Jewish community Bad Kissingen - Jüdische Gemeinde Bad Kissingen

The Jewish community of Bad Kissingen , a Lower Franconian health resort in the Bavarian district of Bad Kissingen , is first documented for the year 1298 and existed until the anti-Semitic persecution of National Socialism .

story

Beginnings

The first mention of Jews in Bad Kissingen is related to the rint meat pogrom of 1298, in which an alleged case of desecration of the host in Röttingen, Lower Franconia ( Würzburg district ) led to the persecution of Jews by rint meat (depending on the source, impoverished knights or butchers). It is not certain whether the pogrom took place in Kissingen, as there is no other evidence of Jews in the place for this time. Entries in this regard in the Nuremberg memorandum make it possible to confuse Kissingen with the town of Kitzingensuspect, but the graphically different spelling of both place names as well as the occurrence of persecution of Jews in the Kissinger area speak against such a mix-up.

As a result of Rintfleisch-pogrom against the Jews, the Kissinger pay duties were under the care of nobles such as (from 1500) of the family of Erthal to protect Jews ; they lived on the Judenhof in today's Bachstrasse, which is still preserved today . Over time, however, this measure led to the ghettoization of the Jews. In 1644 the number of protected Jews living in Kissingen was 163. In 1705 a Jewish prayer and school house was built near the Judenhof (at today's Bachstrasse 2).

After the Thirty Years' War , the appearance of foreign beggar Jews [1] led to a conflict between Christian and Jewish interests and, in 1740, an - albeit unsuccessful - complaint by the city council to Prince Bishop Friedrich Karl von Schönborn-Buchheim about too many people living in the village Jews.

Emancipation after 1813

Bad Kissingen rabbis in the 19th and 20th centuries
Name Term of office
R. Moses 1799–1809
David Wolff ????–1824
Lazarus eagle 1840–1852
Gabriel Hirsch Lippman 1852–1864
Moses Löb Bamberger 1867–1899
Seckel Bamberger
(nephew and son-in-law of Moses Löw Bamberger)
1902–1932
Max Ephraim 1932–1938
Population development
year Number of Jews in the place Share in the total population
1816 181 17.0% of a total of 1,064
1837 210 13.1% of 1,600
1867 314 12.1% of 2,591
1880 356 9.2% of 3,873
1900 333 7.0% of 4,757
1910 307 5.3% of 5,831

A first big step towards the social emancipation of the Jews was the Bavarian Jewish edict of 1813 , which guaranteed the Jews rights. A further improvement for the situation of the Jews occurred in 1861 with the abolition of the “matriculation paragraph”, which until then had limited the permitted proportion of Jewish residents in the population. With the establishment of the German Empire , Jews were given equal rights as German citizens. The Kissingen Jews were able to move out of the Judenhof and soon played an important role in the local trade and banking system.

The district rabbinate Bad Kissingen was established around 1839 . The Jewish cemetery of Bad Kissingen is documented for the first time in 1817 (the year 1801 for the inauguration of the cemetery, mentioned in many sources, could not be clearly proven), after the Jews who died in Kissingen had previously been buried in what is now the Hammelburg district of Pfaffenhausen . The prayer and school house built in 1705 in today's Bachstrasse was replaced in 1851/1852 by the " Old Synagogue " built at the same location and demolished in 1927/28 . At the beginning of the 1890s there were first plans for a new synagogue, which were implemented with the " New Synagogue ", inaugurated on June 16, 1902 .

