Jewish victims of National Socialism (Nettetal) - Jüdische Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Nettetal)

The group of Jewish victims of National Socialism in Nettetal includes around 200 people of the Jewish faith who, at the beginning of the 1930s, had a relationship with the present-day city, that is, with the places Breyell , Hinsbeck , Kaldenkirchen , Leuth , Lobberich or Schaag , because they were here were born or lived, were married to one of the citizens or their son or daughter. Only two of them returned from the concentration camps after the end of the Nazi dictatorship ; most of the rest had been murdered by the National Socialists[1] , a minority had been able to save themselves by fleeing to America.

Stumbling blocks have been laid here in recent years for 66 of the Jewish citizens who became victims of National Socialism and who had their last voluntary residence in the area of ​​the city of Nettetal .

Novemberpogrom

The attacks and crimes summarized under the term Reichspogromnacht began in the district town of Kempen on the morning of November 10, 1938. The orders sent the night before via the command structures in the NSDAP and SA on the one hand and the security police (consisting of the criminal police and Gestapo ) on the other had already been issued was implemented in the early morning, so that the specific order to burn down the synagogue was given around 8:45 am and could then be implemented quickly due to a local peculiarity [2]: The Kempen employment office has long served as an unofficial base of the SA, whose leadership went to the head of the employment office, who in turn understood the message as an instruction and reacted as requested: he ordered all SA men employed in the employment office to come and sent them home, to put on their uniforms and then to go to the police station in the mayor's office for a Jewish action .

In the places that make up today's city of Nettetal, the pogrom did not begin until the evening of November 10th. The reasons are to be found in the lack of centralization of the SA, which prevented action as in Kempen, but not in a lack of SA men - contrary to reports that emerged in the post-war period and are still rumored today, the pogrom had to do with it the arrival of foreign thugs cannot be waited for: from 1948 onwards, 14 men from the city of Kaldenkirchen alone had to answer before the Krefeld district court, nine of whom were sentenced to prison terms. [3]

The goals of the SA thugs were given: the two synagogues in Breyell and Kaldenkirchen (which were to be burned down) as well as the Jewish apartments (which were only to be "searched" with the support of the police) and shops, of which there were not many, however, since the regional Jews had mostly worked as cattle dealers (and the cattle trade had been forbidden to them from the beginning of 1937 through harassment and for a few months also legally). Only in Kaldenkirchen could one find more than one shop that was run by Jews.

The Breyeller Synagogue, which was inaugurated in October 1910, burned down that evening. Little is known how the destruction took place, the only thing certain is that it was arson. After the war, as part of reparations, the following was stated: “By order of the state authorities, the municipality had to take care of the removal of the rubble; the costs of the clearing, which amount to 398.01 RM, were to be charged to the property owner. There Klaber[This refers to the heirs of Jacob Klaber, who had the property for the synagogue available] would hardly be able to pay the amount if he was asked several times in 1939, under threat of compulsory debt enforcement, to transfer the property to the community of Breyell, offsetting the costs cede. The purchase act was made on March 20, 1940 ... and a purchase price of 300 RM was set, which was covered by the expenses incurred by the community. " [4]

The Synagogue in Kaldenkirchen was inaugurated in July 1873, it was renovated in 1923 and also destroyed during the November pogrom. There are no contemporary reports on the destruction of the Kaldenkirchen synagogue. It was only after the war that it became known what had happened here in November 1938. A former SA man gave before the denazification committee in 1948On the record: “On November 10th, 1938 I received the order from Sturmführer H []… to destroy the synagogue in Kaldenkirchen. From the SA home, we went ... to the synagogue. The tool for this was taken. When I got there, I was ordered to climb the ladder and climb onto the roof. We then threw down some roof tiles to clear the roof structure. I then sawed through the support beams. The roof structure was then brought down. The whole action lasted from 7.15pm to 9.45pm. After this destruction we went back to the SA home as one. Four troops were divided up there, who then had to destroy the Jewish businesses, which was also carried out ... " [5]

There is a statement made two years earlier about the destruction of the Jewish shops and apartments: “After the synagogue was demolished, everyone involved went to the SA home. Here the troops were redistributed by Sturmbannführer J [] and Sturmführer H [] with the task of smashing the Jews' facilities. I received this order for the Jewish apartments from Jakob H [] and Gustav S []. From the SA home we first went to H []. We smashed part of the furniture there. Nothing happened to the Jews. From there we went to S [] in Steylerstr. The whole business facility was smashed there. I still remember very well that I smashed a sewing machine. I would also like to say that I took special care that nothing was stolen. After we finished our mission[6] Contrary to the statements of the perpetrators, there were not only smashed furnishings in the robberies, but actually also injured people and as a result even deaths, the accumulation and causes of which can be seen in the systematic persecution in the weeks before: [7]

  • One week after the pogrom, the Lion family was attacked again by the SA on Fährstrasse. With the words “You didn't get anything, now let's clean up here!” They stormed the apartment and destroyed the facility. During this attack, the 76-year-old Bertha Lion jumped out of a window on the upper floor of her house and broke her thigh. She has been unable to walk since then.
  • A week after this attack, on November 28, 1938, the 74-year-old Gustav Sanders , who lived in the same apartment, died of a heart attack.
  • His sister Julia Hoffstadt , 79 years old, died again a week later, on December 4, 1938.
  • The 87-year-old, bedridden widow Eva Sanders was hit in the head by a stone that SA men had thrown to smash the window panes during the attack on her stepson Sally's apartment in Lobberich; she died on December 23, 1938 from the consequences of the injuries suffered.
  • Master butcher Simon Defries , 83 years old, who fell down a flight of stairs during the pogrom, died on January 2, 1939.

Internment in Dachau

During the pogrom, most of the male and under 65-year-old Jews were taken into “ protective custodyas ordered . [8] On the following day, Friday, November 11th, the arrested persons were taken to the Anrath prison near Krefeld . On the following Wednesday, November 16, 1938, the under 55-year-olds were driven in trucks to Duisburg main station (the older ones were released home), where they boarded a special train of the Reichsbahn, whose destination was the Dachau concentration campwas. “Gestapo officers come along as guards, provided with provisions for 12 hours as a precaution. As far as the Jewish inmates are concerned, however, the Gestapo instruction reads: No food for the march is to be taken for the inmates. "

Among the internees were 17 Jews from Nettetal; They were released after a few weeks or months, if they had survived the concentration camp, and after they had been made clear that in this wave of arrests all about intimidation, looting and finally the expulsion of the Jews from the Reich had gone . [9]

  1. Siegfried Bamberger , born June 7th, 1884 in Neidenstein , worker in Mönchengladbach , husband of Regina Rebekka Levy from Breyell, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17th, 1938 to December 1st, 1938
  2. Abraham Cohen , born October 30, 1889 in Kaldenkirchen, cattle dealer in Kaldenkirchen, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 22, 1938
  3. Simon Harf , born on November 3, 1905 in Beckrath , worker in Kaldenkirchen, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to February 11, 1939
  4. Kurt Höflich , born on September 20, 1902 in Breyell, businessman in Breyell, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to February 9, 1939
  5. Fritz Klaber , born on November 6, 1904 in Breyell, assistant in Breyell, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to February 16, 1939
  6. Hermann Levy , born on December 9, 1909 in Breyell, cattle dealer in Korschenbroich , imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 29, 1938
  7. Emil Levy , born March 6, 1909 Breyell, farmer in Breyell, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938, died there on February 9, 1939
  8. Max Levy , born on August 27, 1907 in Breyell, cattle dealer in Breyell, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to February 23, 1939
  9. Max Lion , born on February 4, 1905 in Kaldenkirchen, merchant in Kaldenkirchen, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to January 10, 1939
  10. Berthold Mosheim , born on May 25, 1904 in Adorf , lawyer in Düsseldorf, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 5, 1938
  11. Albert Sanders , born on June 17, 1895 in Kaldenkirchen, butcher in Kaldenkirchen, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to January 18, 1939
  12. Isaak Sanders , born on July 19, 1895 in Kaldenkirchen, lived in Süchteln and imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 15, 1938
  13. Sally Sanders , born on February 7, 1885 in Lobberich, butcher in Lobberich, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938, her release is not recorded
  14. Siegfried Sanders , born on January 24, 1903 in Kaldenkirchen, merchant in Kaldenkirchen, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 22, 1938
  15. Sally Simon , born March 7, 1907 in Kaldenkirchen, worker in Kaldenkirchen, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to February 4, 1939
  16. Arthur Zanders , born January 8, 1884 in Lobberich, farmer in Lobberich, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 29, 1938
  17. Otto Zanders , born on September 21, 1886 in Lobberich, agricultural worker in Lobberich, imprisoned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 29, 1938

“The measure is intended to increase the pressure to emigrate on German Jews. This is particularly evident from the fact that some of those arrested will only be released after they have presented their emigration papers. The release from the concentration camp must be carried out externally, usually by the relatives ... If your application is successful, you must transfer the money for the return trip of the released person to the concentration camp. " [10]

  • The Klaber family managed to get Fritz Klaber a forged visa for the Dominican Republic , which was accepted in Dachau, whereupon he was released. He fled to the Netherlands, where he was later interned, went into hiding after a second escape and survived the war; his family lives in Israel
  • Hermann Levy fled to England in February 1939 and from there to the USA; his family lives in New York
  • Max Lion's wife presented her husband with a certificate stating that he had a visa for immigration to the USA - but this visa had such a high number that he could not go to New York for the time being due to a quota system; in fact, the visa never came into effect, so that he was later deported to the Riga ghetto
  • Berthold Mosheim emigrated to England with his family in May 1939. His family lives in London
  • Albert Sanders managed to escape to Haiti in 1939 and later lived in New York
  • Siegfried Sanders fled to Haiti in 1939 and later lived in California

One of the Dachau prisoners (Emil Levy) was already murdered there, five fled abroad after their release (Fritz Klaber, Hermann Levy, Berthold Mosheim, Albert Sanders, Siegfried Sanders), one was taken to the Litzmannstadt ghetto (until April 1940 Łódź ) deported (Isaak Sanders), one to the Sobibor extermination camp (Siegfried Bamberger), and nine were deported to the Riga Ghetto in 1942 (Abraham Cohen, Simon Harf,Kurt Höflich, Max Levy, Max Lion, Sally Sanders, Sally Simon, Arthur Zanders, Otto Zanders) - only one of them, Sally Sanders, returned after the end of the war.

Deportations to the Litzmannstadt ghetto

In the second half of October 1941, deportations were carried out from the Rhine Province (including the Saar area and Luxembourg ) to the Litzmannstadt ghetto: on October 16 from Trier and Luxembourg (512/560 people), on October 22 from Cologne (1018), on October 27 October 1941 from Düsseldorf (1011/983) and on October 30th again from Cologne (973/1011). [11] These transports are considered to be the "beginning of the systematic deportation of the Jewish population from the German Reich". [12]

The Jews who were to be deported from Düsseldorf had to report to the Düsseldorf slaughterhouse and cattle yard the day before, on Sunday, October 26, 1941, where they spent the night. The next day, on Monday, October 27, 1941, they were deported from the nearby Düsseldorf-Derendorf train station to the Litzmannstadt ghetto. Here they arrived on October 28, 1941. [13]

Among these Jews was a family who lived in Kaldenkirchen until 1936, then in Süchteln and from 1939 in Düsseldorf:

  1. Isaak Sanders , born on 19 July 1895 in Kaldenkirchen [14]
  2. Sophia Sanders née Baum , born November 26, 1901 in Süchteln [14]
  3. Erich Sanders , born on May 29, 1930 in Kaldenkirchen [14]

Isaak Sanders starved to death on July 8, 1942 in Litzmannstadt, Sophia Sanders died here of "heart failure" on September 7, 12-year-old Erich Sanders was taken to the Kulmhof extermination camp four days later and gassed there.

Deportations to Minsk in 1941

Between November 11 and December 5, 1941, around 7,000 Jews were deported to the Minsk ghetto in seven trains from Hamburg , Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main , Berlin , Brno , Bremen and Vienna .

The deportation of 993 Jews from Düsseldorf began on Monday, November 10, 1941, from the Düsseldorf-Derendorf train station, and ended after many interruptions on Saturday, November 15, 1941 in the Minsk ghetto . The captain of the Ordnungspolizei Wilhelm Meurin (1906–1944) noted: "The Jews were quite soft at this time, as the train had often remained unheated and, especially since entering Russian territory, there was no more possibility of getting water ..." [ 15]

Five of the Nettetal Jews who lived in Düsseldorf were affected:

  1. Eva Cohen , born on August 20, 1887 in Kaldenkirchen, worker [16]
  2. Karolina Isaac née Moses , born September 24, 1884 in Kaldenkirchen, seamstress [17]
  3. Fritz Isaac , born on February 6, 1896 in Düsseldorf, probably her husband [17]
  4. Sally Moser , born on September 24, 1884 in Kaldenkirchen, upholsterer [18]
  5. Jenny Moser née Heidt , born on June 17, 1892 in Warburg [18]

The fate of these five people is not known, they are missing and almost certainly were murdered.

On Friday, November 14th, 1941, a transport went from Berlin-Grunewald train station to Minsk, the 5th "Osttransport" (DA 54), with which Johanna Wreschinski, born in Berlin , was born on July 20th, 1896 in Kaldenkirchen , was deported. Heinrich Wreschinski and Helga Wreschinski were deported with her , her husband and daughter. The transport reached Minsk on Tuesday, November 18th. Their fate is also unknown, and it can be assumed that they were also murdered. [19] [20]

Deportation to Riga

In December 1941, almost 2000 Jews under 65 years of age were deported from the Rhineland to Riga in two transports. The first transport left Cologne on December 7th with 1,011 Jews, the second on December 11th with 1007 Jews from Düsseldorf. [21]

On December 10, 1941, the under 65-year-old Jews from today's Nettetal were taken to the streets because they were no longer supposed to step on the sidewalks. They too were brought to the slaughterhouse in Düsseldorf; 124 Jews from the Kempen district were brought together here: [22]“We stood in the wet hall for about 24 hours. Each individual was subjected to a body search, and all valuable items, double underwear and all luggage and all papers were taken from him. The next morning we stood for hours at a Düsseldorf freight yard. The children lay in the snow and cried. Our special train finally left for Riga. We were on the road for 3 days [from December 11th to 13th] in an unheated train without water or food. In the evening we arrived in Riga and were only unloaded the next morning when it was 40 ° cold - Skirotava freight yard. " [23]

43 Jews from Nettetal were deported to Riga:

  1. Jakob Cahn , born on November 3rd, 1877 in Sindorf , unskilled worker [24]
  2. Rosa Cahn née Sanders , born on June 11, 1891 in Kaldenkirchen [24]
  3. Walter Cahn , born on September 28, 1924 Kaldenkirchen, gardener [24]
  4. Else Cohen née Levy , born on April 8, 1900 in Breyell, without a job [24]
  5. Abraham Cohen , born October 31, 1889 in Kaldenkirchen, Melker [25]
  6. Johanna Devries , born on January 9, 1880 in Goch [26]
  7. Emil Goldbach , born on November 22nd, 1892 in Brackel near Dortmund , construction assistant [27]
  8. Selma Goldbach née Strauss , born on April 4, 1890 in Herschbach [27]
  9. Simon Harf , born on November 3rd, 1905 in Beckrath , unskilled worker (there were 22 people named Harf in the transport, all of whom can be assigned to the Simons family) [28]
  10. Lina Harf née Sanders , born on November 18, 1906 in Kaldenkirchen, housewife [28]
  11. Ruth Harf , born on March 1, 1938 in Kaldenkirchen [28]
  12. Albert Harf , born on June 7, 1887 in Beckrath, without a job [29]
  13. Adele Harf née Zanders , born on October 19, 1888 in Lobberich, without a job [29]
  14. Erich Hoffstadt , born April 1, 1923 in Straelen, cattle keeper (with his parents Samuel (1886) and Helene née Simon (1887), and his siblings Emil (1928) and Frieda (1931)) [30]
  15. Ernst Höflich , born on September 20, 1902 in Breyell, unskilled worker (correct: Curt Höflich ) [30]
  16. Irma Höflich née Marx , born June 11, 1906 in Rachtik , housewife [30]
  17. Regina Höflich , born June 8, 1898 in Breyell, seamstress [30]
  18. Grete Kaufmann , born on November 13, 1885 in Dortmund ( Margarete Kaufmann nee Kahn ) [31]
  19. Ilse Klaber née Kaufmann , born June 29, 1911 in Kornelimünster , seamstress [32]
  20. Gerda Klaber , born on December 17, 1936 in Aachen (correct: Werner Klaber ) [32]
  21. Jettchen Levy , born March 5, 1904 in Breyell, seamstress [33]
  22. Erna Levy née Bloch , born on April 6, 1912 in Dortmund [33]
  23. Max Levy , born on August 17, 1907 in Breyell, civil engineering worker [33]
  24. Hilde Levy née Klein , born on January 4, 1911 in Korschenbroich, without a job [34]
  25. Max Lion , born on February 4, 1905 in Kaldenkirchen, worker [35]
  26. Elisabeth Lion née Jaffé , born on December 27, 1909 in Aachen, without a job [35]
  27. Hedwig Lion , born on May 14, 1932 in Kaldenkirchen, without a job [35]
  28. Max Rosenthal , born on November 18, 1885 in Waltrop , construction worker [36]
  29. Martha Rosenthal née Stern , born on January 31, 1889 in Lobberich, without a job [36]
  30. Helene Rothenstein née Hoffstedt , born on December 24, 1874 in Kaldenkirchen, without a job [36]
  31. Sally Sanders , born on January 18, 1904 in Lobberich, cigar maker [37]
  32. Henny Sanders née Leven , born November 24, 1904 in Wickrath , without a job [37]
  33. Sally Sanders , born February 7, 1885 in Lobberich, worker [37]
  34. Minna Sanders née Sanders , born on April 12, 1898 in Straelen , without a job [37]
  35. Sally Simon , born March 7, 1907 in Kaldenkirchen, worker [38]
  36. Otto Zanders , born November 21, 1886 in Lobberich, worker [39]
  37. Johanna Zanders née Strauss , born on April 29, 1891 in Herschbach, without a job [39]
  38. Bruno Zanders , born on April 13, 1931 in Lobberich, without a job [39]
  39. Arthur Zanders , born January 8, 1884 in Lobberich, worker [40]
  40. Thekla Zanders , born October 18, 1893 in Kirchseiffen , without a job [40]
  41. Ilse Zanders , born on October 31, 1921 in Lobberich, housemaid [40]
  42. Helga Zanders , born April 25, 1927 in Lobberich, seamstress [40]
  43. Helene Zanders , born November 7th, 1892 in Lobberich, seamstress [40]

The transport of December 11, 1941 was accompanied by police officer Paul Salitter and described from the point of view of the authorities ("Salitter report"). [41]

The ghetto in Riga was dissolved on November 2, 1943, and from June 1943 the survivors were taken to the Riga-Kaiserwald concentration camp, which was established in March 1943 to hold Jewish residents of the occupied Baltic territories.

34 of the 43 Nettetal Jews were murdered in Riga, including all children, adolescents and young adults (Walter Cahn, Ruth Harf, Erich Hoffstadt, Werner Klaber, Hedwig Lion, Bruno Zanders, Ilse Zanders and Helga Zanders). Six survived Riga and were taken to the Stutthof concentration camp and murdered there (Else Cohen, Adele Harf, Irma Höflich, Erna Levy, Minna Sanders and Helene Zanders). Arthur Zanders was murdered in Auschwitz, Max Lion died on the run, only Elisabeth Lion survived both Riga and Stutthof and returned.

Deportations to Izbica

On March 24, 1942, 989 Jews were deported from Nuremberg to the Izbica ghetto , a transit ghetto for the extermination camps, especially Belzec and Sobibor. The train reached Izbica on March 27th. Among the deportees were Selma Männlein, née Sander , born on January 13, 1889 in Hinsbeck, as well as Max Männlein and Therese Männlein , probably her husband and daughter. [42]

On April 22, 1942, a train with 942/842 Jews from the Rhineland left Düsseldorf with the Izbica ghetto as its destination, which was reached on April 24, 1942. [43]

Among the deportees on April 22nd were eight Jews from Nettetal, who last lived in Essen, Krefeld or Mönchengladbach:

  1. Regine Rebekka Bamberger née Levy , born on January 11, 1877 in Breyell
  2. Siegfried Bamberger , born on June 7, 1884 in Neidenstein
  3. Günther Grunewald , born on March 3, 1923 in Kaldenkirchen
  4. Charlotte Rollmann born Sanders , born on October 26, 1885 in Boxmeer
  5. Salomon Rollmann , born on June 15, 1884 in Herzebrock
  6. Siegmund Zanders , born on August 4, 1882 in Lobberich
  7. Maria Anna Zanders née Bähr , born on July 18, 1886 in Heinsberg
  8. Helmut Hermann Zanders , born on March 21, 1923 in Lobberich

The Jews deported to Izbica in April 1942 were brought to Sobibor or Belzec in the same year and murdered there.

On June 15, 1942, 1003 Jews were deported from Koblenz, Cologne and Düsseldorf on the “Da 22” transport to Izbica, which was reached on June 19: “After the“ selection ”on a siding in Lublin, around 100 men were initially expelled brought to the Majdanek camp by transport "Da 22" . Presumably, the train was then directed directly to Sobibor without touching the through ghetto of Izbica beforehand. ” [44] Here the deportees were probably murdered immediately. [45]

Among the victims were three Jewish families related to Nettetal, who last lived in Essen, Kaldenkirchen or Krefeld:

  1. Wilhelmine Ehrenbaum née Sanders , born on November 2, 1893 in Kaldenkirchen
  2. Hermann Ehrenbaum , born on April 13, 1886 in Ticino (near Rostock)
  3. Ernst Grunewald , born on September 5, 1894 in Kaldenkirchen
  4. Johanna Grunewald née Servos , born on May 2, 1892 in Anrath
  5. Hans Grunewald , born on June 13, 1926 in Kaldenkirchen
  6. Emil Simon , born on July 16, 1876 in Krefeld
  7. Friederika Simon née Sanders , born on April 24, 1878 in Kaldenkirchen

Deportations to Minsk in 1942

“Following the wave of deportations between March and May 1942 to the transit camps of the Lublin district in the Generalgouvernement , in June and July 1942 all transports from Germany that did not go to Theresienstadtwent to Sobibor in the first half of June, then to Auschwitz and Minsk, with a high probability of being led directly to extermination. So left only a few days after the two collective transports on July 11th and July 13th. with Jewish people from all over Germany in the direction of Auschwitz on July 20. a third transport from Cologne in the direction of Minsk to murder the people displaced in it immediately after arriving at their destination. […] The arrival of the transport train, consisting of one passenger car and 31 freight cars, is announced by the railroad on July 24th. Confirmed at 5.45 a.m. […] On the same day, on July 24, 1942, the people from the Cologne transport [in the Maly Trostinez killing site near Minsk ] were murdered. This comes from the 'activity report' of the SS-Unterscharführer groupArlt from 3.8. in which it says: 'On July 21, 22 and 23 new pits are dug. On July 24th Another transport with 1,000 Jews from the Reich arrives here again. From July 25th until 7/27 new pits are dug. On 7/28 Major campaign in the Minsk Russian ghetto. 6000 Jews are brought to the pit. On July 29th 3000 German Jews are brought to the pit. The next few days were again filled with cleaning weapons and repairing things. '" [46]

Among the victims was Helene Herz née Sanders , born on June 7, 1890 in Kaldenkirchen, with her husband Alexander and their children Frieda and Günther .

Deportation to Theresienstadt

On June 15, 1942, the deportations of the over 65-year-old Jews from the Rhine Province to the Theresienstadt ghetto began . By the end of July more than 4,000 Jews were deported in four transports: on June 15 from Cologne (963), on July 21 from Düsseldorf (965), on July 25 from Aachen and Düsseldorf (980) and on July 27 from Luxembourg, Trier, Koblenz and Cologne (1165); the transports reached Theresienstadt on the same day, the next day at the latest. [47] The last Nettetal Jews boarded the July 25 transport in Düsseldorf, which brought them to Theresienstadt on July 26.

The Theresienstadt ghetto was set up as a prison in 1940 and expanded into a transit and transit camp at the end of 1941. At the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, Theresienstadt was designated as an “old age ghetto” for Jews from Germany over 65 years of age.

  1. Robert Grunewald , born on July 31, 1867 in Kaldenkirchen, Krefeld, Neußer Str. 63 [48]
  2. Jacob Hoffstadt , born on March 14, 1871 in Kaldenkirchen, Straelen, Adolf-Hitler-St. 24
  3. Karl Höflich , born on June 1, 1872 in Breyell, Breyell
  4. Lisette Höflich was born on July 23, 1864 in Bracht, Breyell
  5. Babette Klaber née Lichtenfeld , born on February 27, 1872 in Hochhausen , Breyell, Gier 29 [49]
  6. Abraham Levy , born on October 25, 1871 in Breyell, Breyell, Vorbruch [50]
  7. Josef Levy , born on March 28, 1866 in Breyell, Breyell, Gier [50]
  8. Berta Levy née Levy , born on January 2, 1872 in Meiningen , Breyell, Gier 29 [50]
  9. Emma Levy née Sassen , born on February 21, 1869 in Anrath, Breyell, Gier 19 (correct: Gier 29) [50]
  10. Friederike Levy , born on July 23, 1860 in Breyell, Breyell, Vorbruch [50]
  11. Ida Levy nee Krebs , born July 1, 1881 in Reichenberg , Breyell, Vorbruch 3 [51]
  12. Karl Levy , born March 12, 1870 in Breyell, Breyell, Vulture 29 [51]
  13. Pauline Levy née Kleemann , born on April 6, 1872 in Theilheim , Breyell, Gier 29 [51]
  14. Rosina Levy née Krebs , born on May 24, 1869 in Reichenberg, Breyell, Vorbruch 3 [51]
  15. Salomon Levy , born on November 19, 1869 in Bracht, Grefrath, Bahnstr. 14 [52]
  16. Samuel Levy , born on July 19, 1869 in Breyell, Breyell, Vorbruch 3 [52]
  17. Bertha Lion née Sanders , born on December 14, 1861 in Kaldenkirchen, Kaldenkirchen, Adolf-Hitler-Platz 3 [52]
  18. Jakob Lion , born on October 28, 1865 in Kaldenkirchen, Kaldenkirchen, Adolf-Hitler-Platz 3 [53]
  19. Johanna Sanders , born on April 15, 1887 in Boxmeer , Kaldenkirchen, Adolf-Hitler-Platz 3 [54]
  20. Josef Sanders , born on February 23, 1867 in Kaldenkirchen, Straelen, Adolf-Hitler-Str. 24 [54]
  21. Johanna Sanders née Abraham , born on March 28, 1870 in Worpswede , Straelen, Adolf-Hitler-Str. 24 [54]

The 21 Nettetal Jews deported to Theresienstadt were all murdered in Theresienstadt (4), Treblinka (14) or finally Auschwitz (3), none of them returned:

  • On September 21, 1942, people from Theresienstadt were brought to Treblinka with the transport "Bp" 2020; the transport probably reached the extermination camp on September 23. The prisoners were murdered immediately upon arrival. Among them were: Jacob Hoffstadt, Josef Sanders, Johanna Sanders nee Abraham, Abraham Levy, Rosina Levy nee Krebs, Salomon Levy, Jacob Lion and Bertha Lion nee Levy.
  • On September 26, 1942, people from Theresienstadt were brought to Treblinka on the transport "Br" 2004; the transport probably reached the extermination camp on September 28. The prisoners were murdered immediately upon arrival. Among them were: Lisette Höflich, Josef Levy, Emma Levy nee Sassen, Carl Levy, Samuel Levy and Ida Levy nee Krebs [55]
  • The following were murdered in Theresienstadt: Berta Levy née Levy (on August 6, 1942), Friederike Levy (on September 12, 1942), Robert Grunewald (on February 4, 1943) and Babette Klaber, née Lichtenfeld (on March 13, 1944).
  • The following were murdered in Auschwitz: Johanna Sanders (deportation of 2,000/2929 people on January 23, 1943 with the transport "Cr", arrival in Auschwitz on January 24) and Carl Höflich and Pauline Levy, née Kleemann (deportation of 2,503 people on January 15, 1943). May 1944 with the transport "Dz", arrival in Auschwitz on May 16). [56]

Emanuel Hofstadt from Straelen, who was born on May 5, 1864 in Kaldenkirchen, and most recently on Adolf-Hitler-Str. 24 lived, should also be deported with this transport, but he died a good week before, on July 16, 1942, probably of natural causes. [57]

Internment of the Jews who fled to the Netherlands

The Dutch Jews and the German Jews who had fled to the Netherlands were interned in one of five concentration camps in the Netherlands in order to deport them to the extermination camps, unless they had fled (again) or were able to hide successfully. Among them were 23 Jews with ties to Nettetal, of whom 22 were held in the Westerbork transit camp and one in the Herzogenbusch concentration camp ; two died before the deportation, 15 were deported and murdered in Auschwitz or Sobibor, one escaped and survived, three were liberated in Theresienstadt, and one survived Auschwitz but died three years after the end of the war from the aftermath, one survived Auschwitz and the concentration camp Mittelbau-Dora and returned.

