Jewish community of Hürben - Jüdische Gemeinde Hürben

Memorial at the place where the synagogue stood

The Jewish community of Hürben was a Jewish community in Swabian Hürben that existed from 1675 to 1942 - since 1902 part of the city of Krumbach (Swabia) - in the district of Günzburg in Bavaria . It had 652 parishioners in 1840 and 123 in 1900. In 1938, all of Hürben's Jewish citizens still living there were initially taken to Günzburg prison. By 1941, 27 people had been able to emigrate, another 18 moved to other cities and the last 16 were deported from Hürben and murdered in 1942. Overall came in the time of National Socialism 38 Jews who were born in Hürben or Krumbach or who lived here for a long time.

story

Until 1933

In 1504 there were four Jewish families in Hürben. The community grew rapidly with the influx of Jews who were expelled from Donauwörth and Neuburg an der Kammel in 1518 and 1540, respectively . [1] Until the beginning of the 18th century, the center of Jewish life was in what is now the southern district of Günzburg in Thannhausen , despite the steadily increasing number of Jewish residents in Hürben . [2] However, this changed in 1717, were expelled the Jews from Thannhausen. Some of these Jews settled in Hürben and Ichenhausenin which there was also a Jewish community. As in nearby Ichenhausen, the proportion of Jewish citizens in the population of Hürben grew steadily until the middle of the 19th century. [3] In 1840 the number of citizens of the Jewish faith in Hürben was the highest with 652. [1] At that time, more than half of the residents Hürbens Jews. After that, a decline set in because, as in many other rural communities, many Jews moved to major German cities or emigrated overseas. In 1900 there were still 123 Jewish citizens in Hürben, which was still 10% of the population of Hürben, 25 years later there were 79.

Up until the beginning of the 19th century, Jews lived mainly from trading cattle and lending money. In the 19th century, many Jewish citizens opened trading houses, craft businesses and factories on site, which were of great economic importance for Hürben, Krumbach and the entire region until the 1930s. [1]

Due to the size of the Jewish community in Hürben, there were several Jewish associations in Hürben in the 19th century, such as the Israelite Women's Association , which had the task of supporting the sick in need, the Israelite Men's Association , which was responsible for nursing and burial, and the industrial association the aim of training apprentices in need, the Israelite wood distribution association, which distributed fuel to those in need, the Israelite association for holiday colonies and the local Zionist group . [1]

Jewish Cemetery

Jewish cemetery Hürben 2.JPG

Until 1628 the dead of the Hürben Jewish community were buried in the central Jewish cemetery in Burgau . The reason for this was that the bailiff of the Margraviate of Burgau prevented the Hürben Jews from setting up their own cemetery. [2] In 1628 the own cemetery was yet approved because residents fear the plague and other epidemics had. The new cemetery was then laid out in the Schelmenloh corridor halfway between Hürben and the Krumbad . Place Jewish cemetery Hürben . Almost 60 years later, in 1684, the cemetery was expanded. [4]In 1898 a Tahara house was built to wash and dress the dead.

See also: Hürben Jewish Cemetery

synagogue

The Hürben synagogue was built in 1675 . In the same year, 1675, the Hürbens Jewish community became an independent Jewish religious community that existed for 267 years until 1942. [3] In the years 1710 and 1765 the synagogue was expanded and completely rebuilt in Empire style in 1819 according to plans by Johann N. Salzgeber, who came from Buch bei Illertissen . [1] [3] The building from 1819 resembled the synagogue of Ichenhausen built by Joseph Dossenberger . [5] Like the latter, it was a hall building with arched windows and a small oneDome over the Torah shrine . The synagogue was renovated in 1872 and 1908. Place of memorial at the former site of the synagogue

See also: Synagogue (Hürben)

Other Jewish institutions

In 1787 the community received a Jewish school, but it soon became too small due to the growing number of students. Therefore, a new building was erected in the years 1830-31 for school, [3] which was canceled in the year 1964th [1] Also in the 1830s, the mikveh was built, which from the outside looked like a Babylonian gate. [5] The building has been used as a residential building since 1945 after extensive renovations. Both facilities, the school and the mikvah, were in today's Synagogengasse .

From 1902 to 1938, the Jewish association for holiday colonies and clothing for school children , based in Munich, maintained a children's recreation home in a house in what is now Brunnenstrasse , in which up to 60 children and young people could be accommodated. [2] [1] During the First World War it was temporarily used as a hospital for the wounded. [6]

National Socialist Persecution

Of the 65 Jewish citizens who lived in 1933 still in Krumbach, could emigrate 27 by the year 1941, another 18 moved to other cities and the last 16 were from Hürben out in 1942, deported and murdered. A total of 38 Jews who were born in Hürben or Krumbach or who lived here for a long time perished during the Nazi era [1] .