Various hotels, guesthouses and sanatoriums were built that were run by Jewish families, such as the Hotel Ehrenreich ( Kurhausstrasse / corner of Lindesmühlpromenade, later Theresienstrasse; run by teacher Eliezer Lazarus Ehrenreich and later by his daughter Rifka and her husband Emil Jeidel), the Hotel Herzfeld , the Hotel Schwed and the Hotel Geschwister Seelig. Among the sanatoriums and spa houses, the Apolant diet spa (Menzelstrasse 8/9), the spa house "Villa Holländer" (Bismarckstrasse 12; managed by Nathan Bretzfelder ) and the spa houses of Dr. Philipp Münz(Theresienstraße 7), Ida Neuburger (Hartmannstraße 5) and Bella Regensburger and Klara Rosenau (Bismarckstraße 15). The spa guests of Bad Kissingenes also included numerous Jews, some of whom came from abroad such as England , the USA , France , Russia and Hungary . Some of them died during their stay in Bad Kissingen, such as wholesaler and philanthropist Michael Nassatisin , who died in Bad Kissingen in 1931 at the age of 54.

In 1905, on the initiative of the rabbi Dr. Seckel Bamberger the Israelitische Kinderheilstätte at Salinenstrasse 34; In 1927 a spa hospice for adults followed at Altenberg , which by the summer of 1928 was already looking after 196 Jews in need of spa and relaxation. [2] In March 1923, despite efforts, a Jewish elementary school was not established. Cantor Ludwig Steinberger, the father of the later Nobel laureate in physics, Jack Steinberger , had applied to the elementary school as a religion teacher, but to no avail.

The fallen from Bad Kissingen during the First World War also included eight members of the local Jewish community; Their names can be found on memorial plaques in the Tahara House of the cemetery and mostly on the memorial for the fallen of World War I on the western wall of the chapel cemetery .

Weimar Republic and Third Reich

In 1925 the Jewish community of Bad Kissingen had 504 members and was one of the 10 largest Jewish communities in Bavaria. But as early as the 1870s, the economic crisis and the fall of liberalism , among other things, created a new breeding ground for anti-Semitism . A first incident of this kind was the Louis Stern affair , in the context of which the trial of the New York merchant Louis Stern for alleged threats of violence in 1895 led to violent arguments with an anti-Semitic character, including in the press. Louis Stern had attended a reunion with his wife Lisette and son Louis Jr. and the deputy bathroom inspector(now the office of the spa director) Friedrich Freiherr von Thüngen (1861–1931), who wanted to expel the underage son of the Stern couple, threatened to slap the face. In the process initiated by the deputy bath inspector von Thüngen, Louis Stern was sentenced to a fine and imprisonment. It is unclear whether Friedrich von Thüngen acted out of anti-Semitic motives. Friedrich von Thüngen's superior, the bath commissioner Hermann von Mauchenheim called Bechtolsheim , who was not present on the evening in question, had tried to mediate the affair.

Anti-Semitism was later fueled by the turmoil of the Weimar Republic . In 1920, the Bad Kissingen branch of the Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith saw itself compelled to appeal to the citizens against an anti-Semitic poster campaign in the town. In October 1929, local NSDAP members carried out an attack on the tabernacle . After the protest of headmaster Gustav NeustädterThe Schweinfurt public prosecutor successfully appealed the verdict against the mild punishments of the perpetrators. In 1925 the Jewish cemetery was desecrated. The perpetrators were not identified. On July 5, 1930, an anti-Semitic march by NSDAP members to the synagogue took place. The people who acted anti-Semitic at the time included the Bad Kissingen jeweler and later district manager Karl Renner and the later lawyer Peter Deeg . When a Jewish charitable organization based in New York accepted 300 students in 1934 , Cantor Ludwig Steinberger and his wife sent their sons Herbert Lazarus and Hans Jakob “Jack” Steinberger to the United States; they themselves followed in 1937/38 with their son Rudolf.

Shortly after the seizure of power by the Nazis occurred in March 1933 the first arrests and house searches against Jews. I.a. Rabbi Max Ephraim and the community council Nathan Bretzfelder were taken into “ protective custody ”. Secondary school teacher Dr. Robert Hofmann turned against the discrimination against Jews and provided the prisoners with kosher food.