  1. Emmy Bonn née Leyens , born on August 11, 1888 in Schwanenberg , murdered in Sobibor
  2. Walter Bonn , born on June 5, 1912 in Kaldenkirchen, murdered in Auschwitz
  3. Hermine Bonn née Hertz , born on December 13, 1918 in Voorburg , murdered in Auschwitz
  4. Hans Günter Bonn , born on July 30, 1921 in Kaldenkirchen, deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz in 1942, survivor, died in 1948 as a result of experiments that were carried out on him
  5. Henriette Defries née Holländer , born on September 15, 1865 in Eschweiler , murdered in the Vught transit camp
  6. Johanna Hirsch née Levy , born on December 8, 1874 in Breyell, murdered in Auschwitz
  7. Max Hirsch , born February 8, 1873 in Rommerskirchen , murdered in Auschwitz
  8. Jacques Keizer , born on March 25, 1878 in Venlo , murdered in Westerbork
  9. Regina Keizer née Bonn , born March 1, 1880 in Bracht , murdered in Auschwitz
  10. Paul Simon Keizer , born on June 29, 1909 in Kaldenkirchen, deported from Westerbork to Theresienstadt in 1944, survivor
  11. Mira Keizer née Glücks , born on May 3, 1923 in Slunj , deported from Westerbork to Theresienstadt in 1944, survivor
  12. Nada Keizer , born on December 24, 1942 in Amsterdam , deported from Westerbork to Theresienstadt in 1944, survivor
  13. Rosetta Keizer , born July 23, 1911 in Kaldenkirchen, murdered in Auschwitz
  14. Fritz Klaber , born on November 6, 1904 in Breyell, interned in Westerbork, fled, survivor
  15. Julius Sanders , born on May 18, 1898 in Kaldenkirchen, murdered in Auschwitz
  16. Frieda Sanders née Goldschmitt , born on September 6th in 1910 Essen, murdered in Auschwitz
  17. Hermann Sanders , born on October 17, 1885 in Kaldenkirchen, murdered in Auschwitz
  18. Jenny Sanders , born June 1, 1892 in Grefrath , murdered in Westerbork
  19. Rolf Sanders , born on September 11, 1920 in Grefrath, murdered in Auschwitz
  20. Helga Sanders , born November 8, 1923 in Grefrath, murdered in Auschwitz
  21. Walter Sanders , born on October 7, 1925 in Lobberich, in 1944/45 in Auschwitz and in Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp , survivor
  22. Edith Sanders , born March 5, 1928 in Lobberich, murdered in Auschwitz
  23. Egon Sanders , born March 5, 1928 in Lobberich, murdered in Auschwitz

With the transport from

  • August 10, 1942, 559 people - 288 men and boys, 271 women and girls - were brought to Auschwitz, including Frieda Sanders; they arrived in Auschwitz on August 11th. After the "selection", 164 men and 131 women were registered as prisoners; the other 264 people are killed in the gas chambers. [58] Frieda Sanders probably survived the first selection and was only later murdered. She was declared dead on September 27, 1942.
  • On September 28, 1942, 610 people were brought to Auschwitz, among them Ralf and Helga Sanders; they arrived in Auschwitz on September 30, 1942. 119 women and 37 men are taken as prisoners; the other 454 people are killed in the gas chambers. [59] Ralf and Helga Sanders were murdered immediately and later pronounced dead on September 30, 1942.
  • On October 19, 1942 1,327 people were brought to Auschwitz, including Max and Johanna Hirsch, Edith and Egon Sanders; they arrived in Auschwitz on October 21, 1942. After the "" selection "", 497 men are registered as prisoners; the other 830 people are murdered in the gas chambers. [60] Max and Johanna Hirsch, as well as Edith and Egon Sanders, were among those who were immediately murdered; they were later pronounced dead on October 22, 1942.
  • May 25, 1943, 2,862 people were brought to Sobibor, including Emmy Bonn; they arrived in Sobibor on May 28, 1943, Emmy Bonn was murdered immediately and later pronounced dead on May 28, 1943.
  • January 18, 1944, 870 people were deported to Theresienstadt, including Hermann Sanders; they arrived in Theresienstadt on January 20, 1944. [61] Hermann Sanders was brought to Auschwitz on May 16, 1944, murdered there and later pronounced dead on July 7, 1944. [62]
  • On April 5, 1944, 289 people were brought to Theresienstadt; they arrived on April 7, 1944. Among them were Paul Simon, Mira and Nada Keizer; all three were liberated by the Red Army on May 5, 1945.

For six deportees (Walter, Hermine and Hans Günther Bonn, Regina and Rosetta Keizer and Julius Sanders) only the year of deportation is known, for Walter Sanders not even that. [63]

Riga-Kaiserwald concentration camp, the Krebsbach Aktion and the Stutthof concentration camp

The Riga-Kaiserwald concentration camp was established in March 1943 to imprison Jewish residents of the occupied Baltic territories. In particular, the survivors of the Riga ghetto and the ghettos in Liepāja , Daugavpils and Vilnius were interned here from June 1943 . Because of the advance of the Red Army on the Baltic countries, the prisoners were taken to the Stutthof concentration camp in the Gau Danzig-West Prussia in the summer of 1944to "evacuate". From the point of view of the Nazi perpetrators, there can be two processes behind this cover word: removal or mass murder of the prisoners before Allied troops reach the camp area. Those believed to be unable to make the trip were shot dead.

“On July 28, 1944, the so-called Krebsbach Aktion took place. The SS members in charge of this action, Krebsbach and Wisner, had the prisoners line up in columns […] The men were ordered to run back and forth in front of the SS personnel. Those who didn't run fast enough were weeded out. Wisner and Krebsbach used a show of hands to select those destined for death. [...] The selection, which lasted all day, fell victim to up to 1,000 men and women, mostly the elderly and the weak. " [64]

The 33-year-old Hilde Klein , the wife of Hermann Levy, was probably among the prisoners murdered that day [65]

“Soon after, on Sunday morning, August 6, 1944, we all suddenly had to compete. We were taken to the port and we saw a large Baltic steamer, a troop carrier, into which we were driven. After a three-day journey we arrived in Gdansk. There we were unloaded with blows of a stick and shipped in boats to Stutthof. After we were also unloaded here with blows of the stick, the way to the Stutthof concentration camp, a world of its own, clearly large. ... " [66]

  1. Irma Höflich née Marx , born June 11, 1906 in Rachtik , murdered in Stutthof
  2. Erna Levy née Bloch , born April 6, 1912 in Dortmund, murdered in Stutthof
  3. Else Cohen née Levy , born April 8, 1900 in Breyell, murdered in Stutthof
  4. Elisabeth Lion née Jaffé , born on December 27, 1909 in Aachen, survived
  5. Adele Harf née Zanders , born on October 19, 1888 in Lobberich, murdered in Stutthof
  6. Rudi Harf , born on January 17, 1924, murdered in Stutthof
  7. Helene Zanders , born on November 7th, 1892 in Lobberich, murdered in Stutthof
  8. Wilhelmine Sanders née Sanders , born on April 12, 1898 in Straelen, murdered in Stutthof

Breyell

"Since the mid-18th century, Jews have vergleidete [67] demonstrated in Breyell", [68] including the Levy family in the first place [69] Samuel Benjamin, who was born probably in 1730, the son of Benjamin Sanders in Breyell and 1813 in Age of 83 years in Kaldenkirchen now with the family name adopted in 1808 Sanders died. [70]“In the statistics of the Jews of the Roerdepartment 1806, however, no Jews are named for Breyell. […] In the list of Jews entitled to vote in the Kempen synagogue, Jews from Breyell did not appear [again] until April 18, 1887. They are: Care Levy, Levy Höflich (both butchers) and Abraham Levy (cattle dealer). In 1895 there were 18 Jews out of 5,823 Breyell residents (eleven male, seven female), 1899 also 18 and 1939 there were 26 (ten male, 16 female). "

“In Breyell, the community of Jews there had reached such a size that they were able to build a relatively stately synagogue in 1910, which was set on fire only 28 years later, on November 9, 1938, on“ orders from high people ”. [...] Abraham Levy sen. on June 27, 1910 the public contracting of earthworks, masonry and carpentry work for the "new building of the prayer hall" of the Israeli community in Breyell. […] The “Brachter Volksbote” of October 15, 1910 reports on the imminent inauguration of the Breyell Synagogue ”, documenting“ the extensive acceptance and village integration of the Jews ”. The synagogue was inaugurated on October 21st.

The synagogue stood on the property of Jakob Klaber (died 1931) or his heirs. She was on November 10, 1938 as part of the so-called Reichspogromnachtdestroyed, the rubble had to be removed by the community, which in turn charged the Klaber family for the costs. "Since Klaber would hardly be able to pay the amount, he was asked several times in 1939 [...] to assign the property to the community of Breyell with the costs being offset." The assignment took place on March 20, 1940. The one after the last deportation Breyeller Jews from these items left behind were largely taken over by the community, which transferred 2000 Reichsmarks to the treasury for this; the other items (2 bicycles, 1 typewriter, silver items) were kept by the Düsseldorf regional tax office.

The identification cards issued for the 26 Jews living in Breyell in March 1939 were preserved, so that there are pictures of 25 adult Breyeller victims of the National Socialists.

Married couple Cohen

Erich Hoffstadt

  • Erich Hoffstadt was born on April 1st, 1923 in Straelen as the son of the cattle dealerSamuel Hoffstadt (born February 14, 1886 in Cologne) and his wifeHelene Hoffstadt née Simon (born August 28, 1887 in Krefeld-Linn ). At the age of 14, he registered in Straelen on May 31, 1937 and registered in Breyell on June 2, 1937, where he had accepted a job as an agricultural assistant for the Levy siblings in Gier 30 (today Gier 3, see below) ; He was still living here on March 10, 1939, and it can be assumed that he also moved away at the latest when the Levy siblings had to leave the house at the end of 1939. On December 11, 1941 he became (with the occupation "cattle keeper") together with his parents and his younger siblingsEmil (born on January 8, 1928 in Straelen) andFrieda (born on September 3, 1931 in Straelen) were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga, where they were later murdered. [72]

The six stumbling blocks for Emil Hoffstadt, his parents and his three siblings were laid on December 11, 2013 in Straelen in front of the house at Walbecker Str. 29 . [73]

Polite family

Born in Berleburg in 1766 , Schagen Levi had lived in Sinzenich since 1790 and in 1808 took the family name “Höflich” for himself and his descendants. His son Hirz Schagen / Michael Höflich settled in Müddersheim , with his son, the dealer and butcher Levi Höflich, part of the family came to Bracht and then to Breyell or Schaag [74]

  • Carl Höflich , born on June 1, 1872 in Breyell, son of Levi Höflich, 46 years old [born 1826 Vettweiß-Müddersheim], butcher in Breyell, and Anna Höflich, born Levi, 38 years old [* 1832 probably in Wickrath], as well Brother of Lisette Höflich (see Schaag ), was a textile dealer in Breyell and until 1938 ran a white, woolen and linen shop on Bahnstr./SA-Str. 4 (today Josefstrasse 24) . He was married toHenrietta Polite born Levy, called Jettchen , who was born on May 1st, 1866 in Bracht as the daughter of Bernard Levy , 35 years old [ie born 1830/31], a trader in Bracht, and Johanna Levy, nee Zanders , 41 years old [ie 1824/25], was born. On March 10, 1939, Carl and Henrietta lived with their son Curt a few houses away on Bahnstr./SA-Str. 46 (today Josefstrasse 48) . Henrietta Höflich died here on February 12, 1941 at the age of 74. Probably after the deportation of his son and daughter-in-law on December 11, 1941 (see below), Carl Höflich had to go to house Vorbruch 3amove, from here he was brought to Düsseldorf on July 24, 1942 and deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 train DA 71, prisoner number 539), where he managed to survive for more than 21 months; on May 15, 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz (Transport Dz, prisoner number 1852) and murdered there. [75]

Josefstrasse 24 : Carl and Henriette Höflich run on the ground floor of the house in Josefstr. 24 a white, wool and linen business that had to be closed in 1938; the couple had lived on the upper floor until then and moved to Josefstrasse after they closed their business . 48 to her son Curt and his wife Irma . An attack on the residents, to whom the National Socialists threw burning rags through the mailbox slot into the hallway, probably contributed to the move. [76]

  • Curt Höflich , born on September 20, 1902 in Breyell, son of Carl Höflich and Jettchen Höflich, née Levy . He worked as a merchant in Breyell and was withIrma Höflich née Marx married, who was born on June 11, 1906 in Rachtig as the daughter of Eduard Marx (1877 Rachtig - 1944/45 Auschwitz) and Pauline Marx née Wassermann (1881 Hüttenbach - 1944/45 Auschwitz) [77] . Curt lived until the end with his wife without children - and at times together with his parents - for rent in the house Bahnstr./SA-Str. 46 (today Josefstr. 48); From November 17, 1938 to February 9, 1939, Curt Höflich was in "protective custody" in Dachau, although he stated that his profession was a businessman. On December 11, 1941 Curt and Irma Höflich were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga (he is now known as unskilled worker); Curt was murdered in Riga, Irma survived the ghetto and the Riga concentration camp and was deported to Stutthof on August 9, 1944, where she was also murdered. [78]

Josefstrasse 48 : The house Bahnstr. 46 (today Josefstrasse 48) belonged to Samuel Levy and his wife Ida Levy nee Krebs (see below). After the deportation of the residents, it was seized by the National Socialists and served as a local base for the NSDAP; after the war it became state property and was later sold to private individuals; Even today the building is popularly known as the "brown house".

The stumbling blocks for Carl, Curt and Irma Höflich were opened on December 10, 2013 in front of the Josefstr. 48 relocated. [79]

Family Klaber

Hermann Claber (1843–1896) from Zülpich married Friederica Zanders (1835–1896) from Bracht in Sinzenich in 1868 . Friederica was a daughter of the butcher Salomon Zanders and Veronica Schnucks and thus a sister of the community leader Samuel Zanders (1822-1867). The daughter Clara (1878–1907) moved to Brüggen in the vicinity of her mother's family, she married in 1901 in Breyell, the second son Jacob (1872–1931) followed her around the turn of the century. [80]

  • Jacob Klaber was born on August 18, 1872 in Sinzenich as the son of Hermann Klaber and Friederica Klaber, née Zanders. He was withBernhardine (Babette) Klaber, née Lichtenfeld, married, who was born on January 27, 1872 in Hochhausen / Tauber as the daughter of David Lichtenfeld (1840–1902) and Johanna (Hanche) Lichtenfeld, née Hermann (1835–1924); the couple lived in Breyell, lived in Felderend 25 and had four children: Hermann (1902), Fritz (1904), Felix (1908) and Max Klaber (1917). He died in Breyell on June 24, 1931. Babette Klaber had tomoveto the Judenhaus Vorbruch 3a in January 1940, but last lived (according to the deportation list) with the Levy family in Gier 29 (today Gier 2). Babette Klaber was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942, (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 600), where she starved to death on March 13, 1944.

Jacob Klaber provided the land required for the construction of the Breyell Synagogue, which was inaugurated in 1910; The Breyell congregation took this as an opportunity to charge the Klaber family - probably the widow Babette and her daughter-in-law Ilse Klaber - with the costs of cleaning up the congregation after the synagogue was destroyed in the course of the Reichspogromnacht. However, since the family was unable to pay the required amount, they were asked several times in 1939 to leave the synagogue property to the community as compensation. The assignment took place on March 20, 1940. The property was returned to his son Fritz Klaber in 1953 as part of the reparation proceedings .
Jacob Klaber was the first and then only Jew to be buried in the community cemetery in 1931. The grave was desecrated by the National Socialists and the tombstone was removed. Immediately after his return, Fritz Klaber visited his father's grave and found that the gravestone was missing. He was then informed that the stone in the garden of House Gier 29 was "on the cesspool". Fritz Klaber had the stone put back on the grave; In 1999 it was implemented in the cemetery (rotated 180 degrees) with the permission of a rabbi based on municipal planning. [81]

  • Margarete (Grete) Kaufmann, née Kahn , born on November 13, 1885 in Dortmund, was the daughter of Moses Kahn (around 1854–1916), cattle dealer, and Cäcilie Kahn, née Beermann (around 1864–1927). In 1910 she married Jacob Kaufmann (born April 30, 1882 in (Aachen-) Forst ) as the son of Norbert Kaufmann, cattle dealer, and Henriette Kaufmann née Sanders (died 1935); Jacob and Grete Kaufmann lived in Aachen and became the parents of Ilse Klaber, née Kaufmann . Jacob Kaufmann died on April 18, 1936. As a widow, Grete Kaufmann lived in Breyell since June 1938, and on March 10, 1939 in Breyell, Bahnstr./SA-Str. 62a (today Josefstrasse 66) ; most recently she lived in Breyell, pre-break 3a. On December 11, 1941, she was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga and later murdered there; [82]
  • Hermann Klaber was born on October 12, 1902 in Breyell as the son of Jacob Klaber and Babette Klaber, née Lichtenfeld. He fledto the Netherlandswith his brother Max's papersafter he had problems with the SS and reached New York on the SS Île de France from Le Havre (now with his own papers) on March 16, 1938. He married on March 24, 1940 in New York Erna Emanuel (born June 14, 1902 in Frankfurt am Main), daughter of David Emanuel and Rosa Seligmann, who on February 28, 1938 as Erna Emanuel Pilcer on the MS St. Louishad arrived from Hamburg in New York and stated her marital status as "divorced". [83] Hermann Klaber died on March 27, 1980 in New York by suicide; Erna Klaber died on September 12, 2004 at the age of 102; she last lived in Bronx / NYC [84]
  • Fritz Klaber was born on November 6th, 1904 in Breyell as the son of Jacob Klaber and Babette Klaber, née Lichtenfeld; he married on December 31, 1935Ilse Kaufmann (born June 29, 1911 in Kornelimünster , daughter of Jacob Kaufmann and Margarethe Kaufmann, née Kahn), son of bothWerner Erich Klaber was born one year later, on December 17, 1936 in Aachen. Fritz Klaber ran a cattle shop and sold regional products, and also had an agricultural business until he was banned from these activities [85] ; on November 9, 1938, he lived as an “assistant” in Breyell, immediately after the pogrom night he was arrested and taken to Dachau in “protective custody”, where he was admitted on November 17. Here he made friends with the lawyer Henry Ormond (then still Hans Ludwig Oettinger) [86] . Ilse Klaber and Fritz 'brother Felix managed to get him a forged visa for the Dominican Republicto get hold of, which was accepted in Dachau, whereupon he was released on February 16, 1939, provided that he left Germany immediately. On March 10, 1939 he was still in Breyell on SA-Str. 62a (today Josefstr. 66) reported.

Shortly after his escape to the Netherlands, Fritz Klaber came to Amsterdam at Hemonystraat 44-2; he was looking for work in agriculture or cattle breeding, found shelter in the " Werkdorp Wieringermeer ", where he worked as a farming instructor under the director Abel Jacob Herzberg . After the German invasion of the Netherlands, the Werkdorp was closed on March 20, 1941 by Klaus Barbie on behalf of Willy Lages , the residents were to stay until after the harvest in autumn and were then interned in the Westerbork camp on October 28, 1941. Fritz Klaber was among other things gardener for camp commandant Albert Konrad Gemmekerused. Because of this task and other work, he and his friend, the German journalist Werner Stertzenbach, whom he had already got to know in Werkdorp Wieringermeer, kept leaving the warehouse for a short time. As a “border country farmer”, Fritz Klaber was able to establish contact with farmers in the vicinity of the camp and check whether they were willing to help people who were smuggled out of the camp. Fritz Klaber and Werner Stertzenbach built up a resistance group in the camp, which became known as the "Stertzenbach Group" of around 15 men after the war, and which was responsible for some of the almost 200 escaped (mainly women and children). Sometimes people were hidden under jute sacks, dung and rubbish and then Fritz Klaber drove them out of the camp in a wheelbarrow. [87]When Fritz Klaber was about to be deported in mid-September 1943, he was informed by a team member so that he could prepare for his escape. He fled Westerbork on September 13 and hid in Amsterdam, where he managed not to be discovered until the end of the war.

From his hiding place, Fritz Klaber remained active in the resistance, whereby he gave the impression with his non-Jewish appearance, his strong figure, a leather jacket and high boots and his Lower Rhine dialect, which was reminiscent of Joseph Goebbels , whose voice was known from many radio speeches awakened to be a man of the security service, so that he could move around unmolested, even in the starvation winter in the Netherlands 1944/45, which enabled him and the family with whom he was in hiding to survive until the end of the war.

Ilse and Werner Klaber, on the other hand, stayed behind in Germany, and for a long time the couple had tried to get permission to leave the Netherlands and to flee to the USA together. Ilse Klaber wrote to the community of Breyell on November 18, 1941: “Since the end of September 1939 my husband Fritz, Israel, Klaber [...] has been in Hooghalen- East ( Drenthe / Netherlands) in order to emigrate from there together. These efforts were partly done, and successful, but then had to be stopped again because the Dutch authorities repeatedly refused to give us, his wife, Ilse Sara, née. June 29, 1911 and his child Werner, Israel, b. December 17, 1936 to Breyell, to issue the residence permit until further emigration. " [88] The mayor's office noted on the letter on November 27, 1941:" After a secret order that has been received in the meantime, the application cannot be granted. " [89]Two weeks later, on December 11, 1941, Ilse and Werner Klaber were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga (during the deportation their occupation is indicated as “seamstress”) and finally murdered there. The year Ilse and Werner died is not known. [90]

Fritz Klaber returned to Breyell on September 18, 1945, and in 1947 he reopened the cattle business at the end of the field in order to support his claims for reimbursement. In Amsterdam he met Charlotte (Lotte) Reinhaus, who on September 2, 1912 in Burgsteinfurtwas born the daughter of Max Reinhaus and Clara Hirsch, and fled to the Netherlands in 1935, where her family could bring her back in 1938, and ran a hairdressing salon on Elandsgracht until she, too, was interned and deported. Unlike her husband and his family, Lotte survived several concentration camps and returned to the Netherlands after the war. Fritz Klaber and Lotte Reinhaus married in January 1949, and their son was born in March 1950. The family moved to Venlo (living in Germany was out of the question), in 1956 Fritz Klaber got his property back. He sold it in 1975, but was still a daily consultant until 1985.

Their son emigrated to Israel in 1977 after completing their training. Lotte Reinhaus died there on June 10, 1984 while visiting, she drowned in the Mediterranean near Nahariya. The now seriously ill Fritz Klaber moved in with his son the following year and died on March 30, 1986 in Petach Tikva [91]

  • Felix Klaber was born on March 28, 1908 in Breyell as the son of Jacob Klaber and Babette Klaber, née Lichtenfeld. In 1926, at the age of 18, he went to the Netherlands to learn the trade of a pastry chef. He was anapprenticeat the bakery Benninga in Deventer and lived above the bakery at 33 Kleine Overstraat. From the mid-1930s he no longer risked visits home. On September 6, 1942 he married Klara Mendel in Deventer, and she marriedon October 28, 1909 in (Dortmund-) MengedeBorn Kain, the daughter of Leopold Mendel and Jeanette Mendel, who had also fled to the Netherlands with her family years earlier. When Felix and Klara were due to report that same year to be interned in Westerbork, they hid in Lochem- Eefde, where they survived the war. They were liberated in May 1945. The couple with Dutch nationality and last residence in the province of Overijssel , as well as their son Eddy, who was born in 1946, emigrated to the USA in 1947: On June 20, 1947 they reached Gripsholm on the MS Gripsholm coming from GothenburgNew York (they themselves had a visa issued in Rotterdam on April 17, 1947, so they probably got on there too). Felix Klaber stated that he was a baker when he entered the USA. In 1948 their son Ralph was born. Felix Klaber died on July 15, 1981, Klara Klaber on November 23, 2004, both of whom last lived in New York. [92]
  • Max Klaber was born on January 30, 1917 in Breyell as the son of Jacob Klaber and Babette Klaber, née Lichtenfeld. "Agricultural worker" is given as the occupation for him. He fled to the USA via the Netherlands (after his brother Hermann had used his papers to flee and he received new ones) and reached New York on January 14, 1939 on the SS Veendam II. He lived in New York in 1939 , 299 Fox Street; In 1942 he joined the US Army, in 1944 he married Ann Rosenbaum (born October 17, 1923, living 2001); in August 1945 Max was still in the army and had been overseas for 20 months (ie since early 1944). The couple had a son Stephen. Max Klaber died on November 19, 2001 in Bronx / NY, at the age of 84 [93]
  • Clara Wolff née Klaber (Olg bat Chajim) was born on December 20, 1878 in Hoven as the daughter of Hermann Klaber and Friederica Klaber née Zanders. She married Michael Wolff, called Max , on December 6, 1901 in Breyell , who was born on October 10, 1875 in Brüggen, the son of Leopold Wolff and Regina Wolff. Max and Clara Wolff are the parents of Frieda (1903) and Rosalia (1905) Wolff. Clara Wolff died on April 28, 1907 in Breyell, she was buried in Bracht. Max Wolff married the widow Henriette Meyer born shortly after the death of his wife, probably to take care of his daughters. Gottschalk, who lived in Orsoy on May 10, 1859as daughter of Philipp Gottschalk and Carolina Gottschalk geb. Grünenberg was born. Max (and probably Henriette) Wolff lived in 1942 at Lindenstrasse 54 in Cologne, the same address as Max's daughter Frieda in 1939), their last address in Cologne was Horst-Wessel-Platz. Max and Henriette Wolff were deported from Cologne to Theresienstadt on September 25, 1942 (Transport III / 6), Henriette Wolff was murdered there on October 18, 1942, Max Wolff on February 21, 1943. [94]
  • Frieda Wolff was born on July 20, 1903 in Breyell as the daughter of Max Wolff and Klara Wolff, born Klaber, she lived unmarried in Cologne, Lindenstrasse 54, at the beginning of 1939. Frieda Wolff was able to flee to the USA: In autumn 1940 September 1940) Frieda Wolff reached the American continent in Halifax (Nova Scotia) , Canada, on the RMS Empress of Australia from Glasgow . London is given as the last place of residence in Europe. On October 2, 1940, she traveled to St. Albans, Vermontby land to the USA. In 1946 she was married to Herbert Sommer. On January 31, 1960, she came as a married housewife Frieda Sommer with a 30-day tourist visa from New York (and also living there) via Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Frieda Sommer died in November 1973, her last residence was in New York. [95]
  • Rosalia (Rosel) Mosheim née Wolff was born on January 25, 1905 in Breyell as the daughter of Michael Wolff called Max and Klara Wolff née Klaber. She married the lawyer on December 19, 1932Dr. jur. Berthold Mosheim , born on May 25, 1904 in Adorfwho lived in Cologne before the wedding; Berthold and Rosalie Mosheim had two children: Ruth Mosheim (January 6, 1935 Düsseldorf) and Frank Gabriel Mosheim (July 22, 1938 Düsseldorf). The Mosheim family lived in Düsseldorf at Konkordia-Str. 66, the law firm was at Schadowstrasse 65. Berthold Mosheim was active in the Jewish youth movement. In 1938 he was arrested during the Reichspogromnacht and taken to the Dachau concentration camp, and released on December 5, 1938. On May 11, 1939, the Mosheim family emigrated to England; Berthold Mosheim received British citizenship on July 23, 1948, which also affected his children Frank Gabriel and Ruth; At that time he was working as a Cost Accountant and Legal Adviser and lived at 16 Elgin Court, Elgin Avenue, London W9. Berthold, Rosel and Frank Mosheim are listed on the London electoral roll in 1950 and 1964. Berthold Mosheim died in London on September 15, 1964. The electoral roll from 1965 shows Frank G Mosheim, Carole Mosheim and Rosel Mosheim. Frank G Mosheim and Carole A Mosheim lived in East Finchley, London N2 in 2002. Frank Mosheim died in January 2009, Carole Anne Mosheim, born in May 1943, was Company Director of The Bishop's Avenue (East Finchley) Management Company Limited in April 2012.[96]

The house at Felderend 25 was the house of the Klaber family in Breyell. Here lived Jacob and Babette Klaber and grew to their sons. The family business, which was sold in 1975, was also located here.