The memorial book of the Federal Archives lists 6 Jewish citizens born in Hürben who fell victim to the genocide of the National Socialist regime . [7]

After 1933 there were boycotts against Jews in Hürben . In addition, in the years up to 1938, windows were thrown from residential buildings and tombstones were knocked over in the Jewish cemetery. In the spring of 1938 the convalescent home for Jewish children had to be closed. After confiscating the building, the National Socialists set up a training facility for the National Socialist Air Corps . [6]

After the so-called Reichspogromnacht on November 10, 1938, all Jewish citizens of Hürben were taken to Günzburg prison, four of them immediately further to the Dachau concentration camp [3] . The following day the valuables were taken away from the synagogue by the Gestapo . A good year later, on November 26, 1939, the synagogue was set on fire by an unknown person. In the year between November 1938 and November 1939, the Wehrmacht used the building as a hay store. In 1940 the city of Krumbach bought the ruins of the synagogue at the behest of the Gauleitung , which was subsequently torn down by prisoners of war between September 1940 and December 1941.

After 1945

A DP camp for Polish Jews who were waiting to leave for Palestine or the United States was set up in the building of the former children's rest home. From October 1946 to 1951 a rabbinical college for Jewish theology students was housed in the building. [3] [6]

Traces of the Jewish community in Hürben are still visible today

The building of the Central Swabian Local History Museum in Krumbach
The Landauer house in Krumbach

Even today there are still many traces of this Jewish culture in Hürben. In addition to the Jewish cemetery, the memorial at the place where the synagogue stood or the street name of Synagogengasse , these are above all the former Jewish houses that still exist today with their characteristic building type in Central Swabia . This typical design is characterized by the fact that the houses on the eaves facing the street have a gable above the central entrance in the roof . The space in this gable was used as a leaf hut . [8] Fine examples of such houses are the Landauer House and the building of the Middle Swabian Local History Museumwhich has been used as such since 1950. Other former Jewish houses with this design can be found in Brunnenstrasse , Burgauer Strasse , Heinrich-Sinz-Strasse , Hohlstrasse , Hürbener Strasse and Karl-Mantel-Strasse (→ see also: List of architectural monuments in Krumbach (Schwaben ) ).

A leaf hut has been reconstructed in the Central Swabian Local History Museum. In addition, the museum shows the few evidence of the former Jewish culture of Hürben that is in the collection.

Personalities

[2][1]

  • Hedwig Lachmann (1865–1918) writer, translator and poet; she was buried in the Jewish cemetery of Hürben; her husband Gustav Landauer was the public enlightenment officer during the Bavarian Soviet Republic in April 1919;
  • Schmuel Landauer, orientalist and until the end of the First World War professor at the University of Strasbourg
  • Lazarus Morgenthau, cigar dealer well known far beyond European borders;
  • Heinrich Thannhauser , founded the Modern Gallery in Munich for works by early expressionists and works by Pablo Picasso , Thannhauser's art collection is now in the Guggenheim Museum in New York ;
  • Landauer family, successful family of business people; In the house the family now houses the costume advice center of the region of Swabia ;
  • Neuburger family, well-known cattle and horse dealer family; The family's house was bought by the city of Krumbach in 1938 and has housed the Middle Swabian Local History Museum since 1950 [9] ;

Others

In contrast to Hürben, Jews in Krumbach were neither allowed to build nor buy houses [10] . However, there was one exception. Isaias Weiskopf was allowed to open a bank in a house on Gesundbrunnenplatz that was previously a branch of an Augsburg bank.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i page about the Hürben synagogue at alemannia-judaica.de
  2. a b c d page about the Jewish community of Hürben ( Memento of the original from February 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@2Vorlage: Webachiv / IABot / ikg-bayern.de
  3. a b c d e f Ullmann, FG, (Photos: Huber, M. & Huber, M.) 1992: Krumbach - Pictures from the city and the country in Central Swabia. - Müller Druck und Verlag, Krumbach, 157 pp.
  4. ^ Page about the Jewish cemetery in Hürben at alemannia-judaica.de
  5. a b von Hagen, B. & Wegener-Hüssen, A. 2004: Monuments in Bavaria - Günzburg district - ensembles, architectural monuments, archaeological monuments. - Ed .: Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich, ISBN 3-87490-589-6 , 600 pages (p. 230 f.)
  6. ^ A b c Newspaper article: "Quarter of a million euros for a new home" from the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung - Mittelschwäbische Nachrichten of January 10, 2009
  7. ^ Commemorative Book - Victims of the Persecution of Jews under the National Socialist Tyranny in Germany 1933 - 1945 . Retrieved November 8, 2009.
  8. Page about Krumbach on the website juedisches-schwaben-netzwerk.de ( Memento of the original from September 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.juedisches-schwaben-netzwerk.de
  9. ^ Page of the Mittelschwäbisches Heimatmuseum about the history of the museum ( Memento of the original from November 23, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.museum.krumbach.de
  10. Newspaper article "Jews have shaped Hürben" from the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung - Mittelschwäbische Nachrichten of November 9, 2009 ( page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@2Template: Toter Link / www.augsburger-allgemeine.de Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.

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