Jewish traders were boycotted. On November 16, 1934, the merchants Daniel and Louis Liebmann, owners of a manufactory and haberdashery store in Untere Marktstrasse 1 , were arrested for alleged "unjustified price increases" [3] . Angry crowds broke out in front of their shop, but the allegations against the merchants turned out to be baseless based on the testimony of a former employee. On the morning of August 14, 1935, 74-year-old Wilhelm Wittekind was beaten up by two SS men. The two perpetrators got away with it; their act was advocated by SS leader Karl Meder. In March 1933, the then neighboring village and today's district of WinkelsResident Jewish textile merchant Julius Neumann, originally from Bad Kissingen, imprisoned despite proven innocence for Marxist and communist activities and sentenced to sweep the streets; his textiles were confiscated (his further fate is unknown). [4] On June 1, 1942, the Jew Emil Weber from Winkels was arrested on suspicion of black slaughter and died on October 29, 1942 at the age of 56 in the Nuremberg prison for unknown reasons; his body showed signs of abuse. [5] Likewise, from Garitz , which also became a district of Bad Kissingen in 1972, one case of "destroying life unworthy of life" and rendering it sterile are known. [6]Another Garitzer, Konrad Kaiser, baptized Catholic, lost his life on March 19, 1940 in the Mauthausen concentration camp because, as a member of Jehovah's Witnesses, he refused to salute Hitler and to do military service for reasons of conscience. [6]

In April 1933, the Jewish city councilors Nathan Bretzfelder and Otto Goldstein were expelled from the Bad Kissingen city council. On August 23, Otto Goldstein committed suicide out of shame for this procedure. Something similar happened in the Bad Kissingen spa orchestra when concertmaster Carl Snoeck and violinist Josef Lengsfeld were dismissed in 1934 (here too - shortly after the pogrom night - Lengsfeld committed suicide). [7]

In July 1934, the "swimming pool affair" led to protests both at home and abroad, when Lord Mayor Dr. Max Pollwein had a sign posted at the local swimming pool denying Jews entry to the swimming pool. Both private individuals and official bodies such as the Berlin “Bund Deutscher Verkehrsverbände und Bäder” criticized the approach and pointed out the negative effects on the reputation of the spa town. Both Mayor Pollwein and district manager Renner refused to have the sign removed. It only disappeared when the swimming pool was demolished.

Despite the "swimming pool affair", numerous Jewish spa guests came to Bad Kissingen because - in contrast to many other bathing resorts - their stay here was not yet prohibited. On August 7, 1935, there was an anti-Semitic action in the spa garden when a crowd of spa guests demonstratively leafed through the issues of the anti-Semitic weekly newspaper " Der Stürmer ". A few days later, on August 16, unidentified people put up signs prohibiting Jews from entering the spa garden. These signs were removed by the spa gardens shortly after they were set up [8] . City and Bath Commissioner Dr. Rudolf Conrathfailed with his applications to the Würzburg government after "defensive measures". Thereupon, in cooperation with Mayor Pollwein, he ordered various measures directed against Jews. For example, Jewish spa guests were assigned their own spa houses (they had to declare through signs that they only accommodated Jews). Jewish spa guests were assigned their own benches in the spa facilities and the use of brine and mud baths was restricted. At the end of 1938 / beginning of 1939 there was a general ban on Jewish spa guests in Bad Kissingen. As early as January 1, 1936, "Aryan" women over 45 years of age were prohibited from working for Jewish employers.

On November 10, 1938, the New Synagogue fell victim to the November pogroms. At 1 a.m. on the day of the pogrom, men of the SA Storm Bad Kissingen, led by SA Obersturmbannführer Emil Otto Walter, set the synagogue on fire. The fire brigade was present, but did not put out the fire. Although the badly damaged synagogue could have been repaired, it was demolished in 1939 by decision of the Nazi city council.

