his body showed signs of abuse.  Likewise, from Garitz , which also became a district of Bad Kissingen in 1972, one case of "destroying life unworthy of life" and rendering it sterile are known. Another Garitzer, Konrad Kaiser, baptized Catholic, lost his life on March 19, 1940 in the Mauthausen concentration camp because, as a member of Jehovah's Witnesses, he refused to salute Hitler and to do military service for reasons of conscience. 
In April 1933, the Jewish city councilors Nathan Bretzfelder and Otto Goldstein were expelled from the Bad Kissingen city council. On August 23, Otto Goldstein committed suicide out of shame for this procedure. Something similar happened in the Bad Kissingen spa orchestra when concertmaster Carl Snoeck and violinist Josef Lengsfeld were dismissed in 1934 (here too - shortly after the pogrom night - Lengsfeld committed suicide). 
In July 1934, the "swimming pool affair" led to protests both at home and abroad, when Lord Mayor Dr. Max Pollwein had a sign posted at the local swimming pool denying Jews entry to the swimming pool. Both private individuals and official bodies such as the Berlin “Bund Deutscher Verkehrsverbände und Bäder” criticized the approach and pointed out the negative effects on the reputation of the spa town. Both Mayor Pollwein and district manager Renner refused to have the sign removed. It only disappeared when the swimming pool was demolished.
Despite the "swimming pool affair", numerous Jewish spa guests came to Bad Kissingen because - in contrast to many other bathing resorts - their stay here was not yet prohibited. On August 7, 1935, there was an anti-Semitic action in the spa garden when a crowd of spa guests demonstratively leafed through the issues of the anti-Semitic weekly newspaper " Der Stürmer ". A few days later, on August 16, unidentified people put up signs prohibiting Jews from entering the spa garden. These signs were removed by the spa gardens shortly after they were set up  . City and Bath Commissioner Dr. Rudolf Conrathfailed with his applications to the Würzburg government after "defensive measures". Thereupon, in cooperation with Mayor Pollwein, he ordered various measures directed against Jews. For example, Jewish spa guests were assigned their own spa houses (they had to declare through signs that they only accommodated Jews). Jewish spa guests were assigned their own benches in the spa facilities and the use of brine and mud baths was restricted. At the end of 1938 / beginning of 1939 there was a general ban on Jewish spa guests in Bad Kissingen. As early as January 1, 1936, "Aryan" women over 45 years of age were prohibited from working for Jewish employers.
On November 10, 1938, the New Synagogue fell victim to the November pogroms. At 1 a.m. on the day of the pogrom, men of the SA Storm Bad Kissingen, led by SA Obersturmbannführer Emil Otto Walter, set the synagogue on fire. The fire brigade was present, but did not put out the fire. Although the badly damaged synagogue could have been repaired, it was demolished in 1939 by decision of the Nazi city council.
While the interior burned out completely until the early hours of the morning, the windows of the Jewish shops in the spa town, the Jewish hotels, guest houses, spa facilities and apartments were broken. SA men also forcibly entered the Jewish houses and demolished the interior. Foreign thugs were also involved in the pogroms in Bad Kissingen on November 10th. The SA storm leaders of the places Brückenau, Hammelburg and Bad Kissingen had agreed in a secret telephone agreement to use their storms the other way around.
After their houses, shops and apartments had been demolished, 28 Jewish men and one Jewish woman were arrested on November 10, 1938 in Bad Kissingen and taken to the city's district court prison. In the late afternoon of the day of the pogrom, some Jewish prisoners were driven through the streets of the city by the SA and forced, with vicious cries, to dig a pit at a “designated place” in the Jewish cemetery. The then NSDAP district leader of Bad Kissingen, Willy Heimbach (1938–1944), suspected that there had been “various incriminating material for some time”. However, only a few Jewish rituals were found at this point in the cemetery and taken to the air raid shelter of the NS district building for inspection .
During the year 1942 there were deportations of Bad Kissinger Jews to Izbica (in April) and Theresienstadt (in May). A total of 69 Bad Kissingen Jews were deported and lost their lives in the concentration camps.  The deportations marked the end of the Jewish community in Bad Kissingen. 
After the end of the war, several Jews lived in Bad Kissingen as “ displaced persons ” (30 Jewish residents in November 1945, 125 in January 1946, 144 in July 1946). Many of them later emigrated after the establishment of the State of Israel .