The stumbling block for Babette Klaber was laid on November 11, 2010 in front of the house at Felderend 25 . The stumbling blocks for Margarethe Kaufmann, Ilse and Werner Klaber were opened on the same day in front of the Josefstr. 66 relocated. [97] The stumbling blocks for Hermann, Felix and Max Klaber were laid on December 10, 2013 in front of house 25 at Felderend . The stumbling block for Fritz Klaber was on the same day in front of the house at Josefstr. 66 relocated. [79]

Family Levy

Although the name Levy has been known in Breyell since 1748 (Benjamin Levy is attested from 1748 to 1761, his widow until 1793), the statistics from 1806 no longer contain any Jews for Breyell, including no Levys. It was not until 1887 that the butcher Care Levy and the cattle dealer Abraham Levy were named as Breyeller members of the Kempen synagogue. These are apparently the brothers Carl Salomon Levy (Kalonymos ben Jehuda according to the epitaph, 1828-1919) and Abraham Levy (Awraham ben Jehuda, 1833-1928). Most of the victims of the National Socialists in Breyell are among the descendants of the brothers.

The first generation

  • Karl Levy (senior, Kalonymos ben Jehuda) was born on February 15, 1828 in “Bekeharn” [98] . He was married to Sara Zanders (Sara bat Schlomo Halevi), who was born on June 24, 1831 in Bracht as the daughter of Salomon Zanders and Veronica Schnucks; Sara Zanders was the sister of Samuel Zanders (Schmuel ben Schlomo Halevi, died 1867), the head of the Jewish community in Bracht. Sara Levy née Zanders died on November 24th, 1895, Karl Levy died on September 5th, 1919 in Breyell, both were buried in Bracht. Karl and Sara Levy had several children [99] . Presumably Karl and Sara Levy are identical to
  • Carl Salomon Levy , who was married to Elisabeth / Lisette Zanders , and who were the parents of Bernhard (1858), Friederica (1860), Sibilla (1862), Salomon (1865), Josef (1866), Samuel (1869), Abraham ( 1871), Johanna (1874) and Rebekka (1877) are Levy, who were all born in Breyell
  • Abraham Levy (Awraham ben Jehuda) was born on April 29, 1833, he married (probably on May 12, 1865 in Siegburg )Christina Sommer (born probably on September 30, 1831 in Siegburg as the daughter of Joseph and Esther Jonas); the couple lived in Breyell, where their children Joseph (1866), Carl (1870) and Gustav (1872) Levy were born. Abraham Levy was head of the Jewish community in Breyell when the newly built synagogue was inaugurated on October 21, 1910. He died on March 30, 1928 in Breyell and was buried in Bracht. [100]

Family Levy / Zanders

  • Bernhard Levy was born on May 19, 1858 in Breyell, the son of Salomon Levy and Lisetta Levy, née Sanders, he was married toRosina Krebs , who was born on May 24, 1869 in Reichenberg (Lower Franconia) . The couple had children Else and Max Levy ; Bernhard Levy died in Breyell on February 23, 1927 and was buried in Bracht. As a widow she lived in Breyell on March 10, 1939, Vorbruch 3a (today Vorbruch 5) , also in July 1942; Rosina Levy was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 663), then to Treblinka on September 21, 1942 (Transport Bp, prisoner number 1606) and probably murdered there in the same month [ 101]

Vorbruch 5 : The house Vorbruch 3a or 3 (today Vorbruch 5) was owned by Bernhard Levy or his widow Rosina Levy nee Krebs . It was declared a house of Jews on the basis of the law on tenancy agreements with Jews of April 30, 1939 . After the deportation of the residents, it came to the German Reich in 1942, and in 1952 it was finally sold to private customers. [102]

  • Friederica Levy was born on July 23, 1860 in Breyell as the daughter of [Carl] Salomon Levy and Elisabeth Levy, née Zanders; she remained single, lived on March 10, 1939 in Breyell, Gier 30 (today Gier 3) , most recently in Breyell, Vorbruch 3a ; on July 25, 1942 she was deported to Theresienstadt (Transport VII / S Zug Da 71, inmate number 641) and murdered there on September 12, 1942 [103]
  • Sibilla Levy was born on November 1, 1862 in Breyell as the daughter of Carl Salomon Levi and Elisabeth Levy, née Zanders; she remained single, lived on March 10, 1939 in Breyell, Gier 30 (today Gier 3) ; she died on August 6, 1940 in Breyell and was buried in the Jewish cemetery [104]
  • Salomon Levy was born on January 7, 1865 in Breyell, the son of Carl Salomon Levy and Elisabeth Levy, born Zanders; he worked as a cattle dealer, remained single and died on May 10, 1932 in Breyell [105]
  • Josef Levy (senior) was born on February 20, 1867 in Breyell as the son of Carl Salomon Levy and Elisabeth Levy, née Zanders; he married Sophie Hope, called Lisette , born in Oelde on October 30, 1875, probably the daughter of Moses Hope and Jetta Hope, née Hoffmann. In 1936 Josef and Lisetta Levy fled to the USA, the couple lived in Lansdale (Pennsylvania) in 1940 , here at 17 Main Street in 1946. Josef Levy died on June 7, 1946 at the age of 80, his widow last lived in Philadelphia and died here in August 1972 at the age of 96 [106]
  • Samuel Levy was born on July 19, 1869 in Breyell, the son of Carl Salomon Levi and Elisabeth Levy, née Zanders. He was a cattle dealer. Samuel Levy was married toIda Krebs , born on July 1, 1881 in Reichenberg, daughter of Moses Krebs and Lotti Krebs born Krebs; the couple lived on March 10, 1939 in Breyell, Bahnstr / SA-Str. 46 (today Josefstrasse 48) , most recently in Breyell, Vorbruch 3a ; They were deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner numbers 645 and 665) and then to Treblinka on September 26, 1942 (Transport Br, prisoner numbers 652 and 653), where they were probably still in the were murdered the same month. [107]
  • Abraham Levy , born on October 25, 1871 in Breyell to Carl Salomon Levy and Lisette Levy, née Zanders; he was a cattle dealer and was married to Sibilla Frankenstein [108] ; he lived on March 10, 1939 (after being banned from working) as an agricultural assistant in Breyell, Gier 30 (today Gier 3) , most recently in Breyell, Vorbruch 3a ; on July 25, 1942 he was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 632), on September 21, 1942 to Treblinka (Transport Bp, prisoner number 1605), and probably murdered there in the same month. [109]
  • Johanna Hirsch, née Levy , was born on December 8, 1874 in Breyell as the daughter of Carl Salomon Levy, a trader in Breyell, and Lisette Levy née Zanders. she marriedMax Hirsch , who was born on February 8, 1873 in Rommerskirchen as the son of Moses Hirsch and Johanna Simon; Max Hirsch was a businessman in Krefeld, the couple lived in Krefeld on Hochstrasse before the war. 62; Max and Johanna Hirsch fled to the Netherlands in 1939, where they lived in Scheveningen , Eindhoven and in Enschede , Laaressingel 46. From 3/5. They were interned in Westerbork on October 19, 1942, and on October 19 they were deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz, where Max and Johanna Hirsch arrived on October 21 and were presumably murdered immediately afterwards - they were declared dead on October 22, 1942. [110]

The stumbling blocks for Max and Johanna Hirsch were opened on December 4th, 2008 in Krefeld in front of the Hochstr. 62 relocated. [111]

  • Rebekka Bamberger, née Levy, called Regina , was born on January 1, 1877 in Breyell as the daughter of Carl Salomon Levy, butcher, and Lisette Levy née Zanders; she marriedSiegfried Bamberger , who was born on June 7, 1884 in Neidenstein as the son of Leopold / Löb Bamberger and Jutta Jakob; Siegfried Bamberger was arrested after the Reichspogromnacht and was interned in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 1, 1938 (with the job title “worker”) in “protective custody”; on December 1, 1938, he was transferred to an unknown location. The couple last lived in Mönchengladbach on Hindenburgstrasse. 360 [112] . Siegfried and Regina Bamberger were deported to Izbica on April 22, 1942, and murdered there; on September 5, 1952, both were declared dead by the Mönchengladbach AG on December 31, 1945 [113]

The stumbling blocks for Siegfried and Regine Rebekka Bamberger are in Mönchengladbach in front of the house on Albertusstrasse. 54 . [114]

Greed 3 : After the occupation of the Rhineland (1936) , the Wehrmacht began building the air force training area in Brück in the Ahrweiler district . The affected residents were resettled and the farmers were offered replacement farms. Among them was a family from Kaltenborn who were offered the Abraham Levys farm in Breyell-Gier by the "Rheinisches Heim" settlement company in Bonn (today part of LEG Immobilien AG in Düsseldorf). [115] Friederica , Sibilla and Abraham Levy
lived on the farm , unmarried or widowed and without descendants (as well as the assistant Erich Hoffstadt), while their married siblings lived in Breyell, Krefeld or Mönchengladbach or - like Josef Levy and his family - had fled to the USA. The “Ordinance on Trade in Cattle” of January 25, 1937 tied admission to the cattle trade to undefined “personal reliability”, in 1938 the general revocation of the trade permit by the district police took place, and the sale of the property was finally over due to the ordinance the use of Jewish assets from December 3, 1938.

At the beginning of October 1939, the “conclusion of the legal purchase act” between the Levy family and the Rheinisches Heim had not yet taken place, but the transfer of the property to the resettler family had already been decided. Since the repatriates had to leave their homeland on November 1, 1939 and should move in on November 3, there was pressure to act, with the Breyeller administration announcing on October 17 that it was "at the moment completely out of the question to accommodate the Jews in any way". The Levy family was asked to evacuate by November 2nd in the evening, and on November 4th the police reported the execution - which is to be understood as meaning that the Levy siblings had cleared enough living space for the resettled family to move in. This in turn caused the NSDAP local group leader Lormann three days later, To write a letter to his party comrade, the Deputy Mayor Reyners: “You know that a few days ago the resettler […] from Kaltenborn moved into the property of the Levy Gier siblings, although the Jews still live in part of the building. However, it cannot continue to be tolerated and the resettler […] cannot be expected to live under the same roof with his family until the purchase contract is concluded with the Jews. I therefore ask you to ensure that the Jews immediately vacate the entire building. " although the Jews still inhabit part of the building. However, it cannot continue to be tolerated and the resettler […] cannot be expected to live under the same roof with his family until the purchase contract is concluded with the Jews. I therefore ask you to ensure that the Jews immediately vacate the entire building. " although the Jews still inhabit part of the building. However, it cannot continue to be tolerated and the resettler […] cannot be expected to live under the same roof with his family until the purchase contract is concluded with the Jews. I therefore ask you to ensure that the Jews immediately vacate the entire building. "[116] However, the letter had no immediate consequences, as the Levy siblings stayed at home for a long time [117] and thereby contributed to the fact that the company was handed over to the resettled family in an orderly manner. [118]

Upon review of the post-war sale by the UK authorities, it was found that the farm's transfer had been carried out properly and there was no right to retransfer.

Levy Family / Summer

  • Josef Levy (junior) was born on March 28, 1866 in Breyell as the son of Abraham Levi and Christina Sommer . He was a cattle dealer by trade. He marriedEmma Sassen , who was born on February 21, 1869 in Anrath as the daughter of Abraham Sassen and Mirjam Sassen, née NN. On March 10, 1939, the couple lived in Breyell, Bahnstr./SA-Str. 62a (today Josefstr. 66) , finally in Breyell, Gier 29 . Josef and Emma Levy were deported to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner numbers 633 and 640), then to Treblinka on September 26, 1942 (Transport Br, prisoner numbers 644 and 645), probably still there murdered in the same month [119]
  • Carl Levy was born on March 12, 1870 in Breyell to Abraham Levi and Christina Sommer . He was a cattle dealer by trade. He marriedBerta Levy née Levy , who wasbornin Meiningen on January 2, 1872(the parents are not documented), the couple had three children, Lina , Henriette and Emil Levy . On March 10, 1939, and most recently, the family lived in Breyell, Gier 29 (today Gier 2) . On July 25, 1942, Carl and Berta Levy were deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, Carl's prisoner number 652), where Berta Levy was murdered on August 6, 1942. Carl Levy was deported to Treblinka on September 26, 1942 (Transport Br, prisoner number 651) and probably murdered there in the same month [120]
  • Gustav Levy was born on May 4, 1872 in Breyell to Abraham Levy and Christina Sommer . He was a cattle dealer by trade. He marriedPauline Kleemann , who was born on April 6, 1872 in Theilheim (municipality of Waigolshausen, district of Schweinfurt) (the parents are not documented). Gustav Levy was a soldier in the First World War (Rec. Dep. E. Btl. LIR 29), and died on August 28, 1916. Pauline Levy lived in Cologne, then on March 10, 1939 and until last in Breyell, Gier 29 (today Greed 2) . She was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Da 71, prisoner number 659), on May 15, 1944 to Auschwitz (Transport Dz, prisoner number 659) and murdered there [121]

Josefstrasse 66 : Josef Levy let A. Hoffmanns house Bahnstr. 62a (today Josefstrasse 66) in Art Nouveau style. In 1939 Josef and Emma Levy , Fritz , Ilse and Werner Klaber and Margarethe Kaufmann lived here . In autumn 1939 the house was sold to the merchant Gerhard Dammer, Bahnstr. 58, sold. The neighboring property also belonged to Josef Levy, who used it as a cow meadow; it was built in 1939 by the architect Leonhard Palm (today Josefstr. 68) [122]
Gier 2 : The house Gier 29 (today Gier 2) belonged to Carl Levy , the son of Abraham Levy and Christina Sommer . He was married to Berta Levy nee Levy , the couple had the children Lina , Henriette and Emil . Emil Levy was murdered in Dachau in early 1939. Pauline Levy nee Kleemann , his sister-in-law, also lived in this house ; After his house on Josefstrasse was sold in autumn 1939, Carl's brother Josef Levy moved in with his wife Emma Levy, née Sassenone. Carl Levy was served with the so-called “disposal order” in May 1940 as part of the “forced Aryanization”, ie he had to sell his house and his land to the “Rheinische Heim” within four weeks, which probably happened in June 1940. The "Rheinische Heim" then wanted to "immediately" sell the property to the resettler family who already owned the neighboring Gier 30 house . However, the resale was not yet completed in the spring of 1941, as mortgages were on the property and had not yet been settled. The problems were finally resolved on April 10, 1941 through a purchase agreement between Carl Levy and the emigrant family, which was then approved by the district administrator on August 5. [123]

Carl, Berta, Josef, Emma, ​​Pauline and Henriette Levy stayed in the house after the sale; Henriette Levy was deported from here on December 11, 1941 to Riga, the remaining five (or six) residents from the older generation on July 25, 1942 to Theresienstadt.

Third and fourth generation

Bernhard Levy / Rosina Krebs family

  • Else Levy , born April 8, 1900 in Breyell, daughter of Bernhard Levy and Rosina Krebs , see Else Cohen née Levy , Kaldenkirchen (there also: her husband Abraham Cohen and her son Erich Bernd Cohen )
  • Max Levy was born on August 27, 1907 in Breyell, the son of Bernhard Levy and Rosina Levy, born Krebs . He was a cattle dealer by profession. He marriedErna Bloch , who was born on April 6, 1912 in Dortmund (the parents are not documented), the marriage was childless in 1938. Max and Erna Levy lived in Breyell on November 9, 1938; From November 17, 1938 to February 23, 1939 Max Levy was in "protective custody" in Dachau (with the professional title of cattle dealer); on March 10, 1939, and lastly, the couple lived in Breyell in house Vorbruch 3a (today Vorbruch 5) . On December 2, 1941, Max and Erna Levy applied to the district administrator of Kempen to “release them from the evacuation on December 10, 1941, because we have the permit to move to Bonn / Rh. have to join the community Kapellenstr. 6 to be accepted […] because my only relatives live there […] ” [124]; the application was rejected. On December 11, 1941, Max (he is now referred to as civil engineering workers) and Erna Levy were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga, Max Levy was later murdered there, Erna Levy, née Bloch, survived Riga and was deported to Stutthof in 1944 and then murdered there. [125]

Family Josef Levy / Lisette Hope

  • Walter (Jehuda) Levy was born on August 25, 1903 in Breyell, the son of Breyell cattle dealer Josef Levy and his wife Lisette Levy, née Hope. He was a traveler by profession. Walter Levy married Karoline (Kayla) Hirsch on August 8, 1937 in Cologne, who was born on April 4, 1905 in Polch as the daughter of Gustav Hirsch and Pauline Simon. The couple fled to the USA in 1938 and reached AntwerpComing to New York on June 30, 1938 on the "SS Königstein". On December 1, 1939, in his first "Petition for naturalization", he stated that he lived with his wife at 559 Southern Boulevard (Woodstock). Five years later (he was now 40 years old) he gave in his second "Petition" the apartment is 850 Stebbins Avenue (Charlotte Gardens), both addresses are in New York's South Bronx; In 1946 the couple lived with their daughter at 667 West 161st Street in Washington Heights. In 1938 and 1943 he stated that he worked as a tailor. Later, the occupations of salesman and seamstress were made for them. Walter and Caroline Levy had two children, Ruth (Sarah) Levy on January 15, 1942 and Rabbi Ronald (Meyer Josef) Levy on January 20, 1948, of whom they had ten grandchildren between 1965 and 1980.Paramus / NJ or New York, Caroline Levy on December 6, 1993 in Paramus / NJ or on December 20, 1993 in Suffern (New York) [126]

Walter Levy participates in a scene that documents how the balance of power between the police and the SA in Germany shifted in favor of the National Socialists at the end of 1934.

“In 1934, over 100 people celebrated New Year's Eve in W. Ludwigs am Nettebruch in Breyell. Among the dancers was the traveler [Walter] Levy from Breyell. His dance partner, a girl from Lobberich, had nothing against Levy being Jewish, much to the annoyance of the Nazis present. At around 11 p.m. SA man M. from Breyell could no longer contain his indignation; in front of all the guests he slapped Levy, pointing out that Jews were not allowed to dance with German girls and that he should leave the bar immediately. Levy didn't fight back, but left the room. "

“Now the angry innkeeper asked the SA man to leave the restaurant immediately, but the SA man said he would not be thrown out because of a Jew. One of the guests happened to be Schupo Hölters, who was known to the landlord and was not on duty in Breyell, but was just spending his Christmas vacation with his mother, who lived in Lobberich. At the innkeeper's request, Hölters identified himself as a police officer and asked the SA man to leave the restaurant. Then other SA men interfered and pushed the police officer into a corner of the room. Surrounded by 6 SA men who made no secret of their intention to beat up Hölters, he drew his service pistol and asked the SA men to go back. But these pounced on him; The policeman tried to defend himself with two shots.

“What followed then shows more typically than other incidents what the state looked like after a year of Nazi rule. Not the police were informed, but SA-Standartenführer Aigeltinger in Krefeld. Aigeltinger immediately set off for Lobberich by car and was soon on hand with Lobberich local group leader I. and other SA men. At the local police station in Lobberich Town Hall, the police officer received the first beatings, Sturmführer Sch. from Lobberich stood out particularly. Then Hölters was brought to Krefeld in the car by Aigeltinger, 3 SA men and the police officer H. The destination of the trip was the Krefeld NSDAP pub "Heinzelmännchen", where other SA people let out their anger on Hölters. Krefeld police station delivered and beaten again in the presence of 2 police chief sergeants, also afterwards in the police prison. Seriously injured and unconscious, Hölters was left behind in the cell. At the request of Hölters, a police doctor later arranged for the patient to be transferred to the health department of the state police. An investigation by the district president in Düsseldorf ended months later with the result: The proceedings against the SA will be discontinued by mutual agreement. "

“SA Standard Leader Aigeltinger, however, drove to Lobberich again on January 1, 1935. He personally made sure that the Breyell Jew Walter Levy and his brother Alfred Levy were taken to the police prison: The Gestapo file says 8 days of protective custody for their own safety, of course it does not contain any information about the treatment of the two. "

“Alfred Levy was deported to the Riga Ghetto on December 11th, after the dissolution of the Riga-Kaiserwald concentration camp, he was last seen in the Stutthof concentration camp. Walter Levy's whereabouts are unknown. " [127]

  • Alfred Levy was born on September 18, 1908 in Breyell as the son of Josef Levy and Lisette Levy, née Hope. He married Johanna Salomon , who was born on February 3, 1915 in Kruft as the daughter of Julius Salomon and Lydia Salomon, born Samuel. Both fled to the USA, they reached New York on July 17, 1937 on the "Königstein" coming from Antwerp, Alfred being a "merchant" ( merchant) stated. They lived in Lansdale / PA in 1940 (Johanna is now called "Hannorl" and in 1946 "Hannel") with his parents Joseph and Sophie Levy, his brother Richard Levy, and their two sons Ralph L Levy (* 1938) and Vernon A Levy (* 1939). In 1946 the family lived in Lansdale / PA, 121 W 6 St. Alfred Levy died in September 1981, he last lived in Lansdale, a date of death for Johanna Levy is not known [128]
  • Richard Levy was born on April 21, 1910 in Breyell as the son of the horse dealer Josef Levy and his wife Lisette Levy, née Hope. In 1922/23 he attended the secondary school in Dülken (today Clara-Schumann-Gymnasium Dülken ), then completed an apprenticeship as a tailor at the Alsberg textile wholesaler in Gelsenkirchen (see Gebr. Alsberg AG ) and then went self-employed with his brother Walter as a tailor in Breyell. Richard Levy fled to the USA in 1936, lived in Lansdale / PA in 1940, still single. He married Julia Zalkind(born 1912 New York, died 1992), daughter of Mitchell Zalkind and Henrietta Zalkind née Goldfarb, who were registered in Philadelphia in 1920. Richard Levy was in the US Army from 1941 to 1945, so he came back to the Rhineland as a soldier, was stationed in Rheindahlen , from where he drove again to Breyell, probably with the aim of finding the leaders of the National Socialists there who were already dead or had fled. In 1946 Richard Levy lived in Philadelphia at 43, PA, 5727 Pine Street, and worked as a men's tailor. At this point he already had three daughters, who later had six children of their own. Richard Levy died on December 14, 1999, at the age of 89. [129]

Family Samuel Levy / Ida Krebs

  • Paul Levy was born in Breyell on April 3, 1904, to Samuel Levy and Ida Levy, née Krebs. He fled to the USA, lived in Lansdale / PA in 1940. He was married to Else Levy, née NN, who was born in Germany in 1904/05; the couple had a daughter in 1940 who was not yet a year old at the time. Paul Levy died in August 1982 at the age of 78, his last residence was Willow Grove in Montgomery County , Pennsylvania [130]

Family Josef Levy / Emma Sassen

  • Ernst Levy was born on August 1, 1904 in Breyell, the son of Josef Levy and Emma Levy, born Sassen . He married Ida Marcus on February 9, 1901 in Burgsteinfurtwas born as the daughter of Elias Marcus (1860–1930) and Emilie Friedensreich. Ida Marcus studied pedagogy in Heidelberg and then worked as a teacher; in 1930 she inherited the grain trade "Josef Marcus" together with her brother Ernst Joseph (1895–1975); Ernst and Ida Levy had a daughter, Annette, and they lived in Burgsteinfurt in 1936. “My [Max Levy's] brother Ernst got married in Burgsteinfurt and was then owner of the“ Markus Matzenfabrik ”. When Hitler occupied the Rhineland [1936], he baked his money in the Matzen, brought it to Holland and stayed there. After the German invasion, he went to Palestine with his wife and daughter. After the war he wanted to go back to Holland [...] In Holland he worked his way up again and died there in 1990.Muiderberg / NL, Ida Levy nee Marcus died in 1986. [131]
  • Hermann Levy was born on December 9, 1909 in Breyell as the son of the cattle dealer Josef Levy and his wife Emma Sassen ; In 1922/23 he attended the secondary school in Dülken (today Clara-Schumann-Gymnasium Dülken ), which he left to learn the cattle trade. He married on July 5, 1935 in Korschenbroich Hilde Klein , who was born on January 4, 1911 in Korschenbroich as the daughter of Wolfgang Benjamin (Benny) Klein (born November 4, 1868 in Korschenbroich), cattle dealer in Korschenbroich, and Julie Klein, née Capell. The marriage remained childless. Hermann and Hilde Levy lived as cattle dealers in Korschenbroich (with a branch in Breyell) on November 9, 1938, when Hermann Levy was arrested after the pogrom night and interned in "protective custody" in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 29, 1938 and at the beginning Called “unemployed” in 1939, he was forced to flee abroad. He fled to England in February 1939, tried to come to the USA, but ended up in Australia and back in England in 1946.

Hilde Levy refused to go abroad with her husband because of her parents, who she had with her. Hermann Levy's attempts to bring her to England were prevented by the outbreak of World War II. She was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, and her father was deported to Theresienstadt from Düsseldorf on July 25, 1942. There are different depictions of Hilde Levy's further fate: According to Hermann Levy, she was later deported to Stutthof [1944] and murdered there: “My wife Hilde came from Theresienstadt [actually Riga] on a transport to the“ Stutthof ”camp near Danzig . From there, thousands of concentration camp prisoners were loaded onto a ship and then sunk by ship. I got the information from a man named Winter from Korschenbroich. "According to Arthur Winter, it was on 28.[132]

Hermann Levy married Ellen NN in 1947, the couple went to the USA in 1950, he later worked in New York as manager of a hotel and died there on April 9, 2001 at the age of 91; from his second marriage he had a son and three grandchildren. [133]

The stumbling blocks for Hilde Klein and her father were on February 15, 2007 in Korschenbroich in front of the house at Sebastianusstr. 29 relocated. [134]

Familie Carl Levy/Berta Levy

  • Lina Bloch, née Levy , was born on April 20, 1901 in Breyell as the daughter of Carl Levy , cattle dealer in Breyell, and Bertha Levy née Levy . She worked as a maid, last lived in Rommerskirchen , and received her visa on May 25, 1937, with which shefled to the USAvia Rotterdam - she reached New York on September 18, 1937 on the "SS Statendam". In the USA she married Julius Bloch , who was in Ihringen on March 12, 1898as son Moritz Bloch, cattle dealer, and Melanie Pickard was born. He also worked as a cattle dealer in Germany, last lived in Ihringen and received his visa on March 24, 1937, with which he fled to the USA via Hamburg - he reached New York on July 8, 1937 on the "SS New York"; Julius and Lina Bloch, née Levy, lived in 1946 in New York 33, 540 W 180th Street, also last in the same district (postal code 10033); Julius Bloch died in December 1984 at the age of 86, Lina Bloch in November 1988 at the age of 87. [135]
  • Henriette Levy , called Jettchen, was born on March 5, 1904 in Breyell as the daughter of Carl Levy and Berta Levy, born Levy . She remained single and was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, where she was later murdered [136]
  • Emil Levy was born on March 5, 1909 in Breyell, the son of Carl Levy , cattle dealer, and Berta Levy née Levy . He lived on November 9, 1938 as an unmarried farmer in Breyell, Gier 29 (today Gier 2), and was interned in “protective custody” in Dachau from November 17, 1938, where he was murdered on February 10, 1939: “My [Hermann Levy's] cousin Emil […] was also in the camp. Well, Emil, he was stubborn. Once I said to him: “Emil, do me a favor. If the Nazis say you have to turn left, then turn left! ”But he turned right. It really was like that, he wasn't afraid. Did exactly the opposite of what the Nazis wanted. […] Before I left [Germany] on February 14, 1939, I came to see my uncle Karl, the father of my cousin Emil, with whom I was in Dachau. As my uncle reported to me, he had received notification from Dachau that Emil had died and that they wanted to send him his ashes in an urn. " [137]

The stumbling blocks for Joseph and Emma Levy were opened on November 11, 2010 in front of the Josefstr. 66 relocated. [138] The stumbling blocks for Carl, Berta, Henriette, Emil and Pauline Levy were laid in front of Gier 2 on December 10, 2013 . The stumbling blocks for Abraham and Friederica Levy were laid in front of Gier 3 on the same day . The stumbling blocks for Hermann Levy were on the same day in front of the house at Josefstr. 66 relocated. The stumbling blocks for Samuel and Ida Levy were opened on the same day in front of the house at Josefstr. 48 relocated. The stumbling blocks for Max, Erna and Rosina Levy were laid in front of Haus Vorbruch 5 on the same day .[79]

Family Bernhard Levy / Johanna Zanders

The Bernhard Levy / Johanna Zanders family from Bracht is not directly connected to the districts of Nettetal, but rather occurs due to extensive family relationships with Breyell (Höflich family) and Hinsbeck (Sanders family).