While the interior burned out completely until the early hours of the morning, the windows of the Jewish shops in the spa town, the Jewish hotels, guest houses, spa facilities and apartments were broken. SA men also forcibly entered the Jewish houses and demolished the interior. Foreign thugs were also involved in the pogroms in Bad Kissingen on November 10th. The SA storm leaders of the places Brückenau, Hammelburg and Bad Kissingen had agreed in a secret telephone agreement to use their storms the other way around.

After their houses, shops and apartments had been demolished, 28 Jewish men and one Jewish woman were arrested on November 10, 1938 in Bad Kissingen and taken to the city's district court prison. In the late afternoon of the day of the pogrom, some Jewish prisoners were driven through the streets of the city by the SA and forced, with vicious cries, to dig a pit at a “designated place” in the Jewish cemetery. The then NSDAP district leader of Bad Kissingen, Willy Heimbach (1938–1944), suspected that there had been “various incriminating material for some time”. However, only a few Jewish rituals were found at this point in the cemetery and taken to the air raid shelter of the NS district building for inspection .

During the year 1942 there were deportations of Bad Kissinger Jews to Izbica (in April) and Theresienstadt (in May). A total of 69 Bad Kissingen Jews were deported and lost their lives in the concentration camps. [9] The deportations marked the end of the Jewish community in Bad Kissingen. [10]

After 1945

Official logo of the "stumbling blocks"

After the end of the war, several Jews lived in Bad Kissingen as “ displaced persons ” (30 Jewish residents in November 1945, 125 in January 1946, 144 in July 1946). Many of them later emigrated after the establishment of the State of Israel .

None of the former Bad Kissingen Jews returned to Bad Kissingen. Nobel laureate in physics, Jack Steinberger , initially hesitated to visit his place of birth, but in 1989 he accepted the invitation from Gotthilf Riedel, the then rector of the municipal grammar school. Jack Steinberger himself was a student at the grammar school, which was renamed " Jack Steinberger grammar school " in 2001 in honor of the physicist . In the acceptance speech he emphasized that his initially queasy feeling had soon given way to joy [11] . Since then, Steinberger has visited Bad Kissingen several times, most recently in May and June 2011. [12] [13] [14]

In 1956, a prayer hall was set up in the former parish hall at Promenadestrasse 2 , which was renamed "Josef Weissler Synagogue" in August 1996 in memory of its founder and prayer leader who died in 1989 . In 1993, the Hotel Eden-Park, the only kosher- run guest house in Germany, was built in Rosenstrasse, and the house's Maschgiach , who is responsible for compliance with the Jewish dietary laws , is Izchak Nadel. On October 8, 2008, the city council of Bad Kissingen decided, as part of the “ Stolpersteine ” project by artist Gunter Demnig , who lives in Cologne , in memory of those in theAt the time of National Socialism, murdered Jews also laid stumbling blocks in Bad Kissingen.

Stumbling blocks

After the decision of the Bad Kissingen city council to participate in Gunter Demnig'sStolpersteine ” project on October 8, 2008, the first stumbling block was laid in Bad Kissingen on June 19, 2009. The last stumbling blocks so far were laid on November 4, 2016. [15]

So far, stumbling blocks for the following victims of the Nazi regime have been laid in Bad Kissingen, financed by donations and private sponsors (as of March 2017). [16]

