Jewish community of Günzburg - Jüdische Gemeinde Günzburg

Münzgasse in Günzburg, former Judengasse
Margrave Karl von Burgau, copper engraving by Domenico Custos , after 1606

The history of the Jewish community in Günzburg , the district town of the district of Günzburg in the administrative district of Swabia (Bavaria) , began in the late Middle Ages and ended with the expulsion of the Jews in 1617.

story

The settlement of Jews in the Habsburg margraviate of Burgau was tolerated by the rulers . In 1475 the Jew Symon Leib was temporarily granted citizenship in Günzburg. In the second half of the 16th century the Jewish community experienced its economic climax. The residential quarter of the Jews was on the edge of the old town in today's Münzgasse and Eisenhausgasse, where the synagogue also stood.

Around 1560, the Jew Simon Günzburg , the most important lender in the region, left the city to settle in Frankfurt am Main . Günzburg was a financial center, but this was hampered by the prohibition of loans and pawn shops by surrounding gentlemen such as the Wettenhausen monastery . Margrave Karl von Burgau issued an order in 1616 that the interest could not exceed ten percent per year. Since the risk of the Jewish lenders was very high, the interest rate was below profitability .

In 1617, the Margrave Karl expelled all Jews from the royal seat of Günzburg. As a result, the surrounding places such as Ichenhausen , Hürben , Neuburg an der Kammel and Thannhausen saw a significant influx of Jews.

Since the Günzburg city administrator and the customs collector were still interested in income from the Jews' businesses, they were tolerated as traders at the weekly and annual markets .

The number of Jewish residents living in Günzburg in the 19th and early 20th centuries was very small. Today nothing in the city reminds of the Jewish community that was important centuries ago.

See also

literature

  • Wolfgang Wüst . The Habsburg period (1300–1805). In: Klaus Kraft: The Art Monuments of Swabia. District of Günzburg 1. City of Günzburg . ( The art monuments of Bavaria. Administrative region of Swabia. Vol. IX. District of Günzburg 1 - City of Günzburg ) R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-486-55211-2 , pp. 25-26.
  • Klaus-Dieter Alicke : Lexicon of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area. Volume 2: Großbock - Ochtendung. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2008, ISBN 978-3-579-08078-9 ( online version ).