  • Bernhard Levy , was a tradesman in Bracht and withJohanna Zanders married; the couple is the parents of Sibilla (1853), Benjamin (1855), Johanna (1856), Veronica (1858), Sophia (1860), Emanuel (1861), Rebecka, Rosalia and Sara (triplets, 1864), Henrietta (1866 ), Regina (1868) and Carl Salomon (1869) Levy, who were all born in Bracht [139]
  • Anna Levy , born in 1832, was the sister of Bernard Levy ; she married Levi Höflich (born 1826) in Wickrath in 1855, a trader in Bracht; their children are Johanna (1860), Sophia (1862), Sara (1864, see Schaag ), Veronica (1866), Hirz (1869) and Carl (1872, see above) Höflich [140]

Among the children Bernhard and Johanna Levys should be mentioned:

  • Benjamin Levy , born on May 16, 1855 in Bracht, son of Bernhard Levy and Johanna Zanders lived in Eberbach , he was married to Sophie David , born on December 2, 1862 in Eberbach, daughter of Salomon David and Johanna David, born Wolf; the couple ran a textile shop at Oberen Badstrasse 18; they had three children: Jenny, Regina and Alfred Levy; Benjamin Levy gave the address on November 19, 1913 at the inauguration of the Eberbach synagogue; Benjamin and Sophia Levy were taken to the Gurs internment camp on October 22, 1940 in the "Wagner-Bürckel Action"deported to France; Benjamin Levy died there on January 14, 1941 at the age of 86, he was buried in grave no. 715 [141]
  • Jenny Levy , born on August 31, 1895, daughter of Benjamin Levy , lived in Los Angeles and deposited a lot of information about her family in the Yad Vashem memorial; she was single in Dayton, Ohio , in 1940 , married NN Goldmann (and called herself Jenny L. Goldman since); she died on December 16, 1984, her last residence was Los Angeles [142]

Jenny's siblings Regina and Alfred also fled to the USA in time. The fate of Sophia Levy is contradictory: on the one hand she is on the transport list of 1940, on the other hand there is reports that she escaped to the USA on time.

The stumbling blocks for Benjamin, Sophia, Jenny, Regina and Alfred Levy were laid in front of the house at Obere Badstrasse 18 in Eberbach on April 14, 2011.

  • Emanuel Levy, called "the Count" , born on June 17, 1861 in Bracht, son of Bernhard Levy and Johanna Zanders, cattle dealer in Grefrath , chairman of the cattle dealer association for the Düsseldorf administrative region; he lived in Grefrath, Kempener Str. 3, was married to Mathilde Leyser (born 1859), both are the parents of Alfred and Jenny Levy; she died in 1935, he in 1938, both were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Kempen [143]
    • Alfred Levy , born March 7th, 1889 in Grefrath, son of Emanuel Levy and Mathilde Leyser, cattle dealer, 1910 one of the founders and first chairman of SV Grefrath, finally unskilled worker, lived in Grefrath, Kempener Str. 3. He, his wife Klara Levy née Wyngaard (born on February 3, 1889 in Lank-Latum ) and their son Gerd Levy (born on May 12, 1925 in Grefrath) were deported from Düsseldorf to the Riga ghetto on December 11, 1941, and later to the Riga concentration camp. Kaiserwald; Alfred and Klara Levy are last attested to on September 25, 1944 in Stutthof, Gerd Levy was brought from Stutthof to Buchenwald on June 16, 1944 and murdered there on February 5, 1945 [144]
    • Jenny Sanders née Levy , born on June 1, 1892 in Grefrath, daughter of Emanuel Levy and Mathilde Leyser, married Hermann Sanders (see under Hinsbeck )
  • Henrietta Levy , born on May 1, 1866 in Bracht, daughter of Bernhard Levy and Johanna Zanders, wife of Carl Höflich (her cousin, see above), died on February 12, 1941 in Breyell
  • Carl Salomon Levy , born November 18, 1869 Bracht, son of Bernhard Levy, dealer in Bracht, and Johanna Zanders, last lived in Grefrath, Bahnstr. 14, and was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 664), on September 21, 1942 to Treblinka (Transport Bp, prisoner number 1607), and was probably murdered there immediately upon arrival . In literature he is confused with Salomon Levy, born January 7, 1865 Breyell, son of Bernhard Levy and Elisabeth Zanders, cattle dealer, died May 10, 1932 Breyell. [145]

Hinsbeck

“In the Geldrischen part of the city of Nettetal, that is in Hinsbeck, Leuth and Lobberich, there were no Jews towards the end of the 18th century [1782] according to an official contemporary statement. […] In Hinsbeck it stayed that way for a long time: the statistics compiled by the district administrator in Geldern expressly do not show any Jews for 1843, 1847 and 1858. “In 1889, the birth of a Jewish girl is documented in Hinsbeck.

In May 1927 there were seven Jews living in Hinsbeck, six six months later, including no school-age children. The Hinsbeck Jews “actually belong to the synagogue community of Geldern , but because of the great distance from Geldern they joined the branch synagogue community of Kaldenkirchen, which belongs to the synagogue community of Kempen , by agreement . [...] The membership of the Hinsbeck Jews in the Kaldenkirchen community is confirmed again in 1937. "

"The Hinsbeck Jews [from 1927] were the families of the two cattle dealers Jakob and Philipp Sanders in Neustraße", who were born in Kaldenkirchen in 1869 and 1871 and moved to Hinsbeck: Besides Philipp and Jacob, their wives Pauline and Sara, as well as three (or two) of the four children of the two families. [146]

“In 1934 they are officially certified that they were reserved and apolitical residents of the community. […] Even an inquiry from the Stapo Düsseldorf to the local administration Hinsbeck in autumn 1935 did not reveal anything negative about them. [...] Jakob Sanders with family and Philipp Sanders succeeded in emigrating to the USA in 1941. They stopped trading in cattle as early as 1938. ”“ The last family members fled in autumn 1941 via Lisbon with the last refugee ship that headed for the USA from here ” [147] The escape must take place between June 21 and October 23 His, [148] for Jacob Sanders June 30 is known (see below), the same date is likely for his brother and sister-in-law.

Sander family / little men

  • Selma Männlein, née Sander, born on January 13, 1889 in Hinsbeck, daughter of Leonhard Sander and Jenny Sander née May; she was deported from Nuremberg to Izbica on March 24, 1942 ; were deported with herMax (born on August 29, 1885 in Erlangen ) andTherese Männlein (born on June 18, 1877 in Erlangen), whereby due to the order (Max, Selma, Therese) it can be assumed that Max was her husband. Max, Selma and Therese Männlein last lived in Nuremberg, Bucher Str. 20a [149]

Philipp Sanders / Pauline Schuster family

  • Philipp Sanders , born on July 27, 1869 in Kaldenkirchen, was the son of Salomon Sanders, 44 years old, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vasen, 35 years old; he was a cattle dealer and married toPauline Sanders née Schuster , born on November 14, 1875 in Nordheim before the Rhön , probably the daughter of Seckel Schuster, cattle dealer in Nordheim, and Johanna Schuster née Baum. The couple lived in Hinsbeck in Neustr. 16 (today Neustr. 18) and had two daughters, Erna and Herta. In 1941 both fled to the USA (together with Jacob Sanders, see below): They traveled to Lisbon, which they left on June 30 on the "SS Excambion" to New York via Bermuda , reached New York on July 30, 1941 and surrendered the Immigration Service as the destination address 4036 Broadway NYC in Washington Heights. Philipp Sanders died on January 13, 1952 in Paramus/ NJ at the age of 82; Pauline Sanders last lived in New York and died on September 20, 1971 in Paramus / NJ at the age of 95. [150]
  • Erna Rosalie Stern, née Sanders , was born on July 5, 1901 in Hinsbeck; she was the daughter of Philipp Sanders and Pauline Sanders, nee Schuster , and the wife of Alfred Stern , born on May 26, 1895 in Neustadt an der Saale , son of Sigmund Stern (died November 17, 1931), dealer in Neustadt, and Anna Blum. Alfred Stern attended the Catholic primary school in Neustadt, 1906–1912 the Oberrealschule in Würzburg , and then did an apprenticeship in Frankfurt am Main. He was a soldier in the First World War, then from 1918 in his parents' haberdashery, white and wool wholesaler “A. Stern's Sohn ”, which had to give up in 1938. Alfred Stern was politically active in the local executive committee of the DDP . His first marriage (Trauschein Neustadt 1924) was Bertha Levy, with whom he had a daughter, Johanna (later: Hanna). He was arrested on November 10, 1938 and released after the notarial assignment of his parents' house. The couple lived in Neustadt until September 11, 1939, when they moved to Mainz with Alfred Stern's mother to prepare for emigration. In Mainz, Alfred and Erna Stern were issued a passport on February 12, 1940, with which they entered Switzerland on February 29 with the destination Genoa ; in Genoa the couple climbed theSS Manhattan , which cast off March 8 and reached New York on March 18. Shortly thereafter (1940) they lived in Manhattan, at least in 1943 and then in 1968 at 705 West 170th Street in the Washington Heights district . Alfred Stern died in March 1978 at the age of 82, his last residence in New York City; Erna Stern died on December 12, 1989 at the age of 88. [151]
    • Alfred's mother Anna Stern nee Blum was born on July 28, 1871 in Aufhausen (Württemberg); She last lived as a widow in Mainz, Adam-Karrillon-Str. 13; Anna Stern was deported from Darmstadt to Theresienstadt on September 27, 1942 , where she was murdered on December 7, 1942. [152]
    • Alfred's daughter Johanna Stern (called Hanna) came to England on the last Kindertransport before the start of the war. She lived in Middlesbrough with Etty and Lionel Levy, is attested in the city in 1943 and 1946. Her father claims that she was "adopted" in England, by which he means an adoption . [153]
  • Herta Anny Kösterich, née Sanders , was born on April 27, 1910 in Hinsbeck; she was the daughter of Philipp Sanders and Pauline Sanders, nee Schuster ; she married Hermann Kösterich from Frankfurt am Mainin 1936 in Wiesbaden (born October 1, 1910), son of Joseph Kösterich (born November 14, 1873) and Bertha Kösterich, born NN (born January 6, 1880); in the same year both traveled to the USA - as did his parents - Hermann and Herta reached Washington on November 4, 1936Coming from Hamburg New York (his parents had already entered on the same ship and the same route on April 22, 1936). They were naturalized on March 12, 1937. In 1938 Hermann Koesterich offered his services as a kosher butcher in Washington Heights. In 1940 Hermann and Herta lived with his parents and his brother Bert (* probably 1918) in Manhattan; on July 27, 1943 he was called up with the professional title "teacher (secondary level)" for up to six months after the end of the war. Herta Koesterich died on January 10, 1997 at the age of 86; she last lived in Fort Lee (New Jersey) ; a death record for Hermann Kösterich cannot be found. [154]

Jacob Sanders / Sara Reich family

  • Jacob Sanders , born on November 23, 1871 in Kaldenkirchen, was a son of Salomon Sanders (1822–1906), a butcher in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vasen, 38 years old [ie born 1832/33], and the younger brother of Philipp Sanders ; he was a cattle dealer, had on June 10, 1900 in Reckendorf Sara Reich married, who was born on February 17, 1873 in Eubigheim as the daughter of Leopold Reich, a trader in Eubigheim, and Bertha Schloß; the couple and their two children Else and Lothar also lived in Hinsbeck in Neustr. 16 (today Neustr. 18); Sara Sanders died on July 8, 1935 in Hinsbeck, 62 years old, and was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Kaldenkirchen; Jacob Sanders fled to the USA in 1941 (together with Philipp and Paulina Sanders, see above), he lived in New York in 1941 and died in May 1951. [155]
  • Else Rosa Landauer, née Sanders , born on April 29, 1901 in Hinsbeck, was the daughter of Jacob Sanders , a trader in Hinsbeck, and Sara Sanders, née Reich ; her first marriage was German Schwarz and at the beginning of 1932 she lived as a widow (again) in Hinsbeck; she married Arthur Landauer on February 16, 1932 in Frankfurt am Main, born on October 25, 1895 in Tuttlingen , 1932 a businessman in Tuttlingen, son of Ferdinand Landauer, a businessman, and Friederike Landauer née Holzmann; their daughter Ursula was born on March 18, 1933 in Tuttlingen [156] . Arthur, Else and Ursula Landauer fled to the USA in 1937 and reached New York on November 17, 1937RMS Berengaria coming from Cherbourg . In 1940 they lived in Manhattan / NY, West 147th Street; Arthur Landauer died in February 1988 at the age of 92, his last apartment was in New York; Elsa Landauer (called "Elsie" in the USA) died on November 21, 1996 in New York City at the age of 95. Ursula Landauer lived in Florida in 1992. [157]
  • Leo Lothar Sanders , born on November 11, 1908 in Hinsbeck, son of Jacob Sanders and Sara Sanders, née Reich , also lived in Hinsbeck in the Neustr. 16 (today Neustr. 18); he fled to New York in 1935 and lived in 1940 with his wife Lieselotte Sanders, nee Taschenin Manhattan; Lieselotte Tasche was born on August 7, 1911 in Krefeld as the daughter of Gustav Tasche and Marie Willmer. She accompanied Lothar Sanders on the run and married him in Manhattan on September 30, 1937; on the occasion of the marriage she converted to Judaism and took the first name Ruth (officially she was still called Lieselotte); Lothar Sanders died on October 17, 1992 in New York at the age of 82, Lieselotte Sanders died on November 10, 2004 at the age of 93, her last apartment was in New York. [158]

The stumbling blocks for

  • Philipp Sanders, Pauline Sanders, Erna Stern and Herta Kösterich
  • Jacob Sanders, Sara Sanders, Else Landauer and Lothar Sanders

were found on November 9, 2014 in Hinsbeck in front of the Neustr. 18 , the house of the Sanders family.

Kaldenkirchen

In Kaldenkirchen, Jews have been recorded in uninterrupted succession since the beginning of the 18th century. [159] In 1734 and 1739, Salomon Isaac and Mayer Laaser, who had moved from England, were baptized in Kaldenkirchen with noble godparents. In 1761 the butcher Samuel Benjamin, who was born in Breyell, married Gertrud Isaac; he probably took the surname Sanders in 1808 and died in 1813. "14 Jews are counted in Kaldenkirchen in 1806, six boys and four girls and two married men and women each" [160]so two families. In 1843 two families are still reported, but they now contain 26 people. On July 13, 1873, a synagogue was inaugurated (in today's Synagogenstrasse) [which was destroyed on November 10, 1938 during the Reichspogromnacht, as was the synagogue in Breyell]. In 1926, 55 Jews lived in the city. [161] At the end of 1927 there were 21 "taxable residents of Israelite denomination". [162] In 1934 the number of Jews had already fallen to 44, in 1936 to 36; At the beginning of 1939 there were 23, in March (in connection with the creation of the identification cards) 20 will be listed.

Bonn family

  • Alexander (Alex) Bonn , born on February 18, 1878 in Bracht, was the son of Isaac Bonn (born 1838 in Waldniel ) and Henriette Cappel (born 1843 in Brüggen ); he was a merchant in Kaldenkirchen. Alex Bonn marriedEmmy Leyens , born on August 11, 1888 in Schwanenberg , the daughter of Gottschalk Leyens (Leijens) and Johanna Rubens. [163] The couple became the parents of Walter and Hans Günther Bonn, the family lived in 1927 in Kaldenkirchen, Hochstr. 22. Alex Bonn died on June 20, 1930 in Kaldenkirchen by suicide. Emmy Bonn lived (again as a widow) in Schwanenberg, she fled to Venlo, where she lived in 1938, also on July 1, 1942; on May 25, 1943, she was deported from Westerbork to Sobibor and murdered there; on May 28, 1943, she was declared dead. [164]
  • Walter Bonn was born on June 5, 1912 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Alexander Bonn and Emmy Bonn, née Leyens ; He lived as a merchant in Kaldenkirchen, fled to the Netherlands, lived in Venlo in 1935, and in March 1939 at Nieuwstraat 27 [165] . He married in 1940/41Hermina (Mimi) Hertz , who was born on December 13, 1918 in Voorburg as the daughter of Jacques Gustave Hertz and Rela Heymans. The couple lived in Venlo on July 1, 1942, were interned in Westerbork, and deported to Auschwitz in 1942. Walter Bonn was murdered in Auschwitz III Monowitz concentration camp in April 1944 and declared dead on April 21, 1944; Hermina Bonn, born Leyens, was murdered in Auschwitz, like her parents, in June 1944 and declared dead on June 30, 1944. [166]
  • Hans Günter (Eljakim) Bonn , born on July 30, 1921 in Kaldenkirchen, was the younger son of Alexander Bonn and Emmy Bonn, née Leyens. He also fled to Venlo, where he lived in 1938; Hans Günter Bonn was interned in Westerbork and deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz in 1942; he survived the war, was liberated and returned to Venlo from Auschwitz in 1945. In 1946 he married Eva Hilde Wurm and the couple had a son, René Bonn (born in Venlo in 1947). Hans Günter Bonn died on April 15, 1948 in Venlo “of the consequences of medical experiments in Auschwitz” (tuberculosis); he was buried in the new Jewish cemetery in Venlo; his widow and son emigrated to Palestine / Israel in 1949. [167]
  • Regina Keizer, née Bonn , born on March 1, 1880 in Bracht, daughter of Isaak Bonn, butcher in Bracht, and Henriette Bonn née Cappel, wife of Jacques Keizer - see below

The stumbling blocks for Emmy, Walter and Hans Günter Bonn were opened on November 9, 2014 in front of their house in Kehrstr. 52 relocated to Kaldenkirchen. [168]

Familie Cohen

The Cohen family is attested in Sambeek / NL at the beginning of the 19th century. Levi Cohen, who was born there, moved to Kaldenkirchen because of his marriage to a member of the Devries family (see below). [169]

  • Levi Jehuda Cohen was born on June 6, 1849 in Sambeek to David Levi Cohen (1807-1893) and Gertrudis de Witt (1814-1876). He worked (at least in Kaldenkirchen and Sonsbeck) as a journeyman tanner. Levi Cohen married on November 8, 1886 in KaldenkirchenHenriette (Jetta) Devries , who was born on April 8, 1861 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Abraham Devries and Rebekka Devries, née Lion. The couple became the parents of Eva (1887), Abraham (1889), Josef (1891), Berta (1894), Adolf (1899–1899), Jakob (1899) and Helene (1903) Cohen; they lived in Kaldenkirchen (1886/91), later in Sonsbeck (1894/99) and settled permanently in Kleve . In the 1920s the family lived in Kleve at Hagschen Strasse 28, where Levi Cohen traded frozen meat. In 1935 Levi and Jetta Cohen moved to Düsseldorf, probably living with their daughter Berta Franck.[170] On March 3, 1939 Levi and Jetta Cohen (he was 90 years old) emigrated to the Netherlands; there they lived with sister-in-law Sara Cohen-Sousman Natan. Levi Cohen died in Cuijk on September 18, 1940. Jetta Cohen was interned in the Vught / NL transit camp of the Hertogenbosch concentration camp from April 9, 1943, and was murdered there on May 8, 1943. [171]
  • Eva Cohen , born on August 20, 1887 in Kaldenkirchen, was the daughter of Levi Jehuda Cohen and Henriette Cohen, née Devries , she remained single, looked after her parents until 1935, lived in Kaldenkirchen at the end of 1938, most recently in Kleve in March 1939 in Kaldenkirchen and finally in Düsseldorf; on November 10, 1941, she was deported (with the job title worker) from Düsseldorf to the Minsk ghetto / Belarus and murdered there. [172]
  • Abraham Cohen was born on October 31, 1889 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Levi Jehuda Cohen , a tanner in Kaldenkirchen, and Henriette Cohen, née Devries . He was a merchant by trade, cattle dealer as a co-owner of the company Sanders, Erben & Co. Abraham Cohen married on April 29, 1926 in BreyellElse Levy , who was born in Breyell on April 8, 1900, to Bernhard Levy and Rosina Levy, born in Krebs . In 1927 the couple lived in Kaldenkirchen, Bahnhofstr. 82 (today No. 76). In 1928 their child Erich Bernd Cohen was born. Later the family lived on Schlageterstrasse. 18. On November 9, 1938, Abraham Cohen lived as a cattle dealer (with a professional ban) in Kaldenkirchen; from November 17, 1938 to December 22, 1938 he was interned in "protective custody" in Dachau; In 1939 he was head of the synagogue. In March 1939 the family lived in Kaldenkirchen, Bahnhofstr. 82 (today No. 76) (the son fled to the Netherlands that year), then moved with his wife “from Kaldenkirchen to the house already inhabited by other JewsVorbruch 3a ”in Breyell, where they last lived. On December 11, 1941, Abraham (now referred to as "Melker") and Else Cohen were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga; Abraham Cohen was murdered there, Else Cohen survived the ghetto and the Riga concentration camp and was finally deported to Stutthof, where she was murdered on October 1, 1944. [173]
  • Erich Bernd (Eric B.) Cohen , born April 2, 1928 in Kaldenkirchen, son of Abraham Cohen and Else Levy, survived in the Netherlands in 1939 and then fled to England on a so-called Kindertransport. He married Cynthia Greenspan and had a son (1969). [174]
  • Josef Cohen , born October 10, 1891 Kaldenkirchen, son of Levi Jehuda Cohen and Henriette Cohen, née Devries , husband of Marta (Anne) Leyens (born March 10, 1900); fled with his wife and two children (Gerald Julius, April 13, 1927, and Gisela, born May 23, 1930) to Great Britain, where he set up a cardboard box factory. Marta Cohen died in 1975, Josef Cohen in 1982. Gerald Julius had three children and six grandchildren; Gisela married Leonard Ison (October 2, 1923 - October 28, 1985), became a mother several times, and died on July 26, 1991 in Jerusalem [175]
  • Berta Cohen , born on January 5, 1894 in Sonsbeck, married the butcher Paul Franck (born June 21, 1887 in Düsseldorf); Both were deported from Düsseldorf to Minsk on November 10, 1941 (together with their sister Eva Cohen ) and later murdered there. The couple had two children, Edith Franck (born May 23, 1928 Düsseldorf) and Gottlieb Franck (born June 21, 1931 Düsseldorf), both of whom were sent to the Netherlands on January 23, 1939, they arrived in Nijmegen on January 19lived in Rotterdam for a short time from January 23, then in two orphanages in Amsterdam; Both were interned in Westerbork on February 11, 1943 and deported to Sobibor on March 2, 1943, where they were murdered on March 5, 1943. [176]
  • Jakob Cohen , born June 28, 1899 in Sonsbeck, married to Elise Kern (born April 28, 1904 in Edenkoben); he worked as a butcher and from 1938 as a caretaker in the Jewish school and synagogue. Jakob and Elise Cohen are the parents of Herbert Cohen (January 23, 1931 Goch) and Margot Cohen(September 15, 1932 Goch); They were deported from Düsseldorf to Litzmannstadt on October 27, 1941, to Kulmhof on May 6, 1942, and gassed there on May 7, 1942. Herbert and Margot Cohen were brought to the Netherlands on December 29, 1938, and they were housed in Amsterdam. Herbert Cohen was later interned in Westerbork and murdered in Auschwitz on October 25, 1944; Margot Cohen survived the war in hiding, was taken in by her aunt Helena and her uncle Adolf Ermann and later moved to the USA with them. She married Irwin Jack Keinon (March 10, 1931), had several children and died in Denver in 1985 . [177]
  • Helena (Lenchen) Cohen was born on October 18, 1903 in Kleve. She married Adolf Ermann (born November 8, 1888). The couple lived in Düsseldorf and fled to Haiti in 1939. After the war they took in their niece Margot Cohen. In the early 1950s, Helena and Adolf Ermann moved to San Francisco . Helena Ermann née Cohen died on July 10, 1961 in Alameda / USA, Adolf Ermann on December 17, 1970.

The stumbling blocks for Jakob, Elise, Herbert and Margot Cohen were opened on June 4, 2014 in Sonsbeck in front of the house in Herzogstr. 8 relocated. [178] According to the relatives' will, no stumbling blocks are laid for Eva, Abraham and Else Cohen.

Defries (Devries) family

The Defries or Devries family is attested from 1837 with Abraham Defries as a butcher in Kaldenkirchen. [179] Abraham Defries was born on December 30, 1800 in Uden in North Brabant and came to Kaldenkirchen through his marriage (1824) to the much older widow Rachel Sanders, born Lion, who was born on December 14, 1781 in Sambeek as the daughter of Levie Arie Joseph Lion and Hendrina David Gans was born; she had married Salomon Sanders († 1822) in her first marriage; Rachel Lion died in Kaldenkirchen in 1850, the marriage remained childless. In his second marriage, Abraham Defries married Rebecca / Rabeca Lion in 1850, who lived in Vierlingsbeek in 1825was born and died in Kaldenkirchen in 1904. Abraham and Rebecca Defries are the parents of those born in Kaldenkirchen

  1. Sibylla de Wijze (March 6, 1853 - September 17, 1938), who married the butcher Samuel de Wijze (1853–1933) from Boxmeer / NL in 1881 and moved there - almost all of her children and children-in-law were murdered during the Shoah [180]
  2. Simon Defries (October 24, 1855 - January 2, 1939), who lived as a butcher in Kaldenkirchen (see below)
  3. Jakob Defries (June 9, 1858 - November 28, 1908), who married Henriette Koopmans from Weeze (1860–1935) in 1886 and settled there as a butcher - their eldest son died in World War I, the other children survived the Holocaust
  4. Henriette Cohen (April 8, 1861 - May 8, 1943), who married Levi Cohen and was murdered in the Vught camp (see above)
  5. Wilhelmina Sanders (May 9, 1866 - October 7, 1959), who married Simon Sanders , survived the Shoah in hiding in Amsterdam and emigrated to the USA after the war (see below)
  • Simon Defries was born on October 24, 1855 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Abraham Defries, master butcher in Kaldenkirchen, and Rebecca Defries, née Lion. He married on July 6, 1903 in AachenHenrietta Holländer , who was born on September 15, 1865 in Eschweiler as the daughter of Benjamin Holländer, a trader in Eschweiler, and Sara Holländer, née Menken, and who lived in Aachen before they married. The marriage remained childless. Simon Defries worked as a master butcher in Kaldenkirchen in 1927 and lived with his wife in the house at Bahnhofstrasse 82 (today no. 76 - the relief of a bull's head above the front door goes back to him). After falling down a flight of stairs during the November pogrom, he died on January 2, 1939 in Kaldenkirchen; he was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Kaldenkirchen. His widow continued to live in Kaldenkirchen in March 1939, most recently in Schlageterstrasse, before moving to Deventer in the Netherlands in 1939escaped. She last lived in Deventer, Snippelingsdijk 11, or (on July 1, 1942) in Geert Grootestraat 7, was interned in Westerbork, deported to Auschwitz in 1943 and murdered there; She was declared dead on June 1, 1951 by February 1, 1943 by the Lobberich District Court. [181] Henrietta Holländer was the aunt of Edith Frank-Holländer , the mother of Margot and Anne Frank . [182]
  • Johanna Devries was born on January 9, 1880 as the daughter of Moses Adolph Devries (born 1840 in Uedem ) and Antoinette Devries née Jacobs (born 1846 in Goch ) in Goch. She was the younger sister of the fur trader Adolf de Vries from Goch, the last head of the Jewish community in Goch; Adolf de Vries (born on May 28, 1876 in Goch) was murdered on July 18, 1942 in Litzmannstadt. Johanna Devries remained single, “was a pensioner and lived at Mühlenstrasse 47 in Goch. She left Goch in July 1939 and moved to live with relatives in Kaldenkirchen; from here she was deported to Riga on December 10, 1941 [ie December 11, 1941 from Düsseldorf] and murdered. [183]

The stumbling block for Johanna Devries was on June 4, 2014 in Goch in front of the house Vossstr. 12 relocated. [184] The stumbling blocks for Simon and Henrietta Devries were on February 17, 2016 in front of their house at Bahnhofstr. 76 relocated in Kaldenkirchen.