Stumbling blocks laid so far [16]
Name Life dates Occupation / note Cause of death Location
Deer eagle 1875–1942 Manufakturhändler Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Hartmannstrasse 5
Jeanette Adler 1873 – ?? Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp , death presumably in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Hartmannstrasse 5
Susanne Adler 1920 – ?? Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Hartmannstrasse 5
Therese Adler, b. Rosenthal 1887 – ?? Deportation to the Izbica ghetto , death probably in the Krasnystaw ghetto , exact time of death unknown Hartmannstrasse 5
Ella Apolant 1871–1944 Receptionist Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Menzelstrasse 8
Kehla Bamberger 1893 – ?? Tod im Ghetto Krasnystaw Promenadestraße 17
Nannette Bamberger 1870 – ?? Kurhalterin Tod im Ghetto Krasnystaw Promenadestraße 17
Babette Bauer, b. Lock 1884 – ?? Domestic help in the Frank house Deportation to the Izbica Ghetto, death in the Izbica Ghetto, exact time of death unknown Erhardstrasse 21
Hermann Baumblatt 1864–1942 Master baker Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Badgasse 4
Sara Baumblatt, b. Neuburger 1867–1942 Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Badgasse 4
Fanny Bloemendal 1879–1943 Housewife Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Theresienstraße 10
Manfred Bloemendal 1912–1944 Kaufmann Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Theresienstraße 10
Josef Bloemendal 1907–1944 Kaufmann Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Theresienstraße 10
Siegfried Bloemendal 1880–1943 Restaurateur Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Theresienstraße 10
Clara Frank, b. Ansbach 1863–1936 Housewife Suicide on July 11, 1936 Erhardstrasse 21
Lazarus Frank 1862–1942 Cattle and horse dealers Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Erhardstrasse 21
Otto Goldstein 1889–1933 Merchant, entrepreneur, city councilor Suicide on August 23, 1933 after impeachment Rathausplatz 1
(in front of the town hall)
Erna Gutmann, b. Haas 1890–1942? Housewife Deportation to the Izbica ghetto or the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Kurhausstrasse 37
Felix Gutmann 1876–1942? Entrepreneur Deportation to the Izbica ghetto or the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Kurhausstrasse 37
Hedwig Haas 1887–1942? Housewife Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Hartmannstrasse 5
Selma Hartmann, b. star 1876–1942? Housewife Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Maxstraße 24
Theo Hartmann 1883–1942? Kaufmann Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Maxstraße 24
Adele Heymann, b. tree 1866–1943 Housewife Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Marketplace 2
Solms Heymann 1858–1944 Textile merchant Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Marketplace 2
Lina Hofmann, b. Thalheimer 1880–1941 Housewife Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Treblinka concentration camp Untere Marktstrasse 2
Louis Hofmann 1871–1933 Banker Death from a stroke in Bad Kissingen Untere Marktstrasse 2
Hermann Holländer 1878–1938 Haberdashery Victims of the November pogroms of 1938 ; died on Nov. 12, 1938 Maxstraße 24
Nanette Holländer, b. star 1873–1942 Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Maxstraße 24
Konrad Kaiser 1894–1940 Workers
First stumbling block outside of Bad Kissingen's core city ( Garitz district ) and first stumbling block for a non-Jew. [17]
Death in Mauthausen concentration camp Jahnstraße 35
Else Kissinger 1879 – ?? Housewife Deportation to Izbica, exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 8
Emma Kissinger 1875 – ?? Housewife Deportation to the Treblinka concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 8
Ludwig Kissinger 1887 – 1942 Kaufmann Deportation to the Sobibor extermination camp , murder shortly afterwards Marketplace 17
Siegfried Kissinger 1876–1942? Commercial clerk Deportation to the Treblinka concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 8
Salomon Leuthold 1862–1943 Textile merchant Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Marketplace 2
Anna Liebmann, b. Merchant 1885 – ?? Textile merchant Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact time of death unknown Untere Marktstrasse 1
Daniel Liebmann 1876 – ?? Textile merchant Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact time of death unknown Untere Marktstrasse 1
Isidor Lowenstein 1896–1942? Schlosser Deportation to the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 12
Hannchen Löwenthal, b. Upper room 1855–1942 Housewife Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Hartmannstrasse 5