None of the former Bad Kissingen Jews returned to Bad Kissingen. Nobel laureate in physics, Jack Steinberger , initially hesitated to visit his place of birth, but in 1989 he accepted the invitation from Gotthilf Riedel, the then rector of the municipal grammar school. Jack Steinberger himself was a student at the grammar school, which was renamed " Jack Steinberger grammar school " in 2001 in honor of the physicist . In the acceptance speech he emphasized that his initially queasy feeling had soon given way to joy  . Since then, Steinberger has visited Bad Kissingen several times, most recently in May and June 2011.   
In 1956, a prayer hall was set up in the former parish hall at Promenadestrasse 2 , which was renamed "Josef Weissler Synagogue" in August 1996 in memory of its founder and prayer leader who died in 1989 . In 1993, the Hotel Eden-Park, the only kosher- run guest house in Germany, was built in Rosenstrasse, and the house's Maschgiach , who is responsible for compliance with the Jewish dietary laws , is Izchak Nadel. On October 8, 2008, the city council of Bad Kissingen decided, as part of the “ Stolpersteine ” project by artist Gunter Demnig , who lives in Cologne , in memory of those in theAt the time of National Socialism, murdered Jews also laid stumbling blocks in Bad Kissingen.
After the decision of the Bad Kissingen city council to participate in Gunter Demnig's “ Stolpersteine ” project on October 8, 2008, the first stumbling block was laid in Bad Kissingen on June 19, 2009. The last stumbling blocks so far were laid on November 4, 2016. 
So far, stumbling blocks for the following victims of the Nazi regime have been laid in Bad Kissingen, financed by donations and private sponsors (as of March 2017). 
|Name||Life dates||Occupation / note||Cause of death||Location|
|Deer eagle||1875–1942||Manufakturhändler||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Jeanette Adler||1873 – ??||Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp , death presumably in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Susanne Adler||1920 – ??||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Therese Adler, b. Rosenthal||1887 – ??||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto , death probably in the Krasnystaw ghetto , exact time of death unknown||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Ella Apolant||1871–1944||Receptionist||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Menzelstrasse 8|
|Kehla Bamberger||1893 – ??||Tod im Ghetto Krasnystaw||Promenadestraße 17|
|Nannette Bamberger||1870 – ??||Kurhalterin||Tod im Ghetto Krasnystaw||Promenadestraße 17|
|Babette Bauer, b. Lock||1884 – ??||Domestic help in the Frank house||Deportation to the Izbica Ghetto, death in the Izbica Ghetto, exact time of death unknown||Erhardstrasse 21|
|Hermann Baumblatt||1864–1942||Master baker||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Badgasse 4|
|Sara Baumblatt, b. Neuburger||1867–1942||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Badgasse 4|
|Fanny Bloemendal||1879–1943||Housewife||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Theresienstraße 10|
|Manfred Bloemendal||1912–1944||Kaufmann||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Theresienstraße 10|
|Josef Bloemendal||1907–1944||Kaufmann||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Theresienstraße 10|
|Siegfried Bloemendal||1880–1943||Restaurateur||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Theresienstraße 10|
|Clara Frank, b. Ansbach||1863–1936||Housewife||Suicide on July 11, 1936||Erhardstrasse 21|
|Lazarus Frank||1862–1942||Cattle and horse dealers||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Erhardstrasse 21|
|Otto Goldstein||1889–1933||Merchant, entrepreneur, city councilor||Suicide on August 23, 1933 after impeachment|| Rathausplatz 1 |
(in front of the town hall)
|Erna Gutmann, b. Haas||1890–1942?||Housewife||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto or the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Kurhausstrasse 37|
|Felix Gutmann||1876–1942?||Entrepreneur||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto or the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Kurhausstrasse 37|
|Hedwig Haas||1887–1942?||Housewife||Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Selma Hartmann, b. star||1876–1942?||Housewife||Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Maxstraße 24|
|Theo Hartmann||1883–1942?||Kaufmann||Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Maxstraße 24|
|Adele Heymann, b. tree||1866–1943||Housewife||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Marketplace 2|
|Solms Heymann||1858–1944||Textile merchant||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Marketplace 2|
|Lina Hofmann, b. Thalheimer||1880–1941||Housewife||Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Treblinka concentration camp||Untere Marktstrasse 2|
|Louis Hofmann||1871–1933||Banker||Death from a stroke in Bad Kissingen||Untere Marktstrasse 2|
|Hermann Holländer||1878–1938||Haberdashery||Victims of the November pogroms of 1938 ; died on Nov. 12, 1938||Maxstraße 24|
|Nanette Holländer, b. star||1873–1942||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Maxstraße 24|
First stumbling block outside of Bad Kissingen's core city ( Garitz district ) and first stumbling block for a non-Jew. 