Grunewald family

In 1837 Elias Grunewald is attested as a butcher in Kaldenkirchen, in 1847 there are his sons, the butcher Josef Gronewald (born June 3, 1811), the trader Salomon Gronewald (February 22, 1815) and Simon Gronewald (January 31, 1817) as an assistant. [185]

  • Elias Grunewald was born on December 21, 1855 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Salomon Grunewald and Friederica Grunewald, née Stern; he ran a department store in Kaldenkirchen on the corner of Kehrstr./Grenzwaldstr. Elias Grunewald married on August 17, 1886 in KaldenkirchenRosalia Voos , who was born on December 20, 1850 in Immerath as the daughter of Michael Voos and Eva Voos, born Kaufmann, and who lived in Erkelenz before her marriage . Elias and Rosalia Grunewald are the parents of Sigmund (1887), Selma (1888) and Ernst (1894) Grunewald, among others. Rosalia Grunewald died as the widow of Elias Grunewald probably in 1924 [186]
  • Sigmund Grunewald (Schlomo ben Elijahu) was born on May 27, 1887 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Elias Grunewald and Rosalie Grunewald, née Voos . He married Catharina (Käthe) Joachim , who was born on June 12, 1888 in Königs Wusterhausen as the daughter of Simon Joachim and Johanna Joachim, born Fränkel, their son Rolf Grunewaldwas born on February 26, 1920 in Kaldenkirchen. In 1927 the family lived at Breyeller Strasse 1, in the same year Sigmund Grunewald is listed as a cigar manufacturer and partner in the cigar factory Sanders, Grunewald & Co. Later he works in a dye works. Siegmund Grunewald fled to the Netherlands, lived in Venlo in 1937, where he had to go into hiding after the German invasion and died on December 7, 1942; he was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Venlo. Catharina Grunewald and her son Rolf signed up for Tegelen in the Netherlands on August 2, 1937 , they lived in hiding in Well / NL from 1942–1944 and survived the war. Both emigrated to South America after the war, first living in Montevideo , then in Buenos Aires. Rolf Grunewald married Sonja Strang from Berlin in 1957. Catharina Grunewald died on May 2, 1971 in Buenos Aires, Rolf Grunewald was still alive in 1989. [187]
  • Selma Grunewald was born on May 17, 1888 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Elias Grunewald , a merchant in Kaldenkirchen, and Rosalie Grunewald, née Voos . On January 24, 1911, she married the merchant Gustav Heumann in Kaldenkirchen, who was born on February 10, 1878 in Körrenzig, the son of Simon Heumann, a butcher, and Johanna Heumann née Mendel; Gustav Heumann lived in Linnich before his marriage . Selma Grunewald died before 1925. Gustav Heumann was last born with Paula Heumann, Alexander , born on September 28, 1885 in LeiffarthMandel, born as the daughter of Jakob Alexander and Sibilla Alexander, married, both were deported to Izbica in March 1942 and murdered there [188] . Irene Heumann , the daughter of Gustav and Selma Heumann, born on January 19, 1912 in Linnich, was transferred to the Düren sanatorium on October 7, 1939 and from there to the Düsseldorf-Grafenberg psychiatric institution on February 12, 1941 ; she probably fell victim to euthanasia . [189] Her sister Lotte Heumann (born in Linnich, perhaps 1915) fled to England in 1937; here she lived in a retirement home in London in 1988 [190]. The son Siegfried (Fred) Heumann from the second marriage (born on December 11, 1925 in Linnich) also survived the Holocaust; he fled to an uncle in France on May 10, 1939, was brought from there to the south of France and reached the USA on a Kindertransport; there he studied German and received a professorship at the City University of New York , he became a rabbi and finally moved to Israel [191] [192]
  • Ernst Grunewald was born on September 5, 1894 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Elias Grunewald , a merchant in Kaldenkirchen, and Rosalie Grunewald, née Voos . Ernst Grunewald was a businessman by profession. He married (contingent 1920/21 Kaldenkirchen)Johanna Servos , who was born on May 2, 1892 in Anrath as the daughter of Simon Servos and Fanny Servos, born Abraham; the common childrenGünther Grunewald andHans Grunewald were born on March 3, 1923 and June 13, 1926 in Kaldenkirchen. In 1927 the family lived in Kaldenkirchen at Kehrstrasse 49, later (1935 or earlier) they moved to Krefeld, most recently at Neusser Strasse 38. On April 22, 1942 Günther Grunewald (who was referred to as a machine fitter in 1941) followed suit from Düsseldorf Izbica deported and later murdered there. On June 15, 1942, Ernst, Johanna and Hans Grunewald were deported on the “Da 22” transport, probably destined for Izbica. “After the“ selection ”on a siding in Lublin, around 100 men were initially brought from the“ Da 22 ”transport to the Majdanek camp. Presumably the train was then directed directly to Sobibor without touching the through ghetto of Izbica beforehand. " [193]
  • Emma Grunewald was a daughter of Elias Grunewald and Rosalia Voos [194] ; an Emma Scheffel née Grunewald, born in Kaldenkirchen, is attested in late 1938 in Berlin-Wilmersdorf. The fate of Emma Grunewald is unknown [195]
  • Hubert Robert Grunewald was born on July 31, 1867 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Salomon Grunewald, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Frederica Grunewald, née Stern. He was married to Lina Blumenthal (born April 1, 1871), from whom he had five children: Martha, Klara, Sigmund, Erna Emma and Erich. Lina Grunewald died in 1940, she was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Krefeld. Hubert Robert Grunewald last lived in Krefeld, Neusser Strasse 65. He was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 466) and murdered there on February 4, 1943. [196] Erich and Erna Grunewaldwere deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, Erna was murdered there in 1943, Erich on February 28, 1944. Klara Grunewald (born March 20, 1896 in Krefeld) was deported to Theresienstadt and survived the Holocaust; Sigmund Grunewald (born February 24, 1898 Krefeld) also survived the Holocaust, although details are not known, and emigrated to the USA after 1945. Apart from the date of birth, there is no further information about Martha Grunewald (born September 20, 1894 Krefeld). [197]

The stumbling blocks for Ernst, Johanna, Günther and Hans Grunewald were opened on November 9, 2014 in front of their house in Kehrstr. 49 relocated to Kaldenkirchen. [198]

The development of the younger line of the Grunewald family is remarkable: “The social advancement of the Simon Grunewald family was mainly shaped by the marriage of Simon Grunewald to Ida Alsberg on June 1st, 1852. Ida Alsberg was born on May 3rd, 1825 in Sendenhorst as the daughter of the fruit and grocer's merchant Levi Alsberg (1778–1846) and his wife, little girl Wolf. Ida's grandfather Salomon Ansel (the Alsberg family had this name until 1821) was the largest taxpayer in Sendenhorst in 1787 as a “merchant Jew”. Her brother Salomon Alsberg of the same name laid the foundation for the department store group " Gebr. Alsberg ", which later became almost nationwide . [199] The kinship with the Alsberg family promoted family relationships even in the second generation:

  • Simon's daughter Henriette Grunewald (1856–1933) married the merchant Julius Löwenstein (1852–1939); their son was the psychiatrist Otto Löwenstein (1889–1965)
  • Otto Löwenstein's sister Marta (1894–1997) was the wife of the lawyer August Wimmer (1899–1988)
  • Simon Grunewald's son was the medical officer Joseph Julius Grunewald (1860–1929), whose daughter the zoologist Marta Grunewald (1889–1965), who married her cousin Otto Löwenstein.
  • Joseph Julius Grunewald's daughter, the pediatrician Elisabeth Grunewald (1893–1985) was the wife of the physicist Alfred Landé (1888–1976)

Hoffstadt family

The Hoffstadt family is proven in Kaldenkirchen as early as 1813 with the butcher Emanuel Hofstädt, probably the same Emanuel Hoffstadt in 1837 as a junk dealer and in 1847 (here with date of birth 19 September 1784) as a second-hand dealer. His son Samuel Hoffstadt was born on February 12, 1815 in Kaldenkirchen and is referred to in 1847 as (his) "helper". A dozen years later, in 1859, the same Samuel Hoffstadt becomes Strauss (born on December 8, 1839) in "Nattesheim in Prussia" ( Nettesheim or Nettersheim ) through his wife Sibilla Hoffstadt?) Father of Joseph Hoffstadt; After Samuel Hoffstadt's return to Kaldenkirchen (where he now appears as a trader), other children follow: Emanuel (1864), Regina (1866), Moses (1868), Jacob (1871) and Helena (1874), Friede (1881). Sibilla Hoffstadt, born Strauss, died on May 23, 1926 in Kaldenkirchen and was buried here in the Jewish cemetery. [200]

  • Joseph Hoffstadt was born on February 23, 1859 in Nettesheim / Prussia as the son of Samuel Hoffstadt and Sibilla Hoffstadt, born Strauss; it can be assumed that he spent his youth in Kaldenkirchen. He married Rosina Moses on February 5, 1888 in Burg-Graefenrode (born on April 7, 1855 in Burg-Graefenrode, died on July 27, 1889 in Burg-Graefenrode), daughter of Bear Moses, a trader, and Bettchen Manasse, and after the early death of his wife then (1891 or earlier) pigeon Nauheimer , who died on October 24, 1927 in Burg-Graefenrode. The date of Joseph Hoffstadt's death is not known. Of his five children, three died before 1920. The oldest, Siegfried Samuel Hoffstadt(February 5, 1889, from his first marriage), who lived in Kaiserslautern and later in Berlin, was interned in Dachau from November 12 to December 16, 1938 and was deported to Kaunas on November 17, 1941 and there on November 25 Murdered in 1941. The youngest, Max (May 9, 1900), had been married to Gerti Grünwald since July 15, 1927; In 1937 he sold the family property in Burg-Graefenrode to finance his escape to Haifa , "returned to Frankfurt after the war and ran a textile business there", and died on June 5, 1974 in Troisdorf . [201]
  • Emanuel Hoffstadt was born on May 5, 1864 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Samuel Hoffstadt, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Sibilla Hoffstadt, née Strauss. As a cattle dealer, he moved to Straelen on March 1, 1898, lived in Annastr. 7, most recently Adolf-Hitler-Str. 24; he was to be deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942, but died a week earlier, on July 16, 1942 in Straelen and was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Geldern. Emanuel Hoffstadt had married Amalia Neu, called Malchen ,on November 25, 1908 in Franconian-Crumbach , born on June 3, 1866 in Franconian Crumbach; she died on November 30, 1939 in Straelen and was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Geldern. Their only son was Siegfried Hoffstadt (1908).[202]
  • Siegfried Hoffstadt was born on November 25, 1908 in Straelen as the son of Emanuel Hoffstadt and Amalia Hoffstadt, nee Neu. He was in “protective custody” in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to January 10, 1939 and was deported to Riga on December 11, 1941, where he was murdered. [203] "The last Jew who washangedin Salaspils [the subcamp of the Riga ghetto] - for stealing bread - was a court town from Straelen" [204]“Siegfried Hoffstadt from Straelen was with Max [Lion] in the Salaspils camp, and they went to work together. And they had a piece of butter and, I think, a piece of bread too, and they were caught. Then Siegfried said to Max: “You know Max, I take the blame on myself. You still have a wife and child. ”And Siegfried was not hanged, but shot. My husband Max told me that later. " [205]
  • Regina Hoffstadt was born on March 29, 1866 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Samuel Hoffstadt, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Sibilla Hoffstadt, née Strauss. Since 1888 she worked in a Mönchengladbach butcher's shop. She married Peter Decker on September 19, 1902 in Kaldenkirchen , who was born in Meerssen, Netherlands on February 25, 1874. They lived at Luïsenstrasse 28 and 104 in Mönchengladbach and had four children. After an accident, she died on July 25, 1930 and was buried in the Jewish cemetery.
  • Moses Hoffstadt was born on October 26, 1868 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Samuel Hoffstadt, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Sibilla Hoffstadt, née Strauss. He married on May 19, 1897 in KaldenkirchenJulie Sanders , who was born on September 9, 1859 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Salomon Sanders, 37 years old, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Vases born to Adelheid Sanders. Moses Hoffstadt was a cigar maker at the time. In 1927 the couple lived in Kaldenkirchen at Kehrstrasse 18, when Moses was a tobacco merchant. Julie Hoffstadt died on December 4, 1938 in Kaldenkirchen, Moses Hoffstadt died on February 23, 1941 in Kaldenkirchen, both were buried in Kaldenkirchen's Jewish cemetery. [206]
  • Jacob Hoffstadt was born on March 26, 1871 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Samuel Hoffstadt, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Sibilla Hoffstadt, née Strauss. He was a fur trader by profession, lived in Kaldenkirchen, Hochstr. 8, then on November 18, 1938 in Straelen, most recently in Adolf-Hitler-Str. (Illegible house number); He was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 538), on September 21, 1942 to Treblinka (Transport Bp, prisoner number 1252) and probably murdered there immediately after arrival. [207]
  • Helena / Lea Rothenstein née Hoffstadt was born on December 24, 1874 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Samuel Hoffstadt and Sibilla Hoffstadt née Strauss. She married John Rothenstein , a shop owner in Viersen, in 1938 she lived as a widow on Gladbacher Str. 70; on December 11, 1941 she was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga and later murdered there; Both son Rudolf Rothenstein survived the Holocaust and lived in Haifa in 1991. [208]
  • Friede Hoffstadt was born on August 3, 1881 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Samuel Hoffstadt and Sibilla Hoffstadt, née Strauss. She was a seamstress by trade. She died on December 4, 1927 and was buried in the Jewish cemetery.

The stumbling blocks for Emanuel and Siegfried Hoffstadt were opened on December 11, 2013 in front of the Annastr. 7 relocated to Straelen. [209] The stumbling block for Jacob Hoffstadt was on July 10, 2013 in front of the house at Hockstr. 8 relocated to Kaldenkirchen. [210]

Family Keizer

  • Jakob (Jacques) Keizer was born in Venlo on March 25, 1878 as the son of Simon Keizer (1850–1924) and Rosetta Keizer, née Elekan (1855–1910) [211] . He was a Dutch citizen and a commercial clerk by profession. He married - now as a businessman - on July 22, 1907 in KaldenkirchenRegina Bonn , who was born on March 1, 1880 in Bracht as the daughter of Isaak Bonn, butcher in Bracht, and Henriette Bonn, née Cappel. Jacques and Regina Keizer are the parents of Paul Simon (1909), Etty (1911) and Ilse (1914) Keizer. In 1927 the family lived in Kaldenkirchen at Steyler Str. 35. After fleeing to the Netherlands, Jacques and Rosetta lived in Venlo in 1939, there in Stalbergweg in 1939, and later in Amsterdam in Christiaan de Wetstraat 56 II. They were interned in Westerbork, where Jacques was murdered on January 30, 1944 and cremated on January 31, 1944; he is buried in the Diemen cemetery (field U, row 14, grave 19). Regina was deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz, where she was murdered; she was later pronounced dead on February 11, 1944.[212]
  • Paul Simon Keizer was born in Kaldenkirchen on June 29, 1909, the son of Jacques Keizer and Regina Keizer, née Bonn. He was also a Dutch citizen and a businessman by profession. Paul Simon Keizer lived in Kaldenkirchen at Steyler Str. 5. In 1933 he was charged with subversive statements, but not convicted (see below). On January 20, 1935, he married in Zagreb Mira Friedericka Glücks , born on May 3, 1912 in Slunj / Yugoslavia. The couple lived in Israel and returned to the Netherlands in 1938, while in Germany they were suspected of aiding the illegal emigration of Jews. The daughter was born in Amsterdam on December 24, 1942Nada Keizer was born. “Paul, Mira and daughter Nada were deported from Amsterdam via Westerbork to Theresienstadt on April 5, 1944.” On May 8, 1945, all three were liberated by the Red Army . Daughter Etty (Esther) was born on May 7, 1946 in Amsterdam. The family last lived there in Ceintuurbaan 85 II, emigrated to the USA in 1947 (arrival in New York on June 4, 1947 with a KLM flight from Amsterdam [213] , Paul Simon Keizer stated that he was a furniture maker on arrival), settled in California and became a US citizen on May 8, 1953. Paul Simon Keizer died on May 4, 1974 in Los Angeles; Mira Keizer was later called Mira Hass, apparently had Willy L. Hass [214]married, and died on August 8, 2001 at the age of 89, she also lived in Los Angeles for the last time. Nada (who called herself Nadia Holland in the USA) married 32-year-old Edward R Berger in Los Angeles on August 23, 1970, divorced in December 1971, and died by suicide on November 1, 1990, also in Los Angeles. Etty married Gary D Dolin on July 2, 1967, divorced in November 1971, and lived in San Francisco around 1999. [215]

“On March 31, 1933, a few days after the“ Enabling Act ”was passed, Dr. Josef Goebbels "Reich Minister for Public Enlightenment Propaganda" gave a widely announced speech about all radio stations. In Kaldenkirchener pubs, too, the radio sets were set to the appropriate volume so that all “national comrades” could hear this speech, which turned out to be a hate speech against the Jews with a call to boycott Jewish businesses. "

“The following day the local group leader of the NSDAPEL [Lormann] tel. informed the mayor that SA men had taken P. Keizer to the Kaldenkirchen police prison because he said about Göbbel's speech on the radio in A. Weingarten yesterday that there was some truth in the atrocious news. On April 2, 1933, P. Keizer was brought to the Lobberich district court and charges were brought against him for violating § 3 of the Treachery Act, and his detention was confirmed on the grounds of "risk of escape". "

“Keizer owed two circumstances that there was no conviction: On the one hand, he was a Jew with Dutch nationality, on the other hand, those Kaldenkirchen people with whom he had sat in Weingarten were not prepared, with one exception, to incriminate their Jewish fellow citizens. One had focused entirely on Dr. Göbbels concentrated, the other one hadn't understood anything because of the general discussion in the restaurant, others couldn't remember, etc. Keizer came into focus of the Gestapo after 1937. He helped Jews with the illegal emigration from Germany from Venlo and although his parents' house was in Kaldenkirchen was under constant observation, nothing could be proven. " [216]

  • Rosetta Henriette (Etty) Keizer was born on July 23, 1911 in Kaldenkirchen, the daughter of Jacques Keizer and Regina Keizer, née Bonn. In 1927 she lived in Kaldenkirchen with her parents at Steyler Str. 35 and worked as an office clerk. She fled with her parents to the Netherlands, lived in Venlo in 1939, there in Stalbergweg in 1940, then in Amsterdam in Christiaan de Wetstraat 56 II. She was interned in Westerbork, deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz in 1942 and murdered there; on August 31, 1942, she was later pronounced dead. [217]
  • Ilse Keizer was born on June 5, 1914 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Jacques Keizer and Regina Keizer, née Bonn. Went to Apeldoorn to train as a nurse around 1932 , then got a job at the Nederlands Israelitisch Ziekenhuis (NIZ), later at the Centraal Israelitisch Ziekenhuis (CIZ) in Amsterdam. In 1943 she had to go into hiding, she survived in Haarlem with false papers . In 1946, in Amsterdam, she married Shmuel Wagner , a soldier in the British Army's Jewish Brigade. The couple emigrated to Palestine and soon settled in Kiryat Haim, a suburb of Haifa , where Ilse died in May 1979. [218]

The stumbling blocks for Jakob, Regina and Rosetta Keizer were laid on November 9th, 2014 in front of the house at Steyler Str. 27 in Kaldenkirchen. [219]

The Lion Family

  • Jacob Lion was born on October 28, 1865 in Süchteln to Moses Lion and Regina Rath. He married on October 3, 1899 in KaldenkirchenBertha Sanderswho was born on December 14, 1861 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Salomon Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Sanders-born vases. Jacob Lion worked in 1899 as a butcher and later as a grocer. Their son Max was born in 1905. In 1927 the family lived in Kaldenkirchen at Fährstrasse 10. Jacob Lion was head of the synagogue in his hometown until at least 1936 - as part of the Reichspogromnacht he was forced to deliver the Torah scrolls on November 10, 1938; In a second attack a week later, which was initiated with the words "You didn't get anything, let's clean up here!", Bertha Lion jumped out of the window of the upstairs apartment and suffered a thigh fracture, since then handicapped.[220]
  • Max Lion was born on February 4, 1905 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Jacob Lion and Bertha Lion, née Sanders. By profession he was a dealer and owner of a clothing and manufactured goods store in Kaldenkirchen; he married on June 14, 1931 in AachenElisabeth (Else) Jafféwho was born on December 27, 1909 in Aachen as the daughter of Paul Jaffé and Sophie Jaffé, born Neumann. Their daughter Hedwig was born in 1932. At the time of the Reichspogromnacht, Max Lion lived as a merchant in Kaldenkirchen, November 17, 1938 to January 10, 1939 he was in "protective custody" in Dachau. Since his wife presented a certificate for him that he had a visa for immigration to the USA, he was released - but this visa had such a high number that he could not go to New York for the time being due to a quota system; in fact, the visa never came into effect. In March 1939 Max Lion lived in Kaldenkirchen again; the family lived in Fährstrasse. 10., finally Venloer Strasse at the corner of Fährstrasse. On 11. In December 1941 the family (Max Lion is now referred to as a worker) was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga. Else Lion was brought from Riga to Stutthof; she managed to survive the war and deportation. Max Lion was imprisoned in Salaspils, he managed to escape in February 1945 [probably from Stutthof], but died three weeks later, on March 19, 1945 at Gut Gothendorf (Chottschow, todayChoczewo (Pomerania)), from tuberculosis. After the war, Elisabeth Lion married Edgar Heymann (born 1909 in Berlin, died 1973 in Wiesbaden), lived in Wiesbaden, had their son Leo in 1950 and died there on October 9, 1996; she "was the only woman who survived the Lower Rhine transport to the concentration camp in Riga." [221]
  • Hedwig (Hedi) Lion was born on May 14, 1932 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Max Lion and Elisabeth Lion, born Jaffé; she and her parents were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941 and murdered in Riga or Auschwitz in November. [222]“Lina Harf [see below] did not go to work, but stayed in the house with [her daughter] Ruth and our daughter Hedi. I [Else Lion] think it was November 2nd, 1943, I can still see the pictures: I'm coming home, we're coming back from work, the ghetto was cleared of children and old people, and me I didn't see my Hedi again ... I was desperate! All mothers and children, all elderly or unfit for work, had been picked up from the ghetto and immediately murdered in the vicinity of Riga. They killed many people in the Kaiserwald camp and shot them all. There must be mass graves that have not yet been explored. Or they were brought to the Shirotawa train station in trucks and transported by wagon to camps like Auschwitz, where they were gassed and burned. "[223]

The stumbling blocks for Max, Elisabeth and Hedwig Lion were opened on February 6, 2012 in front of their former house at Fährstr. 12 relocated to Kaldenkirchen. [224] The stumbling blocks for Jacob and Bertha Lion were also opened on July 10, 2013 in front of the house at Fährstrasse. 12 relocated to Kaldenkirchen. [225]

Yad Vashem's information on the Lion family comes from Leo Heymann, Elisabeth Jaffé's son from their second marriage, who lived in Jerusalem in 2000.

Mildenberg family

The commercial clerk Max Mildenberg lived in Kaldenkirchen, Ringstrasse 33 in 1927. After that he is no longer mentioned in the documents, in March 1939 he no longer lived in Kaldenkirchen. [226] He is perhaps identical with the accountant Max Mildenberg, born on December 19, 1899 in Bentheim , son of Hartwig Mildenberg and Veronika Mildenberg née Leffmann, married to Cäcilie Stern (born on December 26, 1899 in Bingen, deported to Litzmannstadt or deported to Riga on December 7, 1941), he lived in Bentheim and Düsseldorf / Neuss before the war, in Cologne during the war, and was deported from Cologne to Riga on December 7, 1941, died in Litzmannstadt. [227]

Family Moser (Moses)

  • Salomon (Shlomo) Moses, called Sally , changed his family name to Moser on April 5, 1921 ; he was born on September 24, 1884 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Moses Moses, butcher in Kaldenkirchen, and Henriette Moses née Meyer, as well as the twin brother of Caroline Isaac née Moses. He was a businessman and sales representative by profession. He marriedJenny (Yehudit) Heidt / Heydt , who was born on June 17, 1892 in Warburg as the daughter of Shimon Heidt and Eva Heidt, born NN. The couple lived in Wuppertal-Elberfeld, Bergstr. 48, later in Düsseldorf, Concordiastr., In 1941 his job is indicated as an upholsterer. The Moser couple were deported from Düsseldorf to Minsk on November 10, 1941 [228] Salomon and Jenny Moser were the parents of Fritz Willi, Kurt Erich (born June 3, 1920 in Elberfeld, murdered March 31, 1943 in Auschwitz) and Johann (Jochanan) Moser, who filled out the memorial sheet for his father and lived in Israel in 1999. [229]
  • Caroline Isaac née Moses was born on September 24, 1884 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Moses Moses, butcher in Kaldenkirchen, and Henriette Moses née Meyer and the twin sister of Salomon Moses. She lived in Düsseldorf, her occupation is reported in 1941 as a seamstress. She was deported from Düsseldorf to Minsk on November 10, 1941, and murdered there. Caroline Moses was married to NN Isaac, which is probably the merchantFritz Isaac (born February 6, 1896 in Düsseldorf), who was deported on the same transport. [230]

Family Sanders

The Sanders family moved to Kaldenkirchen in the second half of the 18th century with the "Jew Samuel Benjamin, who had been spoiled for the first time since 1761" from Breyell. Due to the Napoleonic decrees of 1808 (see Jewish name ) he took the family name Sanders, was appointed "administrator or special overseer of the synagogue and Kaldenkirchen" in 1809 and died in 1813. "Samuel Benjamin is the ancestor of the well-known families S (Z) different. ”His eldest son Benjamin moved to Bracht (there under the name Jacob Zanders, see under Lobberich ), the second born Salomon is attested as a butcher in Kaldenkirchen in 1808, the youngest, Isaac probably married in 1806 in Dülken. [231]From 1810 the next generation was born in Kaldenkirchen: Levi (1810), Benjamin (1811), Samuel (1814), Joseph (1816), Frederica (1820) and Salomon (1822). [232] In 1847 Abraham Isaac (born September 14, 1811, actually Benjamin), Samuel (April 14, 1814), Joseph (June 15, 1816) and Salomon (August 14, 1822) are listed as assistants. [233] The children of Benjamin and Salomon Sanders are then the oldest members of the Kaldenkirchen Sanders family who were persecuted by the National Socialists.