Ludwig Loewenthal 1898–1944 Banker Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Ludwigstraße 5
Willi Loewenthal 1928 – ?? student Deportation to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp , exact time of death unknown Ludwigstraße 5
Selma Löwenthal 1889–1943? Banker Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Ludwigstraße 11
Else Löwinsky 1883–1942 Hotelier Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Untere Markstrasse 3
Herta Losmann 1893 – ?? Used material and raw material dealer Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 4
Josef "Ben" Losmann 1891 – ?? Scrap and raw material dealers Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 4
Carola Manasse, b. Kissinger 1883–1942 Housewife Deportation to Riga , exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 8
Amalie Mann 1867–1943 Butcher shop assistant Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Bachstrasse 6
Sabine Mann 1870–1944 Butcher shop assistant Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Bachstrasse 6
Sophie Mann 1869–1943 Butcher shop assistant Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Bachstrasse 6
Ernestine Mannheimer, b. Kissinger 1872–1944 Housewife Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Kirchgasse 11
Irma Mayer, b. Bretzfelder 1895 – ?? Housewife Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Kurhausstrasse 12
Sally Mayer
with his wife Irma , b. Bretzfelder
1889 – 1944 Practicing doctor and spa doctor, head of the hospital and retirement home of the "Israelitische Kranken- und Pfründnerhausstiftung" in Würzburg Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Kurhausstrasse 12
Camilla Michels, b. Lowenthal 1890 – ?? Housewife Presumably deportation to the Majdanek concentration camp or the Izbica transit ghetto in May or June 1942 Hartmannstrasse 5
Irene Müller, b. Hofmann 1898 – ?? Textile merchant Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Untere Marktstrasse 3
Leopold Muller 1889 – ?? Textile merchant Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, death in the Krasnystaw ghetto, exact time of death unknown Untere Marktstrasse 3
Dr. med. Alfred Münz 1897–1944 Bath doctor Deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp, death in Auschwitz concentration camp Theresienstraße 1
Dr. med. Pinkus Philipp Münz 1864–1944 Medical Council Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Theresienstraße 1
Ida Neuburger, b. Lowenthal 1889 – 1942 Kurhalterin Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Hartmannstrasse 5
Julius "Juller" Neumann 1894–1942 Textile merchant Tod im Ghetto Izbica Ludwigstraße 9
Karl Neumann 1860–1942 Textile merchant Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Ludwigstraße 9
Ernst David Neustädter 1926 – ?? Schlosser Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Promenadestraße 2
Gustav Neustädter
with his wife Paula and son Ernst David
1892 – ?? Last head of the Jewish community, founder of the Bavarian Schochtim Association Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Promenadestraße 2
Paula Neustädter, b. Bacharach 1896 – ?? Housewife Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Promenadestraße 2
Hermann Sigmund Rosenau 1894–1944 Jewelry store Death in Auschwitz concentration camp Kurhausstrasse 10
Paula Rosenau, b. Feuchtwanger 1878–1943? Housewife Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Kurhausstrasse 10
Simon Hermann Rosenau 1861–1943? Jewelry store Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Kurhausstrasse 10
Cäcilie Rosenbaum, b. Kissinger 1873–1943 Housewife Tod im Ghetto Theresienstadt Spargasse 9
Martha Rosner, b. Dannheimer 1873–1942? Housewife Death in the Theresienstadt ghetto, exact time of death unknown Erhardstrasse 18
Benedict Castle 1875–1943 Footwear retailer Tod im KZ Theresienstadt Maxstraße 31
Emilie Schloß, b. Dutch 1875–1947 Deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp, liberated in 1945, died in Switzerland in 1947 Maxstraße 31
Thekla castle 1902 – ?? Death in Auschwitz concentration camp, exact time of death unknown Maxstraße 31
Years Stern 1924 – ?? pupil Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 12
Thekla Stern, b. Heimann 1891 – ?? Hardware dealer Deportation to the Izbica ghetto, exact place and time of death unknown Hemmerichstrasse 12
Dr. Siegfried Wahle 1869–1941 Medical Council Death in Kauen concentration camp Ludwigstraße 9
Selma Wolff, b. Kissinger 1877–1942 Medical Council Deportation to the Litzmannstadt ghetto and then to the Kulmhof extermination camp ; murdered there. Marketplace 17