|Death in Mauthausen concentration camp||Jahnstraße 35|
|Else Kissinger||1879 – ??||Housewife||Deportation to Izbica, exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 8|
|Emma Kissinger||1875 – ??||Housewife||Deportation to the Treblinka concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 8|
|Ludwig Kissinger||1887 – 1942||Kaufmann||Deportation to the Sobibor extermination camp , murder shortly afterwards||Marketplace 17|
|Siegfried Kissinger||1876–1942?||Commercial clerk||Deportation to the Treblinka concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 8|
|Salomon Leuthold||1862–1943||Textile merchant||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Marketplace 2|
|Anna Liebmann, b. Merchant||1885 – ??||Textile merchant||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact time of death unknown||Untere Marktstrasse 1|
|Daniel Liebmann||1876 – ??||Textile merchant||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact time of death unknown||Untere Marktstrasse 1|
|Isidor Lowenstein||1896–1942?||Schlosser||Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 12|
|Hannchen Löwenthal, b. Upper room||1855–1942||Housewife||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Ludwig Loewenthal||1898–1944||Banker||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Ludwigstraße 5|
|Willi Loewenthal||1928 – ??||student||Deportation to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp , exact time of death unknown||Ludwigstraße 5|
|Selma Löwenthal||1889–1943?||Banker||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Ludwigstraße 11|
|Else Löwinsky||1883–1942||Hotelier||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Untere Markstrasse 3|
|Herta Losmann||1893 – ??||Used material and raw material dealer||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 4|
|Josef "Ben" Losmann||1891 – ??||Scrap and raw material dealers||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 4|
|Carola Manasse, b. Kissinger||1883–1942||Housewife||Deportation to Riga , exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 8|
|Amalie Mann||1867–1943||Butcher shop assistant||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Bachstrasse 6|
|Sabine Mann||1870–1944||Butcher shop assistant||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Bachstrasse 6|
|Sophie Mann||1869–1943||Butcher shop assistant||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Bachstrasse 6|
|Ernestine Mannheimer, b. Kissinger||1872–1944||Housewife||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Kirchgasse 11|
|Irma Mayer, b. Bretzfelder||1895 – ??||Housewife||Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Kurhausstrasse 12|
| Sally Mayer |
with his wife Irma , b. Bretzfelder
|1889 – 1944||Practicing doctor and spa doctor, head of the hospital and retirement home of the "Israelitische Kranken- und Pfründnerhausstiftung" in Würzburg||Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Kurhausstrasse 12|
|Camilla Michels, b. Lowenthal||1890 – ??||Housewife||Presumably deportation to the Majdanek concentration camp or the Izbica transit ghetto in May or June 1942||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Irene Müller, b. Hofmann||1898 – ??||Textile merchant||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Untere Marktstrasse 3|
|Leopold Muller||1889 – ??||Textile merchant||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, death in the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact time of death unknown||Untere Marktstrasse 3|
|Dr. med. Alfred Münz||1897–1944||Bath doctor||Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Theresienstraße 1|
|Dr. med. Pinkus Philipp Münz||1864–1944||Medical Council||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Theresienstraße 1|
|Ida Neuburger, b. Lowenthal||1889 – 1942||Kurhalterin||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Hartmannstrasse 5|
|Julius "Juller" Neumann||1894–1942||Textile merchant||Tod im Ghetto Izbica||Ludwigstraße 9|
|Karl Neumann||1860–1942||Textile merchant||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Ludwigstraße 9|
|Ernst David Neustädter||1926 – ??||Schlosser||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Promenadestraße 2|
| Gustav Neustädter |
with his wife Paula and son Ernst David
|1892 – ??||Last head of the Jewish community, founder of the Bavarian Schochtim Association||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Promenadestraße 2|
|Paula Neustädter, b. Bacharach||1896 – ??||Housewife||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Promenadestraße 2|
|Hermann Sigmund Rosenau||1894–1944||Jewelry store||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp||Kurhausstrasse 10|
|Paula Rosenau, b. Feuchtwanger||1878–1943?||Housewife||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Kurhausstrasse 10|
|Simon Hermann Rosenau||1861–1943?||Jewelry store||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Kurhausstrasse 10|
|Cäcilie Rosenbaum, b. Kissinger||1873–1943||Housewife||Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt||Spargasse 9|
|Martha Rosner, b. Dannheimer||1873–1942?||Housewife||Death in the Theresienstadt ghetto, exact time of death unknown||Erhardstrasse 18|
|Benedict Castle||1875–1943||Footwear retailer||Tod im KZ Theresienstadt||Maxstraße 31|
|Emilie Schloß, b. Dutch||1875–1947||Deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp, liberated in 1945, died in Switzerland in 1947||Maxstraße 31|
|Thekla castle||1902 – ??||Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown||Maxstraße 31|
|Years Stern||1924 – ??||pupil||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 12|
|Thekla Stern, b. Heimann||1891 – ??||Hardware dealer||Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown||Hemmerichstrasse 12|
|Dr. Siegfried Wahle||1869–1941||Medical Council||Death in Kauen concentration camp||Ludwigstraße 9|
|Selma Wolff, b. Kissinger||1877–1942||Medical Council||Deportation to the Litzmannstadt ghetto and then to the Kulmhof extermination camp ; murdered there.||Marketplace 17|
(in chronological order)
- Hans-Jürgen Beck: Jews in Bad Kissingen during the time of National Socialism. Wuerzburg 1987.