The Sanders / Neumann family

  • Benjamin Sanders was born on September 14, 1811 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Salomon Sanders and Rachel Sanders, born Lion. He was a trader in Kaldenkirchen and married Charlotte Neumann , who was born in 1821/22. The couple became the parents of Eva (1851), Joseph (1857), Samuel (1860) and Simon (1862) Sanders. [234]
  • Eva Sanders , born on May 26, 1851 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Benjamin Sanders and Charlotte Sanders, née Neumann (see Lobberich ).
  • Joseph Sanders was born on April 5, 1857 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Benjamin Sanders and Charlotte Sanders, née Neumann. He married Rosalie Sanders on September 24, 1883 in Kaldenkirchen , who was born on August 6, 1857 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Salomon Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vasen. When he married, he announced the profession of cigar maker. In 1885/87 he lived with his wife - still as a cigar maker - in the Dutch Boxmeerwhere his daughters Charlotte (1885) and Johanna (1887) Sanders were born. On October 21, 1889, the family moved back to Kaldenkirchen, where Helene (1890) and Isaak (1895) Sanders were born. Rosalie Sanders died on September 16, 1925 in Kaldenkirchen and was buried there in the Jewish cemetery. Joseph Sanders, who was a cattle dealer in Kaldenkirchen in his later years, is referred to in 1927 as “without a job”, ie he was retired. In 1927 he lived in the Bahnhofstr. 77, at the end of 1938 in Süchteln, Krefelder Str. 46 (today Tönisvorster Str. 46), where the family of his son Isaak / Isidor also lived with his in-laws, most recently again in Kaldenkirchen, Fährstr. 10, and died on February 22, 1941 in Kaldenkirchen; he was also buried in the local Jewish cemetery. [235]
  • Samuel Sanders (Schmuel ben Jizchak Halevi) was born on March 24, 1860 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Benjamin Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Charlotte Sanders née Neumann. He was a cattle dealer in Straelen, lived in Mühlenstr. 10, married (Aufgebot Kaldenkirchen 1889/90) Rosa Krebs (Rachel asked Jizchak), who was born on March 11, 1867 in Reichenberg (Lower Franconia) (the parents are not documented). Samuel and Rosa Sanders are the parents of Bertha (1892),Minna (1898) and Isaak Sanders called Isidore (1900). Rosa Sanders died on December 23, 1934 in Straelen, Samuel Sanders there on January 3, 1935. Samuel and Rosa Sanders were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Geldern.Isaak / Isidor Sanders (born May 5, 1900), his wifeFanny Sanders nee Krebs (born April 4, 1903 in Reichenberg, an older sister of Ida Sanders nee Krebs, see below) and their sonRichard Sanders (born 1931) embarked for Haiti on July 21, 1939 and finally emigrated to the USA, where they rana farmin Sheboygan / Wisconsin; Isaak / Isidor Sanders died in Sheboygan in February 1982, Fanny Sanders in September 1975; Richard became a PE teacher in New York, where he was for a time under the care of Ida Sanders (see above). [236]

The stumbling blocks for Isidor, Fanny and Richard Sanders were opened on December 11, 2013 in Straelen in front of the Mühlenstr. 10 relocated. [237]

  • Simon Sanders was born on April 27, 1862 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Benjamin Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Charlotte Sanders née Neumann. He married on July 3, 1894 in KaldenkirchenWilhelmina Defries , who was born on May 9, 1866 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Abraham Devries, a butcher in Kaldenkirchen, and Rebecca Devries, born Lion. Simon Sanders was a merchant in 1894 and a master butcher in 1927. Simon and Wilhelmina Sanders are the parents of Albert (1895), Julius (1898), Jacob (1900) and Siegfried Sanders (1903). The couple lived in Kaldenkirchen in 1927 at Bahnhofstrasse 53. Simon Sanders died on October 9, 1937 in Kaldenkirchen and was buried in the local Jewish cemetery. Wilhelmina Sanders lived in Kaldenkirchen in March 1939 and Hindenburgstr. In June. 53, fled to the Netherlands in the same year, lived there in Deventer, 1943 to 1945 hidden in Amsterdam and survived the Shoah. After the war she emigrated to the USA and died on October 7, 1959 in Oakland / California. [238]

The Sanders-Neumann / Sanders family

  • Charlotte Rollmann née Sanders was born on October 26, 1885 in Boxmeer / NL as the daughter of Joseph Sanders and Rosalie Sanders née Sanders. From 1889 she lived in Kaldenkirchen. she marriedSalomon (Sally) Rollmann , who was born on June 15, 1884 in Herzebrock . The couple lived in Castrop-Rauxel and later Essen, most recently Essen, Krawehlstr. 4; both were deported from Düsseldorf to Izbica on April 22, 1942 and murdered there [239]
  • Johanna Sanders was born on April 15, 1887 in Boxmeer / NL as the daughter of Joseph Sanders and Rosalie Sanders, née Sanders. From 1889 she lived in Kaldenkirchen or Kempen, she remained single. In March 1939 she lived in Kaldenkirchen, most recently Adolf-Hitler-Platz 3./Fährstr. 10 in an extension of the Lion family's house. Johanna Sanders was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 train Da 71, prisoner number 850) and on January 23, 1943 to Auschwitz (Transport Cr, train Da 103, prisoner number 720), where she was in the same Year murdered [240]
  • Helene Herz née Sanders was born on June 7, 1890 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Josef Sanders, a cigar maker in Kaldenkirchen, and Rosalie Sanders née Sanders. She married the butcher and cattle dealer in Kaldenkirchen on November 11, 1921Alexander Herz (born December 25, 1893 in Geislar ). Alexander and Helene Herz are the parents ofFrieda Herz (born August 20, 1922 in Beuel ) andGünter Herz (born on October 3, 1927 in Beuel). The family lived in Beuel and Bonn, in Beuel at the end of 1938 on Wilhelmstrasse. 77 (today Siegfried-Leopold-Str. 23); all four were deported from Cologne to Minsk on July 20, 1942 andmurderedon July 24, 1942 at the nearby killing site of Maly Trostinez . [241]

The stumbling blocks for Alexander, Helene, Frieda and Günter Herz were laid in Bonn-Beuel in front of the house at Siegfried-Leopold-Str 23 . The stumbling block for Johanna Sanders was on February 17, 2016 in front of her apartment in Fährstr. 12 relocated to Kaldenkirchen.

  • Isaak Sanders, called Isidor , was born on July 19, 1895 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Joseph Sanders and Rosalie Sanders, née Sanders. By profession he was a cattle dealer as a co-owner of Sanders, Erben & Co. In 1927 he lived in Kaldenkirchen on Bahnhofstrasse. 77; he married on December 28, 1928 in Süchteln Sophia Baum , who was born on November 26, 1901 in Süchteln as the daughter of Leopold Baum (1860–1942) and Jenni Kaufmann (1879–1938). The common sonErich Sanderswas born on May 29, 1930 in Kaldenkirchen. The family continued to live at Bahnhofstrasse 77, and from 1936 onwards in Süchteln with Sophia's parents at Krefelder Strasse 46 (today Tönisvorster Strasse 46). Erich Sanders was the last school-age Jewish child in Süchteln in 1937; from November 1938 he had to go to a school in Krefeld, since Jewish children were no longer allowed to attend German schools. At the beginning of December 1938, Erich Sanders continued to give Süchteln, Krefelder Str. 46, as the residential address. In the same year the family moved to Düsseldorf, where they lived until the end. Isaak / Isidor Sanders was interned from November 17, 1938 to December 15, 1938 in "protective custody" in Dachau. On October 27, 1941, all three were deported from Düsseldorf to Litzmannstadt. Isaak / Isidor Sanders was born there on 8. Murdered July 1942 (the cause of death is given as “malnutrition”). “On September 4, 1942, the Jewish elder announced that he had to get together 20,000 Jews unable to work who were to be evacuated [...] These were the elderly and those under ten. Everyone knew that they would not be evacuated but murdered. "But with those you only got 13,000 Jews." Erich Sanders was twelve years old at the time, and panic broke out in the Jewish ghetto. People hid their children and couldn't believe that they wanted to be taken away from them. ”Sophia Sanders was murdered three days later, on September 7th, 1942 in Litzmannstadt (the cause of death is given as“ heart failure ”). The twelve-year-old Erich Sanders was brought to Kulmhof 70 kilometers away with other children. " There they were undressed and sent to the basement of the palace there, where they ended up in a truck at the end of a tunnel. In there they were gassed [...] These were the first experiments with gas vans in which handicapped people had been gassed before. This method was later refined at Auschwitz. The people suffocated in agony after about eight minutes. "Erich Sanders died on September 11, 1942 during the" Gehsperre "action, which was carried out from September 5 to 12, 1942. His grandfather Leopold Baum was born two months later, on September 7, 1942. Murdered November 1942 in Theresienstadt. in which people with disabilities had previously been gassed. This method was later refined at Auschwitz. The people suffocated in agony after about eight minutes. "Erich Sanders died on September 11, 1942 during the" Gehsperre "action, which was carried out from September 5 to 12, 1942. His grandfather Leopold Baum was born two months later, on September 7, 1942. Murdered November 1942 in Theresienstadt. in which people with disabilities had previously been gassed. This method was later refined at Auschwitz. The people suffocated in agony after about eight minutes. "Erich Sanders died on September 11, 1942 during the" Gehsperre "action, which was carried out from September 5 to 12, 1942. His grandfather Leopold Baum was born two months later, on September 7, 1942. Murdered November 1942 in Theresienstadt.[242]

"Two applications to have Stolpersteine ​​laid in Süchteln, where Erich had lived for three years before his deportation, had been rejected in both 2004 and 2011" by the current house owner in Tönisvorster Strasse (formerly Krefelder Strasse). " Since the city of Viersen had tied the approval of the laying of stumbling blocks to the approval of today's residents and owners, the applications were rejected. [243] The stumbling blocks for Isaak, Sophia and Erich Sanders were opened on July 10, 2013 in front of the Bahnhofstr. 77 relocated to Kaldenkirchen. [244]

Sanders-Neumann / Defries family

  • Albert Sanders was born on June 17, 1895 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Simon Sanders and Wilhelmina Sander, née Defries. By profession he was a cattle dealer as a co-owner of Sanders, Erben & Co. He lived in Kaldenkirchen in 1927 at Bahnhofstrasse 53, on November 9, 1938 he lived as a butcher in Kaldenkirchen, still on Bahnhofstrasse. From November 17, 1938 to January 18, 1939 he was interned in "protective custody" in Dachau. In March he lived again in Kaldenkirchen, in the same year he managed to escape to Haiti. Here he married Ida Krebs(born after 1904 in Reichenberg, daughter of Salomon Krebs and Eva Krebs née Grünebaum, younger sister of Fanny Krebs, the wife of Isaak / Isidor Sanders). The couple moved to New York around 1940. Albert Sanders died of suicide in April 1979 at the age of 83, his last residence was in New York. Ida Sanders was still living in New York when her husband died [245]

“Lothar [Sanders] and I [Ruth Sanders, née Lieselotte Tasche] lived under one roof in New York for several years with Ida and Albert Sanders from Kaldenkirchen. Ida used to work in a household in Switzerland. She met Albert through her sister and emigrated with him to Haiti and later New York in mid-1939. She had become schizophrenic through the years of persecution and the difficult times in Haiti. At times she was aggressive and confused, but in her normal condition she was kind-hearted, good and a good cook. She once ran off in her nightgown, raved and screamed and had to be taken to a mental hospital. Albert couldn't cope with her condition and threw himself to death from the window of his apartment in 1983. Ida stayed in the apartment for a while after his death. She did a lot for Richard Sanders from Straelen and was very good to him […] He [Richard] probably caused Ida to come to a home. In any case, no one has heard from her. "[246]

  • Julius Sanders was born on May 18, 1898 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Simon Sanders and Wilhelmina Sanders (née Defries). By profession he was a cattle dealer as a co-owner of Sanders, Erben & Co. He lived in Kempen, fled to the Netherlands in 1936, where he lived in Nijmegen at Van Spaenstraat 23. He married in Amsterdam in 1941Frieda Goldschmitt , who was born on September 6, 1910 in Essen as the daughter of Alfred Goldschmitt and Berta Goldschmitt, born Baum; she fled to the Netherlands on December 9, 1938 and lived in Amsterdam at Waalstraat 37 III. Both were interned in Westerbork, deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz in 1942 and murdered there. Julius Sanders was pronounced dead on August 27, 1942, Frieda Sanders on September 27, 1942. [247]
  • Jakob Sanders was born on February 16, 1900 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Simon Sanders and Wilhelmina Sanders, née Defries. In 1938 he fled to the Netherlands, then fled to Montevideo , and after the war he lived again in Germany. He married Mia Haas from Cologne. Jakob Sanders died on December 14, 1968 in Cologne, Mia Sanders in 1988; both were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Cologne. [248]
  • Siegfried Sanders was born on January 24, 1903 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Simon Sanders and Wilhelmina Sanders, née Defries. He was a merchant and clothing dealer, and in 1926 he opened a specialty shop for men's and boys' clothing. In 1927 he lived in Kaldenkirchen on Bahnhofstrasse. 53. On November 9, 1938, he lived as a merchant in Kaldenkirchen, and from November 17, 1938 to December 22, 1938, he was interned in "protective custody" in Dachau. After he was released, he was forced to give up the clothing store. [249] He lived in Kaldenkirchen again in March 1939, and after being arrested again, he fled to Haiti in the same year. [250] Here he married Ilse Freimark in 1942from Düsseldorf. He later lived in the USA, in Oakland in 1946, where he died on October 31, 2003. [251]

According to the relatives' will, no stumbling block is laid for Julius Sanders.

Family Sanders / Vasen

  • Salomon Sanders (Schlomo ben Schlomo) was born on August 11, 1822 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Salomon Sanders and Rachel Sanders, born Lion. In 1847 he is attested as an assistant, from 1853 as a trader. His first marriage was Adelheid Vasen , who was born around 1833. Salomon and Adelheid Sanders are the parents of Benjamin (1855), Julie (1859), Bertha (1861), Gustav (1864), Joseph (1867), Philipp (1869), Jacob (1871) and Friederika (1878) Sanders. After the early death of his wife, he married Helena (Lena) Voosen on January 7, 1876 in Kaldenkirchen , born on September 15, 1854 in Meiderich , residing in Linn, the daughter of Philipp Voosen, butcher, and Friederike Blumenfeld. Salomon Sanders died on January 5, 1906 in Kaldenkirchen and was buried there. [252]
  • Benjamin Sanders, known as Bernhard , was born on June 30, 1855 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Salomon Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Vases, born Adelheide Sanders. 1927 lived “without a job” [ie after his professional life] in Kaldenkirchen at Synagogenstrasse 5. Benjamin / Bernhard Sanders died on March 1, 1939 in Kaldenkirchen and was buried in the Jewish cemetery there [253]
  • Julie Hoffstadt née Sanders , born on September 9, 1859 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Salomon Sanders and Adelheid Sanders née Vases (see above)
  • Bertha Lion née Sanders , born on December 14, 1861 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Salomon Sanders and Adelheid Sanders née Vases (see above)
  • Gustav Sanders was born on May 3, 1864 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Salomon Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vasen. He married Julie Kaufmann , who was born on September 27, 1866 in Schiefbahn as the daughter of Simon Kaufmann and Karoline Kaufmann, born Falkenstein. Gustav and Julie Sanders are the parents of Sally Sanders(1904) and Lina Harf née Sanders (1906). Julie Sanders died on April 17, 1926 in Kaldenkirchen, she was also buried there. In 1927 Gustav Sanders was a dealer in Kaldenkirchen and lived on Steyler Strasse 11. At the time of the November pogrom, he lived with his sister Bertha Lion on Fährstrasse. Gustav Sanders died of a heart attack on November 28, 1938, a good two weeks after the November pogrom and one week after the SA's second attack on their apartment; he was buried in the Kaldenkirchen Jewish cemetery. [254]
  • Joseph Sanders was born on February 23, 1867 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Salomon Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vasen. He married on July 29, 1896 in Schermbeck Johanna Abraham , who was born on March 28, 1870 in Worpswede as the daughter of Michael Abraham (1819–1885) and Julie Behr (1838–1918). Their son was Fred Sanders , who was born on November 3, 1897. Joseph Sanders was a cattle dealer by profession, the family lived in Straelen on Klosterstrasse. 3 and finally in Adolf-Hitler-Str. (Venloer Str.) 24. Joseph and Johanna Sanders were deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner numbers 851 and 852), and on September 21, 1942 to Treblinka (Transport Bp, prisoner number 1330 and 1331) and probably murdered there immediately after arrival. Fred Sanders survived the Holocaust, lived in Sheboygan / Wisconsin in 1972, where he died in June 1981. [255]

The stumbling blocks for Josef and Johanna Sanders are in Straelen in front of the Klosterstr. 3 . [256]

  • Philipp Sanders born on July 27, 1869 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Salomon Sanders, a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vases (see under Hinsbeck )
  • Jacob Sanders , born on November 23, 1871 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Salomon Sanders, butcher in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vases (see under Hinsbeck )
  • Friederika (Frieda) Simon née Sanders was born on April 24, 1878 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Salomon Sanders, a small trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Adelheid Vasen. She married the butcher and cattle dealer on November 4, 1904 in KaldenkirchenEmil Simon , who was born on July 16, 1876 in Krefeld-Linn as the son of Gottholt Simon and Jetta Vasen. On March 7, 1907, they had their son in KaldenkirchenSally Simonborn. In 1927 the family lived in Kaldenkirchen, Synagogenstr. 5, in March 1939 still in Kaldenkirchen, last at Adolf Hitler-Platz 2. Sally Simon, who was living as a worker during the Reichspogromnacht in Kaldenkirchen, was single and childless, was in “protective custody” from November 17, 1938 to February 4, 1939 “Interned in Dachau. He returned to Kaldenkirchen and was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, he was imprisoned in Salaspils and was murdered in Riga or Salaspils. Emil and Frieda Simon were deported from Düsseldorf on June 15, 1942 with the transport "Da 22" to Izbica. “After the“ selection ”on a siding in Lublin, around 100 men were initially brought from the“ Da 22 ”transport to the Majdanek camp. Presumably the train was then directed directly to Sobibor,[257]

The stumbling blocks for Emil, Friederika and Sally Simon were laid on July 10, 2013 in front of their apartment in Synagogenstraße in Kaldenkirchen. [258]

The Sanders / Kaufmann family

  • Sally Sanders was born on January 18, 1904 in Kaldenkirchen, the son of Gustav Sanders and Julie Sanders, née Kaufmann. He was a commercial employee and worked as an accountant and traveler for the Holtvoeth company, but in 1941 he was referred to as a cigar maker. Sally Sanders got marriedHenriette (Henny) Leven , who was born on November 24, 1904 in Wickrath , daughter of Philipp Leven (January 28, 1869 - March 16, 1939, buried in Wickrath) and Johanna Levy (born in 1866 Königshoven , died in Theresienstadt). He lived in Kaldenkirchen in 1927 at Steyler Str. 11, in January 1939 at Steyler Str. 7, and in March 1939 in Kaldenkirchen. Sally and Henny Sanders were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, where they were murdered. [259]
  • Karolina (Lina) Sanders was born on November 18, 1906 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Gustav Sanders and Julie Sanders, née Kaufmann. She married on August 27, 1935 in KaldenkirchenSimon Harf , who was born on November 3rd, 1905 in Beckrath as the son of Adolf Harf and Paula Harf, born Heumann. Simon and Lina Harf had a daughter,Ruth Juliane Letter, born on March 1, 1938 in Kaldenkirchen. At the time of the Reichspogromnacht, Simon Harf was described as a worker. From November 17, 1938 to February 11, 1939, he was interned in "protective custody" in Dachau. At the end of 1938 the family lived in Kaldenkirchen on Steyler Str. 7, and in March 1939 on Süchtelner Str. 20. On December 11, 1941, Simon, Lina and Ruth Harf were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga. Simon was imprisoned in Salaspils and later murdered there or in Riga. "On November 2, 1943, children under 15 and old people over 50 were" sorted out "in the ghetto: Ruth Harf and Hedi Lion from Kaldenkirchen were among them. They were taken away on trucks and murdered somewhere […] In November 1943, many children and sick people were deported from Riga to the Polish extermination camp Auschwitz. But Ruth could also have been murdered in the neighboring woods and thrown into a mass grave. "[260] Lina Harf was in the Jungfernhof camp in November 1943and was later murdered there. [261]

The stumbling blocks for Sally and Henny Sanders were laid in front of their house on Steyler Str. 7 in Kaldenkirchen on February 17, 2016 .

Sanders / Wyngard family

  • Samuel Sanders was born on November 12, 1853. He married Sara Wyngaard , born July 12, 1853. He was a cigar maker by trade. Samuel Sanders married Sara Wyngaard, who was born on July 12, 1853. They are the parents of Hermann (1885), Rosa (1891), Wilhelmine (1893) and Hugo Sanders (1895). Samuel Sanders died on November 11, 1919, Sara Sanders on June 13, 1926, both were buried in Kaldenkirchen. [262]
  • Hermann Sanders was born on October 17, 1885 in Kaldenkirchen as the son of Samuel Sanders, a cigar maker in Kaldenkirchen, and Sara Sanders née Weyngaard. He marriedJenny Levy , who was born on June 1, 1892 in Grefrath as the daughter of Emanuel Levy (1861–1938), cattle dealer in Grefrath, and Mathilde Leyser (1859–1935). Your children areRolf Sanders (born September 11, 1920 in Grefrath) andHelga Sanders (born November 8, 1923 in Grefrath). The family lived in Grefrath, fled to the Netherlands, where they lived in Utrecht at Singelstraat 3bis-a. The family was interned in Westerbork, Rolf and Helga Sanders were deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz on September 28, 1942, where they were murdered; they were declared dead on September 30, 1942. Hermann Sanders was deported from Westerbork to Theresienstadt on January 18, 1944 (Transport XXIV / 2, prisoner number 618) and on May 16, 1944 to Auschwitz (Transport Ea, prisoner number 2183). Jenny Sanders died on October 22nd, 1943 in Westerbork, the urn burial took place on October 26th at the Diemen Jewish cemetery. Herman Sanders was murdered in Auschwitz and pronounced dead on July 7, 1944. [263]
  • Rosa Cahn née Sanders was born on June 11, 1891 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Samuel Sanders, a cigar worker in Kaldenkirchen, and Sara Sanders née Wyngard. She married the merchant on October 26, 1921 in KaldenkirchenJakob Cahn , who was born on November 3, 1877 in Niederündorf . The common son wasWalter Cahn (born September 28, 1924 in Kaldenkirchen). Jacob Cahn is referred to as a laborer in 1941, Walter Cahn as a gardener. The family last lived in Krefeld and was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, where they were murdered. [264]
  • Wilhelmine Ehrenbaum, née Sanders , was born on November 2, 1893 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of Samuel Sanders, cigar maker in Kaldenkirchen, and Sara Wyngardt. She married on September 17, 1924 in KaldenkirchenHermann Ehrenbaum (born April 13, 1886 in Ticino (near Rostock) ), managing director in Herne. Both lived in Essen, Billrothstr. 32, most recently (probably from spring 1942) in Essen, Holbeckshof (a collection camp in Essen-Stehle) and were deported from Düsseldorf on June 15, 1942 with the transport "Da 22" to Izbica. “After the“ selection ”on a siding in Lublin, around 100 men were initially brought from the“ Da 22 ”transport to the Majdanek camp. Presumably the train was then directed directly to Sobibor without touching the through ghetto of Izbica beforehand. " [265]

The stumbling blocks for Simon, Lina and Ruth Harf were laid on February 6, 2012 in front of their former house on Steyler Str. 7 in Kaldenkirchen. [266]

Winter family

  • Emil Winter , born on October 27, 1888 in Kaldenkirchen, lived in Frankfurt am Main, Bergerstr. 24. His fate is unknown. [267]

Wolf / Wolff family

  • The merchant Bernhard Wolff married Lidia Tannenbaum (Kaldenkirchen contingent 1888/89) ; thereafter the couple is no longer mentioned in relation to Kaldenkirchen. [268] Bernhard Wolff was born on August 26, 1864, he died on November 9, 1935, Lidia Tannenbaum was born on May 13, 1863, she died on April 17, 1913; both were buried in the Jüdisch -Liberalen Friedhof in Karlsruhe , Haid- und Neu-Straße 45, he: No. 841, she: No. 271 [269]
  • The cigar manufacturer Adolf Wolf lived in Kaldenkirchen in 1927 at Feldstrasse 16, after which he is no longer mentioned in relation to Kaldenkirchen. [270]

Wreschinski family

  • Johanna Wreschinski, née Rose , was born on July 20, 1896 in Kaldenkirchen as the daughter of (Mayer) Rose, a merchant in Kaldenkirchen, and Rose Mayersohn. She married the merchantHeinrich Wreschinski , born on July 8, 1892 in Pudewitz ( Pobiedziska , Posen). Heinrich and Johanna Wreschinski and their daughterHelga Wreschinski (born October 26, 1918 in Berlin) were in Berlin-Kreuzberg at Krausenstrasse 42-43 in 1933, in 1938 in Berlin-Wilmersdorf at Kaiserallee 204 (today Bundesallee), and in 1939 in Berlin-Tiergarten at Kurfürstenstrasse 42 and reported - the latter was the apartment of Heinrich's brother Arthur Wreschinski (* 1890), which was forcibly assigned to them. Arthur Wreschinski was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp on an unknown transport and murdered there on January 6, 1943. [271]

On Friday, November 14, 1941, a transport went from Berlin-Grunewald train station to Minsk, the 5th “Osttransport” (DA 54), with which Heinrich, Johanna and Helga Wreschinski were deported. The transport reached Minsk on Tuesday, November 18th. Their fate is unknown; she too was murdered with a probability bordering on certainty. [272]

Leuth

"In the Geldrischen part of the city of Nettetal, so in Hinsbeck, Leuth and Lobberich, there were no Jews towards the end of the 18th century [1782] according to an official contemporary statement." This statement continued to apply to Leuth in 1858 and also in May 1927. [273]

Praise

“In the Geldrischen part of the city of Nettetal, that is in Hinsbeck, Leuth and Lobberich, there were no Jews towards the end of the 18th century [1782] according to an official contemporary statement. […] Around the middle of the 19th century, the Jews Samuel and Joseph Zanders lived in Lobberich [who were also born in Kaldenkirchen and had moved here]. In 1858 the number of family members of Samuel is given as eight and of Joseph with two. […] The professions mentioned by the lobbyists Sanders 1875: butcher, trader, trade assistant. […] The census of December 2, 1895 shows [for Lobberich] 17 Jews out of a total of 7,541 inhabitants […] there were eleven in 1905, 18 in 1910, and 18 in 1925. "

The last 13 Jews from Lobberich were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941. "The deported are the families Sally Sanders, Otto Zanders , Arthur Zanders , Emil Goldbach and Max Rosenthal ." [274]

Goldbach family

  • Emil Goldbach , born on November 22, 1892 in Brackel near Dortmund , son of Hermann Goldbach and Sara Goldbach, born Stern, was married toSelma Goldbach née Strauss , who was born on April 4, 1890 in Herschbach as the daughter of Moses Strauss and Katchen Simon. The Goldbach couple had lived in Lobberich since 1939, where Selma’s sister Johanna Zanders, née Strauss, lived. Emil Goldbach was a construction worker in Krefeld in recent years and is referred to as a construction worker in 1941. Emil and Selma Goldbach were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941 and murdered there [275] [276]

Rosenthal family

  • Martha Rosenthal née Stern , born on January 31, 1889 in Lobberich, daughter of Meyer Stern, a merchant in Lobberich, and Eva Stern, née Lehmann, married in Lobberich in 1921Max Rosenthal , who was born on November 18, 1885 in Waltrop, the son of Isaac Rosenthal and Dora Rosenthal, Schindmüller. The couple lived in Lobberich, Max Rosenthal was a manufacturer of goods there, but is referred to as a construction worker in Krefeld in 1941. On December 11, 1941, Max and Martha Rosenthal were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga; Martha Rosenthal did not reach Riga alive, Max Rosenthal was murdered there. [277]

Abraham Sanders / Regina Zacharias family

  • Eva Sanders née Sanders , born on May 26, 1851 in Kaldenkirchen, was the daughter of Benjamin Sanders, 39 years old [ie born 1811/12], a trader in Kaldenkirchen, and Charlotte Sanders, née Neumann; she married (banned in 1891) the widowed butcher and cattle dealer Abraham Sanders. Eva Sanders lived with her stepson Sally Sanders in the house at Süchtelner Str. 20 in Lobberich; Here she was hit by a stone on November 10, 1938 during the Night of the Reichspogrom and died on December 23, 1938 of the consequences of the injuries she had suffered. [278]
  • Sally Sanders , born on February 7, 1885 in Lobberich, was the son of Abraham Sanders, cattle dealer in Lobberich, and Regina Sanders, née Zacharias; He was a butcher by profession; he served as a soldier in World War I, in which he was awarded the Iron Cross . He was married toWilhelmine Sanders née Sanders , called Mina, Minni and Mintjen, who lived on April 12, 1898 in StraelenBorn Cancer, the daughter of Samuel Sanders and Rosa Sanders. The couple had three children: Walter (1925) and the twins Edith and Egon (1928), the family lived in Lobberich in the house at Süchtelner Str. 20. From November 17, 1938, Sally Sanders was interned in Dachau, from where he returned ( the discharge from Dachau is not documented); in 1939 the parents brought their children to the Netherlands in provisional security. During these years Sally Sanders earned his living as a farm worker in Lobberich. On December 11, 1941, Sally and Mina Sanders were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga; Mina was later brought to Stutthof [1944] and murdered there, Sally survived Riga (and probably Stutthof as well) and returned to Germany after the war. [279]
  • Walter Sanders , born on October 7, 1925 in Lobberich, the eldest son of Sally Sanders and Mina Sanders, was the brother of Edith and Egon Sanders and lived in Lobberich on Süchtelner Str. In house number 20 Pogrom night, he celebrated his bar mitzvah on October 7, 1938, and the following year, 1939, his parents sent him and his siblings to temporary security in the Netherlands. He was interned in Westerbork and then deported; In 1944/45 he was in Auschwitz and in the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp. "As a prisoner with the number 175530 he survived Auschwitz because he was needed as a high-pressure welder." Walter Sanders returned to Lobberich after the liberation. In 1961 he had a daughter, Edith. Walter Sanders died on July 3, 2001 in Mönchengladbach and was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Krefeld. [280]
  • Edith Sanders andEgon Sanderswas born on March 5, 1928 in Lobberich as children of Sally Sanders and Mina Sanders and siblings of Walter Sanders. They lived in Lobberich on Süchtelner Str. In house no. 20 until their parents sent them to the Netherlands in 1939 and placed them in temporary security. The twins lived on September 1, 1939 in The Hague, Schenkstraat 217, with Richard Wieselthier (* 1885) and Lilly Wieselthier, nee Adler (* 1889) from Vienna; After the couple died on May 15, 1940, the Jewish Council (Joodsche Raad) housed them at the fruit merchant David van der Ham's and his family in The Hague, Terwestenstraat 230. They were later interned in Westerbork, then deported to Auschwitz on October 19, 1942. Arrived October 1942 and there (as well as David van der Ham and Rachel van der Ham, née Hakker) were selected for murder; on October 22, 1942, they were pronounced dead.[281]

The Siegmund Zanders / Maria Anna Bähr family

The Lobbericher family Zanders is a branch of the Breyell-Kaldenkirchener family Sanders (see above). It is descended from Salmon Zanders (1789–1864), butcher in Bracht, and his wife Veronica Schnucks, their son Samuel Zanders (1822–1867), merchant and mayor in Bracht, and his wife Adelheid Franken (1819–1884), and the grandson Max Zanders (1849–1926), who settled as a cattle dealer in Lobberich, and his wife Sara Heumann (1852–1918).