literature

(in chronological order)

  • Hans-Jürgen Beck: Jews in Bad Kissingen during the time of National Socialism. Wuerzburg 1987.
  • Hans-Jürgen Beck, Rudolf Walter: Jewish life in Bad Kissingen. City of Bad Kissingen, Bad Kissingen 1990, DNB 911057900 .
  • Cornelia Binder, Michael Mence: Last Traces / Last Traces of Germans of Jewish Faith in the Bad Kissingen district. Binder / Mence, Wartmannsroth 1992, DNB 956260411 .
  • Gerhild Ahnert: In memory of our former Jewish students. In: Gerhild Ahnert, Frey Erich, Gusinde Horst (eds.): Festschrift 125 Years of Bad Kissingen Gymnasium 1871–1996. Bad Kissingen grammar school, Bad Kissingen 1996, DNB 949221546 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Beck: The shine of the Torah - evidence of Jewish life in Franconia. (= Publication accompanying the exhibition of the same name from November 10, 2004 to January 31, 2005 in the Bismarck Museum Bad Kissingen). City of Bad Kissingen, Bad Kissingen 2004, ISBN 978-3-934912-06-9 .
  • Cornelia Binder, Michael Mence: Neighbors of the Past - Traces of Germans of Jewish Faith in the Bad Kissingen district with the focus from 1800 to 1945. Binder, Wartmannsroth 2004, ISBN 978-3-00-014792-0 .

Weblinks

Commons : Judaism in Bad Kissingen - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Walter Mahr: History of the City of Bad Kissingen. A demolition. , Bad Kissingen 1959, p. 117
  2. ^ Zvi Baruch Ophir, Falk Wiesemann: The Jewish communities in Bavaria 1918–1945. History and Destruction , Munich, Vienna 1979, p. 262
  3. ^ " Saale-Zeitung ", November 17, 1934
  4. ^ Edi Hahn: Bad Kissingen: District Winkels 1247 - 1972, 725 years of village history by EDI HAHN , Bad Kissingen 1985, ISBN 3-925722-00-9 , p. 72f.
  5. ^ Edi Hahn: Bad Kissingen: District Winkels 1247 - 1972, 725 years of village history by EDI HAHN , Bad Kissingen 1985, ISBN 3-925722-00-9 , p. 95
  6. ^ A b Heinrich Hack: Garitz - Ein Heimatbuch , editor: Stadt Bad Kissingen, 1986, p. 77
  7. Thomas Ahnert, Peter Weidisch (ed.): 1200 years Bad Kissingen, 801-2001, facets of a city history . Festschrift for the anniversary year and accompanying volume for the exhibition of the same name. Special publication of the Bad Kissingen city archive. Verlag TA Schachenmayer, Bad Kissingen 2001, ISBN 3-929278-16-2 , p. 343
  8. ^ Sta Würzburg, "Gauleitung Mainfranken XII / 2"
  9. Jewish fellow citizens 1934–1945 . Documentation from the Bad Kissingen city archive.
  10. Baruch Zvi Ophir, Falk Wiesmann (ed.): The Jewish communities in Bavaria 1919-1945. History and destruction. Munich / Vienna 1979, p. 15.
  11. ^ " Main-Post " of June 3, 1989
  12. Jack Steinberger clearly relies on solar collectors - "Main-Post" from June 22, 2010
  13. Steinberger honors math aces - "Main-Post" from June 23, 2010
  14. Balloons and lectures: What Bad Kissingen set up to celebrate Jack Steinberger - “Main-Post” from June 5, 2011
  15. Bad Kissinger Stolpersteine ​​- News / Dates ( Memento of the original from April 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.badkissingen.de
  16. a b "Bad Kissinger Stolpersteine" - an initiative of citizens ( Memento of the original from March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.badkissingen.de
  17. "Torn from the statistics of horror - for the first time in Bad Kissingen there is now a stumbling block for a non-Jewish victim of the National Socialists" - "Main Post" article from August 13, 2013