- Hans-Jürgen Beck, Rudolf Walter: Jewish life in Bad Kissingen. City of Bad Kissingen, Bad Kissingen 1990, .
- Cornelia Binder, Michael Mence: Last Traces / Last Traces of Germans of Jewish Faith in the Bad Kissingen district. Binder / Mence, Wartmannsroth 1992, .
- Gerhild Ahnert: In memory of our former Jewish students. In: Gerhild Ahnert, Frey Erich, Gusinde Horst (eds.): Festschrift 125 Years of Bad Kissingen Gymnasium 1871–1996. Bad Kissingen grammar school, Bad Kissingen 1996, .
- Hans-Jürgen Beck: The shine of the Torah - evidence of Jewish life in Franconia. (= Publication accompanying the exhibition of the same name from November 10, 2004 to January 31, 2005 in the Bismarck Museum Bad Kissingen). City of Bad Kissingen, Bad Kissingen 2004, ISBN 978-3-934912-06-9 .
- Cornelia Binder, Michael Mence: Neighbors of the Past - Traces of Germans of Jewish Faith in the Bad Kissingen district with the focus from 1800 to 1945. Binder, Wartmannsroth 2004, ISBN 978-3-00-014792-0 .
- History of the Jewish community in Bad Kissingen . In: Jüdische-Gemeinde.de
- Bad Kissingen (district town) - Jewish history / synagogue near Alemannia Judaica
- Website of the Biographical Memorial Book of Bad Kissingen Jews during the Nazi era
- Bad Kissinger stumbling blocks . In: BadKissingen.de
- List of Bad Kissingen stumbling blocks . In: BadKissingen.de
- Jewish Culture Days . In: BadKissingen.de
- Walter Mahr: History of the City of Bad Kissingen. A demolition. , Bad Kissingen 1959, p. 117
- Zvi Baruch Ophir, Falk Wiesemann: The Jewish communities in Bavaria 1918–1945. History and Destruction , Munich, Vienna 1979, p. 262
- " Saale-Zeitung ", November 17, 1934
- Edi Hahn: Bad Kissingen: District Winkels 1247 - 1972, 725 years of village history by EDI HAHN , Bad Kissingen 1985, ISBN 3-925722-00-9 , p. 72f.
- Edi Hahn: Bad Kissingen: District Winkels 1247 - 1972, 725 years of village history by EDI HAHN , Bad Kissingen 1985, ISBN 3-925722-00-9 , p. 95
- Heinrich Hack: Garitz - Ein Heimatbuch , editor: Stadt Bad Kissingen, 1986, p. 77
- Thomas Ahnert, Peter Weidisch (ed.): 1200 years Bad Kissingen, 801-2001, facets of a city history . Festschrift for the anniversary year and accompanying volume for the exhibition of the same name. Special publication of the Bad Kissingen city archive. Verlag TA Schachenmayer, Bad Kissingen 2001, ISBN 3-929278-16-2 , p. 343
- Sta Würzburg, "Gauleitung Mainfranken XII / 2"
- Jewish fellow citizens 1934–1945 . Documentation from the Bad Kissingen city archive.
- Baruch Zvi Ophir, Falk Wiesmann (ed.): The Jewish communities in Bavaria 1919-1945. History and destruction. Munich / Vienna 1979, p. 15.
- " Main-Post " of June 3, 1989
- Jack Steinberger clearly relies on solar collectors - "Main-Post" from June 22, 2010
- Steinberger honors math aces - "Main-Post" from June 23, 2010
- Balloons and lectures: What Bad Kissingen set up to celebrate Jack Steinberger - “Main-Post” from June 5, 2011
- Bad Kissinger Stolpersteine - News / Dates ( Memento of the original from April 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- "Bad Kissinger Stolpersteine" - an initiative of citizens ( Memento of the original from March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- "Torn from the statistics of horror - for the first time in Bad Kissingen there is now a stumbling block for a non-Jewish victim of the National Socialists" - "Main Post" article from August 13, 2013