  • Siegmund Zanders , born on August 4, 1882 in Lobberich, was a son of Maximilian (Max) Zanders, cattle dealer in Lobberich, and Sara Zanders, née Heumann, brother of Arthur and Otto Zanders ; he was married toMaria Anna Zanders née Bähr , who was born on July 18, 1886 in Heinsberg as the daughter of Jakob Bähr, a butcher, and Rosa Bähr née Daniels. The couple had three children: Edith (1914), Kurt (1915) andHelmut Hermann (1923), all born in Lobberich. In 1930 the family moved to Krefeld and last lived in the house at Breite Str. 5. On April 22, 1942, Siegmund, Maria Anna and Helmut Hermann Zanders were deported from Düsseldorf to Izbica, where they were brought to Sobibor or Belzec and murdered there. [282]
  • Edith Zanders , born on February 21, 1914 in Lobberich, was the daughter of Siegmund Zanders and Sara Heumann; She graduated from high school in Jewish religious education in 1933, fled at the end of October / beginning of November 1938 on the “Oceania” from Trieste to Buenos Aires ; she married NN Silber, lived in Buenos Aires, and died in 2011. [283]
  • Kurt Zanders , born on July 4, 1915 in Lobberich, son of Siegmund Zanders and Sara Heumann, fled to England by 1938 at the latest, where he changed his name to Keith Saunders. [284]
  • Arthur Zanders , born on January 8, 1884 in Lobberich, son of Max Zanders and Sara Zanders, née Heumann, was a cattle dealer in Lobberich; He marriedThekla Zanders née Rothschild , who was born on October 18, 1893 in Kirschseiffen ( Hellenthal ) as the daughter of Hermann Rothschild and Julie Rothschild née Samuel. The couple lived in Lobberich on Bahnstr. 53 and had two daughtersIlse (born October 31, 1921 in Lobberich) andHelga (born April 25, 1927 in Lobberich), who worked as a seamstress (Ilse) and housemaid (Helga). Arthur Zanders worked as a farmer at the time of the Pogrom Night, was in "protective custody" in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 19, 1938, and later worked as a construction worker in Krefeld. On December 11, 1941 Arthur, Thekla, Ilse and Helga Zanders were deported to Riga; Thekla, Ilse and Helga were murdered in Riga; Arthur is attested in Kaunas , was deported to Dachau on August 1, 1944 and to Auschwitz on October 8, 1944, where he was murdered. [285]
  • Otto Zanders , born on November 21, 1886 in Lobberich, was the son of Max Zanders, a trader in Lobberich, and Sara Zanders, née Heumann; he worked as a cattle dealer and married in 1925Johanna Zanders, née Strauss , who was born on April 29, 1891 in Herschbach as the daughter of Moses Strauss and Kätchen Simon and was the sister of Selma Goldbach, née Strauss. The couple lived in Lobberich at Süchtelner Str. 43 and had a son,Bruno (born April 13, 1931 in Lobberich). At the time of the pogrom night, Otto Zanders lived as an agricultural worker in Lobberich and was then in “protective custody” in Dachau from November 17, 1938 to December 29, 1938. Most recently he worked as a construction worker in Krefeld. On December 11, 1941 Otto, Thekla and Bruno Zanders were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga, where they were murdered. [286]
  • Adele Harf, née Zanders , born on October 19, 1888 Lobberich, daughter of Max Zanders, cattle dealer in Lobberich, and Sara Zanders, née Heumann; she married the Wickrath cattle dealerin Lobberich in 1922Albert Harf , who was born in Beckrath on June 7, 1887as the son of Salomon Harf and Sibilla Harf, born Blech. The couple had two childrenRudi (born January 17, 1924) andIrene (* 1926), the family lived in Herrath before the warand then at Emil-Esser-Platz 1 in Wickrath . On December 11, 1941, Albert, Adele, Rudi and Irene Harf were deported from Düsseldorf to Riga. Albert Harf was murdered in Riga in 1942; Adele, Rudi and Irene Harf were deported to Stutthof on October 1, 1944. Adele and Rudi Harf were murdered in Stutthof. Irene Harf was freed and survived the Holocaust; she married the concentration camp survivor Jakob Dahl (born January 10, 1916) and had two daughters; Jakob Dahl died on October 12, 1968, Irene Dahl née Harf on August 11, 2000; both are buried in the Jewish cemetery in Dormagen . [287]
  • Helene Zanders , born on November 7, 1892 in Lobberich, was a daughter of Max Zanders and Adele Zanders née Heumann; she lived in Lobberich and was single, in 1941 she is referred to as a seamstress; on December 11, 1941 she was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga, [1944] to Stutthof, where she was murdered. [288]

The stumbling blocks for Albert, Adele, Rudi and Irene Harf are in front of Emil-Esser-Platz 1 in Mönchengladbach-Wickrath. [289]

The Lobbericher Jews was commemorated by a plaque that also comprises 13 names, but not the aforementioned 13 correspond: [290] "spouses / Max Rosenthal + Martha / family / Sally Sanders + wife Mina + / Child - Egon + Edith / Family / Arthur Zanders wife Thekla / + children - Ilse + Helga / family / Otto Zanders + wife Johanna / child Bruno "

The memorial plaque is located between the old church and Ingenhovenpark and is used to commemorate the Jews of Nettetal. B. used on the day of commemoration of the victims of National Socialism (January 27). Against this background, stumbling blocks have not yet been laid in Lobberich.

Schaag

A larger Jewish group did not exist in Schaag, at the end of the 1930s only two residents from the Brachter and later Breyeller Höflich family (see above) belonged to the Jewish faith. Both were murdered by the National Socialists.

  • Elisabeth Höflich, called Lisette , born on June 23, 1864 in Bracht, daughter of Levi Höflich, a trader in Bracht, then a butcher in Breyell, and Anna Höflich, née Levy, sister of Carl Höflich (see above), single, mother of Regina Höflich , Trader; she lived on March 10, 1939 in Breyell, Speck 48c (today Schaag, Speck 80/82), most recently in Breyell, Vorbruch 3a ; Sara / Lisette Höflich was deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942 (Transport VII / 2 Zug Da 71, prisoner number 540) and on September 26, 1942 to Treblinka (Transport Br, prisoner number 626). She was murdered there in the same month. [291]
  • Regina Höflich , born on June 8, 1898 in Breyell, daughter of Lisette Höflich , seamstress, single; she lived on March 10, 1939 in Breyell, Speck 48c (today Schaag, Speck 80/82), most recently in Breyell, Felderend 21; Regina Höflich was deported from Düsseldorf to Riga on December 11, 1941, where she was murdered. [292]

The stumbling blocks for Lisette and Regina Höflich were laid in front of Haus Speck 80/82 on December 10, 2013 . [79]

sources

literature

  • Dieter Hangebruch: At the hands of the Gestapo. The fate of the Jews in the district (1933–1945). Heimatbuch des Kreis Viersen, part 1, 1978, pp. 152-170, part 2. 1979, pp. 239-260
  • Leo Peters : From the history of the Jews in the area of ​​today's city of Nettetal. In: Gerhard Rehm (ed.): History of the Jews in the Viersen district. Series of publications des Kreis Viersen 38, 1991, pp. 175–208
  • Dieter Peters : Land between the Rhine and Maas / Land tussen Rijn en Maas. Genealogical data from Jewish cemeteries in the former Rhine province and in the Dutch province of Limburg. Kleve 1993.
  • Philipp Lynders: The students Hermann and Richard Levy from the Quarta 1922/23. In: Festschrift for the 125th anniversary of the Dülken municipal high school, 1997
  • Frank Kauwertz: The three ice saints. Stories and Documents Against Forgetting, 1999, (updated online at: http://the3saints.org/ )
  • Alfred Gottwald, Diana Schulle: The deportations of Jews from the German Reich from 1941–1945. An annotated chronology, 2005
  • Bernhard Keuck: Jews in Straelen. 2013
  • Hans Kaiser: Kempen under the swastika. Volume 1 (2013) A district town on the Lower Rhine during National Socialism. Volume 2 (2014) A Lower Rhine district town at war. Series of publications by the district of Viersen, Volume 49
  • Leo Peters: Sara and Israel - Implementation of the discriminatory Reich legislation to add names to Jews using the example of Kaldenkirchen, in: Heimatbuch Kreis Viersen Volume 67 2016, Viersen 2015, pp. 209–216
  • Family book Euregio ( http://familienbuch-euregio.eu/ )
  • Memorial book - Victims of the persecution of Jews under the National Socialist tyranny in Germany 1933–1945. Federal Archives, Koblenz 1986 (updated version online at: http://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch )

Remarks

  1. "Jews were murdered in various ways in the Shoah, including: gassing, shooting, being burned alive, being buried alive, death through exhaustion through forced labor, epidemics, in the absence of any hygienic condition or the lack of medical care." (Explanation in the "Central database of the names of the Holocaust victims" of the Holocaust memorial site Yad Vashem on the use of the term murder, http://db.yadvashem.org/names/search.html?language=de )
  2. The events in Kempen are described in detail in Kaiser, Volume 2 and are only reproduced here insofar as they relate to Nettetal.
  3. Rheinische Post of May 12, 1948 and (for the revision) of April 13, 1949, quoted in Leo Peters, pp. 203ff
  4. Quoted from Leo Peters, p. 182
  5. Quoted from Leo Peters, pp. 202f
  6. Quoted from Leo Peters, p. 203
  7. The following statements come from Else Heymann married Lion in: Kauwertz S 141ff
  8. The following was determined by Hans Kaiser for the Kempen Jews, but certainly also applies to the Jews from Nettetal.
  9. ^ Heiko Pollmeier, Imprisonment and Camp Experience of German Jews, in: Yearbook for Antisemitism Research, 1992, p. 115; See also Dirk Riedel, law enforcement officer and mass murderer in the service of the “Volksgemeinschaft”: The concentration camp commandant Hans Loritz, Series History of the Concentration Camps 1933–1945, Volume 12, pp. 202f., 2010. The names, dates of birth and imprisonment correspond to the registers the Dachau concentration camp memorial; other Jews who were threatened with internment in Dachau because they were of the appropriate age and were staying in the Reich were Ernst Grunewald (* 1894), Sally Moser (* 1884), Max Rosenthal (* 1885), Hermann Sanders (* 1885) , Sally Sanders (* 1904) and Siegmund Zanders(* 1882); However, no information on them is available at the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site.
  10. Kaiser, 2, S. 361
  11. Memorial book online ( [1] ), the exact numbers can no longer be determined.
  12. [2] . For details on the transports from Düsseldorf to Litzmannstadt, see: Angela Genger, Hildegard Jakobs (ed.), Düsseldorf / Getto Litzmannstadt. 1941 (2010, ISBN 978-3-8375-0236-7 )
  13. In Kauwertz, p. 510 on this: November 5, 1941 Lodz
  14. a b c [3] for the departure on October 27, [4] (No. 796–798); for the arrival in Litzmannstadt on November 5, 1941, see Kauwertz, p. 510
  15. Memorial Book online ( [5] ); Meurin report, Wiener Library 1113/1, cited in [6]
  16. [7]
  17. a b [8]
  18. a b [9]
  19. [10] , after Gottwaldt / Schulle; Memorial book online ( [11] )
  20. Addendum to the “List of Jews Deported from Berlin to the Minsk Ghetto” from the publication: BERLIN-МИНСК. Unforgotten life stories.
  21. [12] ; Memorial book online ( [13] )
  22. Rheinische Post / Grenzland-Kurier of December 10, 2011 Page C7: From the train station to death
  23. Erna Valk from Goch in her report for the Wiener Library, Ghetto Riga and Concentration Camp Stutthof P.III. No. 367 (online: [14] ); See also Hangebruch: "... because most of the Jews from the Kempen district, especially the younger and middle-aged, were brought to the place of the" final solution "with the transport described here" (Hangebruch, 1, p. 165).
  24. a b c d [15]
  25. [16]
  26. Without an entry in the transport lists
  27. a b [17]
  28. a b c [18]
  29. a b [19]
  30. a b c d [20]
  31. [21]
  32. a b [22]
  33. a b c [23]
  34. [24]
  35. a b c [25]
  36. a b c [26]
  37. a b c d [27]
  38. [28]
  39. a b c [29]
  40. a b c d e [30]
  41. ^ "Report by Captain Paul Salitter about the deportation of Jews to Riga, December 26, 1941" (online: [31] )
  42. Memorial book online ( [32] with the approximate indication "1000")
  43. Gedenkbuch online ([33])
  44. Gottwald, Schulle: Judendeportationen, p. 217ff; Memorial book online ( [34] ).
  45. On the other hand: “19.06.42, Generalgouvernement: Temporary interruption of the mass murders in Belzec and Sobibor, because no deportation trains can be used for twenty days due to a lack of transport capacities. From July 9th there will be two trains a week from Krakow to Belzec. Regular transports from Warsaw to the Treblinka extermination camp began on July 20. The main railway line to Sobibor remains interrupted for the time being because it has to be repaired. "( [35] )
  46. [36] , memorial book online ( [37] )
  47. Gedenkbuch online ([38])
  48. [39]
  49. Alles [40]
  50. a b c d e [41]
  51. a b c d [42]
  52. a b c [43]
  53. [44]
  54. a b c [45]
  55. [46]
  56. [47]
  57. [48]
  58. ^ Danuta Czech, Calendar of events in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp 1939–1945, 1989, p. 270
  59. ^ Danuta Czech, Calendar of events in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp 1939–1945, 1989, p. 311
  60. Danuta Czech, Calendar of the Events in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp 1939–1945, 1989, p. 323
  61. ↑ The persons deported here include persons who “made a contribution to the construction and operation of the camp in Westerbork” or “to the de-Jewification of the Netherlands”, veterans of the First World War etc. and their relatives, as well as children and their parents being held captive in Theresienstadt, cf. Wolfgang Benz, Dimension of Genocide. The number of Jewish victims of National Socialism, 1991.
  62. This transport of 2503 people (1736 women and girls, 707 men and boys) are locked up in a "family camp" that is used for propaganda purposes, cf. Danuta Czech, Calendar of Events in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp 1939–1945, 1989, p. 776
  63. [49]
  64. ^ Franziska Jahn: Riga - Kaiserwald main camp. In: Wolfgang Benz , Barbara Distel (eds.): The place of terror . History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps. Volume 8: Riga, Warsaw, Vaivara, Kaunas, Płaszów, Kulmhof / Chełmno, Bełżec, Sobibór, Treblinka. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1 , p. 28 and p. 51
  65. According to Alfred Winter (see below)
  66. Erna Valk, aa0.
  67. ^ "Jewish escort: a tax levied by the sovereign or a city of traveling Jews, which guaranteed them protection within the country or the city; the betrayed Jew was allowed to settle down in a specified place of residence and pursue an acquisition. "
  68. This and the following sections - unless stated otherwise - from: Leo Peters, pp. 178/179 and 182
  69. Benjamin Levy 1748–1761 attested, his widow 1762–1793, Levi Jonas from 1757, who became Benjamin Levi's son-in-law in 1760 (Leo Peters, p. 179)
  70. Leo Peters, S. 187
  71. Law on tenancies with Jews from 30 April 1939 (RGBl I, p 864), by which the Jewish population in Jewish houses were crammed
  72. deportation lists [50] ; Hangebruch 2, p. 245; Leo Peters, p. 182; Kauwertz, p. 513; Keuck; Registration register Straelen; the connection between Erichs Hoffstadt and Bad Münstereifel, which is occasionally found in the literature, is not correct, and the origin of this misinformation can no longer be clarified.
  73. [51] ; his sisterHenriette, called Henny (born November 22, 1924 in Straelen), who worked as a housemaid in Essen and most recently in the Judenhaus Von-Seeckt-Str. 47 lived, had already been deported from Düsseldorf to the Minsk ghetto on November 10, 1941 (deportation lists [52] (complete list) and [53] (partial list of food), as well as [54] )
  74. Levi Höflich, * January 1826 in (Vettweiß-) Müddersheim; ∞ 1855 Wickrath Johanna Levy, * 1832; Son of Hirz Schagen / Michael Höflich, * 1794 Sinzenich, and Jacobina Sabine Sophie Schnog, * 1802; Son of Schagen Levi / Joseph Hermann Höflich, * 1766 Berleburg, he died in Untermaubach in 1830, took the name "Höflich" in 1808, and Caroline Heymann, * 1762; Son of Levi Hirz, * 1730 ?, and Helene Schmitz, * 1735? (Düren history workshop, added)
  75. Birth certificate 78/1872 (Carl Höflich), birth certificate 20/1866 (Henrietta Levy), death certificate 7/1941 (Henrietta Höflich), deportation lists ( [55] ), FA Dülken, prisoner list of the Theresienstadt camp ( [56] ), memorial sheet below [57] and [58] ; Hangebruch 2, p. 245; Leo Peters, p. 181, Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: Karl Höflich, murdered after 1942 Theresienstadt)
  76. Augenzeugenbericht
  77. ^ The synagogue in Rachtig - Eduard and Pauline Marx, née Wassermann
  78. Birth certificate, Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial, deportation lists ( [59] with first name Ernst), memorial book ( [60] , here Kurt Ernst, [61] , here: Babette Irma), FA Dülken (here the house number was handwritten from 56 to 46 corrected), commemorative sheets ( [62] and [63] or [64] (there: murdered in Riga) and [65] ); Hangebruch 2, p. 245 (as Ernst Höflich), Leo Peters, p. 181 (Kurt Höflich), Kauwertz, p. 513 (there: Babette Irma, murdered after 1941 Riga); Memorial book: Eduard Marx: [66] ; Pauline Marx: [67]
  79. a b c d Nettetal - Silence only helps the extremists , RP online from December 11, 2013
  80. For a detailed genealogy of the Klaber family see family book Euregio online ( [68] ); from there: Jacob Klaber, born August 18, 1872 Sinzenich, died June 24, 1931 Breyell; married to Bernhardine Lichtenfeld, born February 27, 1872 Hochhausen / Tauber, died March 13, 1944 Theresienstadt; Son of Hermann Claber, born March 15, 1843 Sinzenich, died March 11, 1896 Sinzenich; married May 15, 1868 Sinzenich Friederica Zanders, born October 20, 1834 Bracht, died March 21, 1896 Sinzenich; Son of Wilhelm Claber, born in 1819 Zülpich, died in 1898 Zülpich; married Zülpich Gertrud Salm on June 15, 1842, born 1808 Altendorf, died 1850 Zülpich; Son of Jacob Claber / Hirtz Heymann, born 1788 Zülpich, died 1865 Zülpich; married Zülpich Jetta Herz / Gendel Leib on December 30, 1818; Son of Abraham Claber / Heumann, born 1744 Zülpich, died 1831 Zülpich, took the name "Klaber" in 1808; married Olga Daniel, born 1747 Zülpich, died 1825 Zülpich; Son of Abraham Heumann and Clara Samuel
  81. rp-online October 26, 2010 “The end of displacement” ( [69] ) and January 28, 2011 “Visit to the parents' home country” ( [70] ); Deportation list [71] (with last residential address Gier 29), FA Dülken (with residential address Vorbruch 3a ), inmate list of the Theresienstadt camp ( [72] , there: * February 27, 1872), memorial sheet under [73] (there: * 1. January 1872); Hangebruch 2, p. 248; Kauwertz, p. 513; Dieter Peters, p. 80
  82. Deportation Lists [74] , FA Dülken, Hangebruch 2, p. 247, Leo Peters, p. 181, Kauwertz, p. 513, memorial book project for the victims of the Shoah from Aachen e. V. (online: [75] )
  83. On December 25, 1929 in Frankfurt am Main she married Bruno Pilcer, born on September 8, 1903 in Frankfurt am Main; the marriage had remained childless. Bruno Pilcer was murdered on July 28, 1942 in the Majdanek concentration camp
  84. Public data from US authorities (familysearch.org); Memorial book of the Federal Archives; Kauwertz, p. 513
  85. With Section 3 (3) of the Ordinance on Trade in Cattle of January 25, 1937 (RGBl. I 28), Jewish cattle dealers were effectively banned from working; Then in 1938 the general revocation of the trading permit by the district police took place
  86. ^ "Fritz Klaber - Fate of a Breyell Citizen", Rheinische Post, December 10, 2013
  87. On the role Fritz Klabers in the resistance group see the writings Werner Stertzenbachs that in detail voor Sociale Geschiedenis International Institute are
  88. ^ Letter from Ilse Klaber to the Breyell mayor's office dated November 18, 1941, printed by Leo Peters, p. 183
  89. Heinrich Müller , head of the Gestapo , had stopped the emigration of Jews from the "Old Reich" with immediate effect on October 23, 1941 by order of Heinrich Himmler .
  90. Deportation lists ( [76] ; there first name "Gerd" or "Gerda" for Werner), memorial sheet under [77] , [78] (there: * October 17, 1936) and [79] (with the first name "Werner Erich" ); Hangebruch 2 (there: Werner * October 17, 1936); P. 248, Leo Peters, p. 181 (there: Werner * October 17, 1936), Kauwertz, p. 513 (there: Werner * December 17, 1936); The Euregio family book also gives the 17.10. her birthday, the mother mentions in her letter of November 18, 1941 December 17, 1936; Memorial book project for the victims of the Shoah from Aachen e. V. (online: [80] )
  91. Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial, Hangebruch 2, p. 248 (there: Lobbericher Str. 33, Anrath prison 1938, dep. Dachau February 15, 1939, then (1939) Emigration Netherlands); Leo Peters, p. 181; Kauwertz, p. 513; Joodsamsterdam at [81]
  92. Joodsamsterdam under [82] ; Passenger lists (familysearch.org); US government public data (familysearch.org); Kauwertz, p. 513
  93. Public data from the US authorities (familysearch.org); Hangebruch 2, p. 248 (wrong there: Schutzhaft 1938); Kauwertz, p. 513 (wrong there: 1938 Dachau)
  94. birth certificate 71/1875; Marriage certificate 53/1901; Death certificate 50/1907; Steinheim Institute ( [83] ; deportation list ( [84] with date of death); memorial book online ( [85] and [86] ; Yad Vashem ( [87] ); obituary in construction , March 29, 1946, p. 30, center ( [88] )
  95. birth certificate 87/1903, GA Breyell No. 1271; Obituary for Max and Henriette Wolff (composition, March 29, 1946, No. 13., p. 30, center ( online )); Tourist visa for the married Frieda Sommer from January 1960 for a trip to Brazil (with photo Frieda, familysearch.org); US government public data (familysearch.org); There are no further reports on Herbert Sommer;
  96. Birth certificate 9/1905, GA Breyell No. 1271; Reminder and memorial for the state capital Düsseldorf; German biography ( [89] ); The London Gazette, September 14, 1948 ( [90] ); Herbert Felsenthal, lawyer without law ( [91] )
  97. [92]
  98. The location could not be identified
  99. Steinheim Institute [93] and [94] (here: * June 30, 1834); familysearch.org for Sara Zanders 1831; with the names Karl and Sara Levy as parents, there are no birth records
  100. The identity of the couple with Abraham Levy and Christina Levy, born Sommer, who married on May 12, 1865 in Siegburg, is obvious, as well as Abraham Levy and Christina, who had a daughter on November 18, 1861 in Siegburg (Bertha Levy ), and also with Christina Sommer, who was born on September 30, 1831 in Siegburg as the daughter of Joseph and Esther Jonas. The information that Abraham Levy was married to Bella NN for the second time is probably based on a mix-up: what is probably meant is the nephew Abraham Levy (1871–1942) and his wife Sibilla Frankenstein
  101. ^ Bernhard Levy: Steinheim Institute [95] (* May 18, 1858 according to grave stele), familysearch [96] (* May 19, 1858); Rosina Krebs: The birth entry was not found in the register books of Reichenberg / Lower Franconia; Deportation list [97] , FA Dülken, list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [98] ), memorial sheet under [99] (there: wrong: deported to Minsk) and [100] ; Hangebruch 2, p. 251; Leo Peters, p. 181 (misprint: Regina Levy); Kauwertz, p. 512 (wrong there: murdered after 1942 Minsk)
  102. Grundbuch
  103. birth certificate 95/1860, deportation list [101] (Friederike), FA Dülken, prisoner list of the Theresienstadt camp ( [102] , Frederike Levy), memorial sheet under [103] ; Hangebruch 2, p. 250 (Friederike and dep. December 11, 1941 Riga); Leo Peters, p. 182 (Friederike Levy), Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: Friederike, murdered after 1942 Theresienstadt)
  104. birth certificate 124/1862, memorial sheet under [104] (there; * February 11, 1862); Leo Peters, p. 182 (there: * November 2, 1862) and p. 185 (there footnote: * July 23, 1862); Kauwertz, p. 450 (there: * November 2, 1862)
  105. Birth certificate 2/1865, death certificate 32/1932
  106. US census 1940 [105] and [106] , obituary notice for Josef Levy under construction , June 21, 1946, p. 35, 2nd column, bottom ( [107] ); US government public darts (familysearch.org) (born October 26, 1875); Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: Josef (Junior), * 1875 and died 1946/47 Philadelphia / PA); see also: Walter Tillmann, Excluded, recognized and extinguished: Stories, reports, episodes and anecdotes from the life and fall of the Jewish minority in Oelde, 2003, pp. 254f
  107. birth certificates; Deportation lists [108] and [109] ; FA Dülken; List of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [110] and [111] ); Memorial sheet under [112] and [113] (there: * January 1, 1881), Hangebruch 2, pp. 250 and 252; Leo Peters, p. 181 (there for Ida Krebs: * July 19, 1881); Kauwertz, p. 512 (there for both: murdered after 1942 Theresienstadt)
  108. Sibilla Levy, nee Frankenstein, is registered in the land register as Abraham Levy's wife and co-owner of his property, without further news
  109. Birth certificate 101/1871, deportation list [114] , FA Dülken, prisoner list of the Theresienstadt camp ( [115] ), memorial sheet under [116] (there: * January 1, 1872), Hangebruch 2, p. 249 (there: * 25 January 1872), Leo Peters, p. 182 and p. 181 from the Breyell municipal archive, Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: murdered after 1942 Theresienstadt)
  110. Birth certificate Johanna Levy 158/1874, birth certificate Max Hirsch, memorial sheet under [117] given by granddaughter Lila Cohen Gary, who lived in Fullerton / CA in 1980 ; she is probably identical to Lila Cohen Gary (March 7, 1926 - June 7, 2012), who last lived in Laguna Woods / CA as the widow of Max Gary ; Memorial book online ( [118] and [119] , there: lived in Krefeld Uerdingen), Joodsmonument [120] ; Declared dead by AG Krefeld on October 22, 1942
  111. See list of stumbling blocks in Krefeld , map: [121]
  112. ^ House number according to information from the Mönchengladbach City Archives
  113. birth certificate 1/1877, [122] ; Dachau concentration camp memorial, deportation lists [123] ; Memorial sheet under [124] and [125] ; Memorial book [126] and [127] (for Rebekka Bamberger report Yad Vashem and the memorial book: * January 11, 1877 and on July 25, 1942 deported from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt, died in Theresienstadt)
  114. [128]
  115. The documents for the transfer of the property in the Breyell municipal archive no. 2288 are located in the Viersen district archive in Kempen.
  116. impression of the letter at Hangebruch, p 250
  117. A moving date is not known
  118. Augenzeugenbericht
  119. Birth certificate 43/1866, deportation lists [129] (wrong there for Emma Levy: Gier 19), FA Dülken, prisoner list of the Theresienstadt camp ( [130] or [131] ), memorial sheet under [132] (there: Bella's son ) or [133] ; Hangebruch 2, pp. 249/250 (there: Gier 19); Leo Peters, p. 181; Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: murdered after 1942 Theresienstadt)
  120. ^ Birth certificate Carl Levy; Berta Levy's parents cannot be ascertained, since births were not recorded in Meiningen until 1876; Deportation lists ( [134] (Berta Levy) and [135] (Karl Levy), FA Dülken (Karl Levy), list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [136] (Karl Levy) and [137] (Berta Levy), memorial sheet under [ 138] (there: Karl, * March 3, 1870, son of Bella) or [139] , Hangebruch 2, p. 249/251 (there: Karl); Leo Peters, p. 182 (Karl Levy, Bertha Levy) ; Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: Karl Levy and Bertha Levy, murdered after 1942 Theresienstadt)
  121. Familysearch.org for Gustav Levy, Birth Breyell 1872, memorial book of the Reichsbund of Jewish Front Soldiers (online: [140] )
  122. GA Breyell 1496, 90, 70, 73
  123. The documents for the transfer of the property are in the Breyell municipal archive no. 2288, ie now in the Viersen district archive
  124. Leo Peters, p. 185; the monastery for eternal adoration in Kapellenstr. 6 in Bonn-Endeich has been used as a collection camp for Jews from Bonn and the surrounding area since June 1941, cf. [141]
  125. ^ Max Levy's birth certificate, Erna Bloch's birth certificate was not found in Dortmund; Dachau concentration camp memorial, deportation list [142] , FA Dülken, memorial sheets under [143] , [144] , [145] and [146] ), Hangebruch 2, p. 249/251, Leo Peters, p. 181/182, Kauwertz, p. 512
  126. birth certificate Walter Levy 105/1903, birth certificate Karoline Hirsch; Obituary notice for Josef Levy under construction , June 21, 1946, p. 35, 2nd column, below ( [147]); Hangebruch 2, p. 252 (there: traveler, whereabouts unknown), Kauwertz, p. 512 (with place of death Paramus for Walter Levy and * April 14, 1905, death 6 December 1993 Paramus for Karoline Levy); Copy of the US District Court Naturalization Records (via familysearch.org); Leopold Hoenig, Ancestors and Descendants 1982, 2006, p. 994 (among others): Walter (Jehudah) Levy, born on August 25, 1903 in Brühl [instead of Breyell], died May 20, 1958 in New York, seller, since 1938 in the USA, died May 20, 1958 in New York [instead of Paramus / NJ], married on August 8, 1937 in Polch [instead of Cologne] Carolina (Kayla) Hirsch, born on April 4, 1905 in Polch, died on December 20, 1993 in Suffern, NY, seamstress, in the USA since 1938, daughter of Gustav (Eliochum ben Shlomo, Loeb's Gustav) Hirsch and Paula (Devore bat Meyer) Simon (online[148])
  127. Hangebruch, 1, p. 155f, source: Main State Archives Düsseldorf, Gestapo files 29074 and 62731; the fates of the brothers Alfred and Walter Levy described here do not correspond to the facts; Alfred Levy, a laborer who was actually deported to Riga, Kaiserwald and Stutthof, was born in Grefrath on March 7, 1889 (deportation list [149] , Hangebruch 2, p. 249)
  128. birth certificates, passenger list (familysearch.org), US census 1940 ( [150] and [151] ); public data of the US authorities (familysearch.org), 1946: death notice of Josef Levy (see above), Hangebruch 2, p. 249, Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: died 1987 Lansdale / PA)
  129. ^ Birth certificate, US census [152] , Kauwertz, p. 512; Lynders; on date of death: Social Security Number 197-01-2464 ( [153] ); Hermann Levy near Kauwertz pp. 290/291, death notice from Josef Levy
  130. birth certificate 47/1904; US census 1940 [154] ; [155] ; Kauwertz, p. 512
  131. ^ Kauwertz, p. 512, Hermann Levy bei Kauwertz, p. 291; for the history of Ernst, Ida and Annette Levy and the Marcus family see: Willi Feld, The Jews in the History of the Former City of Burgsteinfurt, Part II, 1996, and Karl Friedrich Herhaus, The Jewish-Christian episode of the Arnoldinum high school in Burgsteinfurt, which was re-established in 1853 1853–1937, 2014, online at [156]
  132. This refers to Arthur Winter from Kempen (born on January 12, 1903), who lived in Russia in 1931 and in Sweden since 1936 and who compiled a report in June 1945 “which is mainly based on the testimony of H [ein] Samuel [born on March 13, 1920] from Hüls [who survived Riga, Salaspils and Bergen-Belsen and emigrated to Denmark after his liberation]. The report has since been confirmed in all essential parts by reports from other survivors, files and statements by Gestapo and SS people. "
  133. Birth certificate 165/1909, GA Breyell No. 1271, Dachau concentration camp memorial, deportation list [157] and [158] (Hilde Levy's mother was not there during the transport, so she probably died, and there is no entry for her in Yad Vashem), memorial sheets under [159] , [160] , [161] , [162]; Kauwertz, p. 512 (wrong there: 25.7.42 Theresienstadt), an autobiographical note by Hermann Levy can be found there p. 290/291, quoting Arthur Winter / Heinz Samuel (wrong here: Theresienstadt); Lynders (the wife Ellen mentioned there should not be confused with Elsie Ellen Levy (1915–1992), who was married to Herman Levy (1909–1996) and who are both buried in the Theodor Herzl Mausoleum in Jerusalem, see [163 ] )
  134. [164] and [165]
  135. Birth certificate Breyell 55/1901, birth certificate Ihringen 20/1898, Kauwertz, p. 512 (there: * April 20, 1902), copying of the passenger lists (via familysearch.org) US Social Security Death Index (via familysearch.org). Reports that Lina Levy met her future husband on the crossing are not correct. The husband's identity can be found in the obituary notice for his father in the magazine Aufbau dated March 1, 1946 (No. 9 of the year), page 29, 2nd column ( [166]): “After suffering for a long time, my dear husband, our good father, father-in-law, grandfather, brother, brother-in-law and uncle Moritz Bloch (fr. Ihringen a. Kaiserstuhl) passed away in Andelfingen (Switzerland) at the old age of almost 85 years. Berta Bloch born Gundelfinger, Andelfingen, Canton of Zurich, Hans and Laura Meyer born. Bloch, and children, ... Julius u. Lina Bloch, b. Levi, 540 W 180th St., New York 33, NY ... “Berta Gundelfinger is not the mother, but the stepmother of Julius Bloch - Moritz Bloch's (second) marriage to Berta Gundelfinger was in Ettenheim-Altdorf (No. 4 / 1904) closed.
  136. Birth certificate, deportation list [167] (* March 5, 1904), FA Dülken, Gedenkblatt under [168] , Hangebruch 2, p. 250 (there: * March 6, 1904), Leo Peters, p. 182, Kauwertz, p . 512 (there: * March 6, 1904)
  137. ^ Birth certificate, Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial (* February 6, 1909), memorial sheet under [169] (there: * February 17, 1908); Kauwertz, p. 512 (wrong there: * February 7, 1908), Hermann Levy there, p. 290: "That was the usual way of reporting the murder of a prisoner in a concentration camp", see also: Hangebruch, 1, p. 164
  138. [170]
  139. ^ Familysearch.org for Bernhard Levy, Geburten Bracht 1820–1880
  140. familysearch.org for Anna Höflich, Geburten Bracht 1820–1880; History workshop Düren [171]
  141. Birth certificate 29/1855, Familysearch.org for Benjamin Levy, Geburten Bracht 1820–1880; Eberbach, Israelite community: Register of registry 1810–1866, Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, inventory 390, registry books of district court district Eberbach No. 1057 ( [172] ); Memorial book online ( [173] ); Memorial sheet ( [174] ); [175] ; [176]
  142. Jenny Levy from Eberbach, born 1895/96, lived in 1940 in Dayton City, Ohio; she was single (1940 US census); Jenny L. Goldman from Los Angeles, tells Yad Vashem Benjamin Levy as her father; US government public data (familysearch.org)
  143. Birth certificate 36/1861, Familysearch.org for Emanuel Levy, Geburten Bracht 1820–1880, Hangebruch, p. 249, Steinheim Institute [177]
  144. Wolfgang Scheffler , Diana Schulle (edit.): Book of Remembrance: The German, Austrian and Czechoslovak Jews Deported to the Baltic States 2003, p. 709, deportation lists [178] , memorial book online (Gerd Levy: [179] , there: murdered 9 February 1945); Jenny L. Goldman reports of another son, Horst (with a question mark by his first name), born in 1917, who fled to the Netherlands and whose fate is unknown to her ( [180] )
  145. Birth certificate 72/1869, deportation list [181] , list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [182] ), memorial sheet under [183] (there for confusion: * Breyell, son of Karl Levy), memorial book online ( Hangebruch 2, p. 252 ( there: * November 19, 1869 )
  146. It can be assumed that the two daughters Else and Erna, born in 1901, were employed or married.
  147. The entire section: Leo Peters, pp. 175f. The term “family” in Peter's text can only refer to Pauline Sanders, the wife of Jacobs, since Philipp Sanders was a widower and the next generation was in the USA, partly since 1935 (see below). A statement by contemporary witnesses that Jacob, Else, Philipp, Pauline, Erna and Herta Sanders fled to the USA on the same ship is therefore incorrect.
  148. June 21st results from the information that the sister-in-law Jacobs lived in Hinsbeck up to this day (see below); On October 23, 1941, Heinrich Müller , head of the Gestapo , on the orders of Heinrich Himmler , stopped the emigration of Jews from the "Old Reich" with immediate effect
  149. birth certificate 4/1889, [184] ; [185] ; Memorial book online ( [186] )
  150. birth certificate Kaldenkirchen 53/1869; Hangebruch 2, p. 256 (there: he: born in Hinsbeck, died New York 1951, she: died New York 1973); Kauwertz, p. 511; Archived copy ( Memento of the original from December 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Copies of the passenger lists (via familysearch.org); on Pauline Schuster's parents see web.archive.org, accessed on May 10, 2019 ; Leo Peters (2015)@1@2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.death-record.com
  151. identity card Alfred star in the city archives Bad Neustadt an der Saale ; Alfred Stern, Memories of Bad-Neustadt / Saale, typescript New York, December 13, 1968, Neustadt City Archives, AMB estate; Neustadt population register; Marriage certificate and passport, Leo Baeck Institute , New York, online at [187] ; Data on the ship's passage online at [188] (date of departure from the biography of Hans Robert Korngold, the brother of Erich Wolfgang Korngold ; date of arrival from familysearch.org); 1940 US census online at [189] ; public data of the US authorities, obituary for Anna Blum, in: Aufbau , October 29, 1943, p. 18, 2nd column ( [190]) with the date of death December 6, 1942; Kauwertz, p. 511 (with the exact day of death, he gives the place of death for both Paramus / NJ)
  152. [191] , memorial book online ( [192] )
  153. [193] (No. 16)
  154. birth certificate; Naturalization records; Immigration (familysearch.org), US census 1940 ( [194] and [195] ), US Army ( [196] ), public data from US authorities (familysearch.org); Kauwertz, p. 191 (short testimony from “Hertha Kösterich, New York”), p. 511 (marriage, with Paramus / NJ as place of death); Stephen M. Lowenstein, Frankfurt on the Hudson: The Jewish Community of Washington Heights 1933-82 (1989), p. 277
  155. Birth certificate Kaldenkirchen 78/1871 with entry November 23, 1871, marriage certificate Reckendorf 13/1900, copy in GA Kaldenkirchen No. 1917 sheet 190; Hangebruch 2, p. 256 (there: * November 21, 1871); Kauwertz, p. 511 (there on Jacob: * November 24, 1871); [197] ; Copies of the passenger lists (via familysearch.org); The widow Meta Frank nee Reich (born March 23, 1881 Eubigheim) and Leopoldina Reich (born March 17, 1887 Eubigheim), both from Reckendorf, lived from May 14 to June 21, 1941, younger sisters of the late Sara, in Hinsbeck with the Sanders family, Neustr. 18; their return to Reckendorf was evidently justified by the emigration of the Sanders family; Both were murdered by the National Socialists: Meta was deported to Krasnystaw on April 25, 1942 and murdered in the Lublin area, Leopoldine to Theresienstadt on February 23, 1942 and from there to Auschwitz on January 23, 1943 ( web.archive.org, accessed on May 10, 2019 ), Memorial Book online ( [198] and [199] ); Leo Peters (2015)
  156. Stadtarchiv Tuttlingen
  157. birth certificate Hinsbeck 37/1901, 88/1932 marriage certificate, Tuttlingen Heimatblätter 1984, p 80 (the emigration of Landau), US Census 1940 ( [200] and [201] ), public data from the US authorities; Kauwertz, p. 511 (there: * April 29, 1903, died 1998)
  158. birth certificate; US census 1940 ( [202] and [203] ), Hangebruch 2, p. 256, Kauwertz, p. 511; public data of the US authorities (familysearch.org)
  159. ↑ In detail: Leo Peters, pp. 185f: Hirtz Meyer 1707–1729 testifies, his widow until 1746, Moses Leuman 1747.1751, Liefmann Leyser 1752–1766
  160. Leo Peters, S. 188
  161. Leo Peters. S. 199
  162. Leo Peters, p. 197f, see also: List of names of adult male members of the Jewish religious community (GA Kaldenkirchen No. 1580)
  163. ^ Hubert Rütten, traces of life - search for traces, Jewish life in the former district of Erkelenz, writings of the Heimatverein der Erkelenzer Lande Volume 22, Erkelenz 2008, p. 342ff.
  164. Birth certificate 8/1878, GA Kaldenkirchen No. 187 (suicide), Steinheim Institute [204] , Gedenkbuch online [205] , Joodsmonument [206] , Leo Peters, p. 197, Kauwertz, p. 264 and p. 509
  165. according to a printed letterhead (Leo Peters, 2015)
  166. Birth certificate, Steinheim Institute [207] (with place of birth Rotterdam for Mimi Bonn on the tombstone), memorial book online ( [208] and [209] ), Joodsmonument ( [210] and [211] ), Kauwertz, p. 509 ( there Walter Bonn: 1943 Westerbork-Auschwitz)
  167. birth certificate, Steinheim Institute [212] , Kauwertz, p. 509; Leo Peters (2015)
  168. [213]
  169. Vgl. [214]
  170. At the end of 1938 they announced the mandatory addition to their name (with “Israel” or “Sara”), using a printed letterhead from the company “Metzgerei Ermann & Freimark, Düsseldorf, Horst-Wessel-Str. 60 ”(today Kölner Straße, probably the southern end at Worringer Platz) which does not have to be the current address at the time. (Leo Peters, 2015)
  171. marriage certificate 19/1886, memorial book online [215] , Kauwertz, p. 513; Leo Peters (2015)
  172. ^ Deportation list ( [216] ); Leo Peters. P. 200, no entry in the memorial book, Kauwertz, p. 451 (wrong there: November 8, 1941); Leo Peters (2015)
  173. birth certificate 109/1889, birth certificate 38/1900; Marriage certificate 14/1926, deportation list ( [217] and [218] ), Abraham Cohen was declared dead on January 30, 1961 by May 8, 1945, Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial (with date of birth October 30, 1889), FA Dülken, memorial book online ( [219] and [220] ); Memorial sheet under [221] , [222] and [223] (there: * April 4, 1900), Hangebruch 2, p. 248, Leo Peters, p. 183, 195, 197f, 200, Kauwertz, p. 509, p 79 with December 23, 1939 as the date of discharge from Dachau; Leo Peters (2015)
  174. Kauwertz, S. 509; Leo Peters (2015)
  175. Hermann Levy in Kauwertz, p. 290
  176. ^ Deportation list ( [224] and [225] ); Memorial book online ( [226] , [227] , [228] and [229] )
  177. ^ Deportation list ( [230] ); Memorial book online ( [231] , [232] and [233] )
  178. [234]
  179. Leo Peters, S. 190
  180. Steinheim Institute ( [235] ), see also [236]
  181. Birth certificate 67/1855, birth certificate 411/1865, death certificate 1/1939, Steinheim Institute ( [237] ); Euregio family book online ( [238] ); memorial book online ( [239] ), Joodsmonument ( [240] ); Leo Peters, p. 197/198/200, Kauwertz, p. 509 (there Simon Defries: * October 14, 1855, Johanna Defries: * August 14, 1872, and with January 25, 1943 probably as the day of death); Else Heymann married Lion in: Kauwertz S 141ff
  182. Her parents Benjamin Holländer (1830–1927) and Sara Menken (1832–1910) had nine children: Manuel (* 1859, in the USA since 1909, in New York in 1930); Abraham (1860–1927), Johanna (1862–1894), Rosa (1864–1939), Henrietta (1865–1943), Caroline (1869–1942 Theresienstadt), Eva (1871–1956), Moses (Max, 1874– after 1903) and Carl (1875-1915); Abraham Holländer married Rosa Stern (1866–1942 Amsterdam), with whom he had four children: Julius (1894–1967), Walter (1897–1968), Betti (1898–1914) and Edith (1900–1945 Auschwitz); Edith Holländer married Otto Frank (1889–1980), their children are Margot (1926–1945 Bergen-Belsen) and Anne (1929–1945 Bergen-Belsen), ( Euregio family book )
  183. quoted from [241] ; It remains unclear who the relatives were, with reference to the family name Defries in Kaldenkirchen, only Henriette Defries, born Dutch, who fled to the Netherlands during this time, is in question; The type and degree of relationship is also not clear; it is recorded as a departure in the “membership lists of the Israelite community, the men's, women's and sports clubs from April 1, 1938” (Wiener Library, STA Goch, box J4 - Gestapo files). Johanna Devries is recorded on the memorial stele in the Kaldenkirchener Friedhof, but in the explanations of the Steinheim Institute ( [242] ) she is referred to as the wife of Simon Devries (who was actually called Henriette, see above); in the memorial book online ( [243]) it is listed without the exact date of deportation and without reference to Kaldenkirchen; on the deportation lists of December 11, 1941, four Devries from Uedem, Goch and Krefeld are recorded, but no Johanna ( [244] or [245] ); there is no memorial sheet at Yad Vashem. It can be assumed that the assignment of Johanna Devries to Kaldenkirchen was confused and that her actual fate is unknown. Adolf Devries: Memorial sheet under [246]
  184. [247]
  185. Leo Peters, p. 190, wrong here with January 21, 1827 as Simon's date of birth; on the family history of the Grunewald family see in detail: Leo Peters (ed.): A Jewish Childhood on the Lower Rhine - The Memories of Julius Grunewald (1860 to 1929), 2009
  186. Leo Peters, p. 207, marriage certificate 9/1886; GA Kaldenkirchen No. 403
  187. Birth certificate, 80/1888, birth certificate 1920, memorial sheet under [248] (there: * April 27, 1887), Leo Peters p. 197, 207; Kauwertz, p. 509
  188. Only the deportation from Koblenz and Aachen on March 22nd comes into question.
  189. History workshop Düren, ID no. 1739
  190. History workshop Düren. ID no. 1766
  191. History workshop Düren, ID no. 1797
  192. marriage certificate 1/1911; Memorial book online [249] ; Memorial sheets for Gustav Heumann ( [250] and [251] ) and Paula Heumann ( [252] and [253] )
  193. Birth certificate 67/1894, birth certificate 1892, Kaldenkirchen municipal archive No. 1921 (compilation), birth certificate 1923, birth certificate 1926; Deportation lists ( [254] for Günther Grunewald), memorial book online ( [255] , there: born on June 3, 1926, [256] , [257] and [258] with Krefeld-Uerdingen as his place of residence); Quote from: Gottwald, Schulle: Judendeportationen, p. 217ff; Leo Peters, p. 197, Kauwertz, p. 509 (with 1935 Krefeld as place of residence, as well as for Johanna Servos wrongly Krefeld as place of birth); Ernst Grunewald was declared dead on June 26, 1950 by the Krefeld AG on May 8, 1945; Leo Peters (2015)
  194. Leo Peters (ed.): A Jewish childhood on the Lower Rhine. The memories of Julius Grunewald (1860–1929), 2009, p. 169 (there Rosalie Voss)
  195. Leo Peters (2015), the identity with the daughter of Elias Grunewald and Rosalia Voos is not certain, the identity with Erna Emma Grunewald, the daughter of Hubert Robert Grunewald Lina Blumenthal is improbable, since Erna Emma was obviously unmarried and was also called Erna .
  196. birth certificate 65/1867, there also the date and place of death according to the certificate of the Arolsen registry office 116/1956; Deportation lists ( [259] ); List of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [260] ); Memorial book online ( [261] , there: lived in Krefeld Uerdingen); Steinheim Institute ( [262] )
  197. Gedenkbuch online ( [263] and [264] with date of birth August 8, 1920); Leo Peters, Eine Jewish Childhood, p. 179, footnote 14
  198. [265]
  199. Leo Peters, Eine Jewish Childhood, p. 154
  200. Leo Peters, p. 190; on the family history of the descendants of Joseph Hoffstadt in Burg-Graefenrode see: Meinhard Jänsch, family book of the Jewish population of Burg-Graefenrode 1839–1900 (2010), online at [266] ; Steinheim Institute ( [267] )
  201. ^ Jänsch; Memorial book online ( [268] )
  202. Birth certificate 40/1864, death certificate 55/1942, the deportation list ( [269] ) is therefore outdated, Keuck, Straelen register; the entry in the printed memorial book ( [270] ) with the place of residence Münstereifel and death in Theresienstadt was deleted from the online version
  203. Gedenkbuch online ([271])
  204. Arthur Winter / Heinz Samuel, quoted in Hangebruch 1, pp. 168/169
  205. Else Heymann b. Jaffé, widowed Lion, in Kauwertz, p. 155
  206. Birth certificate 81/1868, birth certificate 60/1859, marriage certificate 15/1897, death certificate 61/1938, death certificate 26/1941, Steinheim Institute ( [272] and [273] ), Leo Peters, pp. 197, 200, Kauwertz, P. 509; Leo Peters (2015)
  207. Birth certificate 25/1871, deportation list [274] , there: * March 14, 1871, list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [275] ); Leo Peters p. 197; Kauwertz, p. 509; the entry in the printed memorial book ( [276] ) with the date of birth March 14, 1871, the place of residence Münstereifel and the death in Minsk was deleted from the online version; Leo Peters (2015)
  208. birth certificate 109/1874, deportation list ( [277] ); on November 30, 1951, declared dead by December 31, 1945 by AG Viersen; Memorial book online ( [278] ); Memorial sheet under [279] and [280] ; Leo Peters (2015)
  209. [281]
  210. [282]
  211. The Dutch family name "Keizer" speaks like "Kaiser" and means that too.
  212. birth certificate 1878, birth certificate 13/1880, marriage certificate 13/1907; Memorial book online ( [283] , there on Regina Keizer: from Westerbork 1943, Auschwitz extermination camp), Joodsmonument ( [284] ), Leo Peters, p. 197, Kauwertz, p. 510 (there on Regina Keizer: 1944 Westerbork-Auschwitz)
  213. According to her information sheet, Mira Keizer was accompanied by her parents, whose immigration was not recorded: on the passenger list, the Keizer family occupies places 11 to 14, places 15 and 16 are empty, other of the 35 travelers do not come in Question; Paul Simon Keizer named Felix Keizer in Venlo, Burgmeester van Rijnsingel 13, who will be Felix Meijer Keizer (1884–1961), brother of his murdered father, as his closest relative
  214. Willy Leon Hass, born April 5, 1914, Israeli citizen, who came from Haifa on the SS on August 29, 1955 and reached Jerusalem in New York and was naturalized in 1967
  215. Birth certificate 1909, Hangebruch 2, p. 248 (there: Deportation 1943, † 1977 San Francisco), public data of the US authorities (familysearch.org), USC Shoah Foundation ( [285] ), US Army ( [286] ) ; Kauwertz, p. 510; a detailed report on the Keizer family can be found at Kauwertz on pages 263–279
  216. Main State Archives Düsseldorf, Gestapo file 19168, quoted in Hangebruch, 1, pp. 154/155, names abbreviated there
  217. birth certificate, memorial book online ( [287] ), memorial sheet under [288] ; Joodsmonument ( [289] ), Leo Peters, p. 198, Kauwertz, p. 510
  218. birth certificate, Kauwertz, p. 510; a report about Ilse Wagner from her children Malka Gat and Moshe Wagner, Tel Aviv, in Kauwertz, pp. 286–288.
  219. [290]
  220. birth certificate 98/1861, marriage certificate 29/1899; Deportation list ( [291] and [292] , there: Jakob Lion, * Kaldenkirchen), list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [293] and [294] ), memorial book online ( [295] and [296] ), family book Euregio online ( [ 297] ); Hangebruch 2, p. 252, Leo Peters, p. 195, 197, 200, Kauwertz, p. 510 (there wrong for Jacob Lion: * Kaldenkirchen, as well as wrong for both: murdered after 1942 in Minsk) as well as S 141ff with a self-testimony Else Heymanns; Leo Peters (2015); Else Heymann married Lion in: Kauwertz S 141ff
  221. ^ Dachau concentration camp memorial, deportation list ( [298] ), memorial sheet under [299] , memorial book online ( [300] ), family book Euregio online ( [301] ), Hangebruch 2, p. 252, Leo Peters, p. 198, 200, Kauwertz, p. 510, as well as S 141ff with a personal report by Else Heymann; Steinheim Institute ( [302] )
  222. Deportationsliste ([303]), Hangebruch 2, S. 252, Leo Peters, S. 200, Kauwertz, S. 510
  223. Hedi's mother Else Lion in Kauwertz, p. 159, see also: Hermann Voosen, letter of October 5, 1945, Wiener Library 76705 / OSP0328 (online at [304] ); Leo Peters (2015) - the stumbling block mentioned in the footnote was laid in 2012
  224. [305] with the incorrect indication of the house number
  225. [306]
  226. Leo Peters, S. 197
  227. deportation list ( [307] , the list of names has not been preserved), memorial sheet under [308] and [309] , memorial book online ( [310] ), there: died in Riga)
  228. Birth certificate 86/1884, deportation list ( [311] , Sally Moser was declared dead on May 8, 1954 by the Düsseldorf AG on May 8, 1945, memorial sheets under [312] , [313] , [314] , [315] and [316] ; Memorial book online ( [317] and [318] ), memorial book for the Nazi victims from Wuppertal ( [319] )
  229. memorial sheet under [320] (there: farmer, married to Ruth Liemann, lived in Amsterdam), memorial book Wuppertal ( [321] ); unchecked in the Wuppertal memorial book on Kurt Erich Moser: “Last resident in the municipality of Weerselo / Netherlands. According to Weerselo's death certificate from 23-08-1951 no. 38: married to Ruth Sara Liemann, parents Salomon Moser and Jenny Heidt "
  230. Birth certificate 87/1884, deportation list ( [322] , there: Karolina Isaac), memorial book online ( [323] )
  231. Leo Peters, p. 187f, there also as a footnote: Siegfried Sanders: “My ancestor was Samuel Sanders geb. 1730 in Breyell. His son Benjamin married Gertrud Isaac and died in Kaldenkirchen in December 1813 at the age of 83. His son Salomon Sanders, husband of Rachel Lion, was born in Kaldenkirchen as the son of the above couple and died in Kaldenkirchen at the age of 54. "
  232. Levi Sanders, deed 49/1810 of August 22, 1810, Benjamin Sanders, deed 59/1811 of September 15, 1811, Samuel Sanders, deed 24/1814 of April 15, 1814, Joseph Sanders, deed 34/1816 of 17. June 1816, Frederica Sanders, document 28/1820 from May 19, 1820, and Salomon Sanders, document 59/1822 from August 5, 1822
  233. Leo Peters, p. 190, the identity of "Abraham Isaac" with Benjamin Sanders results from the date of birth
  234. Geburtsurkunde 57/1811
  235. birth certificate 44/1857, birth certificate 91/1857, marriage certificate 15/1883, death certificate 31/1925, death certificate 22/1941; BHIC (Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum), there for Rosalie: Date of birth September 13, 1857; Steinheim Institute ( [324] with date of birth August 8, 1857), Hangebruch 2, p. 256 (there: Josef, without date of birth, deported †), Leo Peters, p. 197, Kauwertz, p. 510; Leo Peters (2015)
  236. Birth certificate 26/1860, the birth certificate of Rosa Krebs was not found in the registration books of Reichenberg (Lower Franconia); GA Kaldenkirchen No. 1908 (contingent); Steinheim Institute ( [325] ), public data from the US authorities (familysearch.org), Keuck
  237. Keuck
  238. Birth certificate 30/1862, birth certificate 39/1866, marriage certificate 20/1894, death certificate 38/1937, Steinheim Institute ( [326] ), Leo Peters, p. 197f, p. 200; Kauwertz, p. 510; Leo Peters (2015)
  239. Birth certificate (BHIC), deportation list ( [327] ), memorial book online ( [328] and [329] )
  240. birth certificate (BHIC) prisoner list of the bearing Terezfn ( [330] ); Memorial book online ( [331] ); Hangebruch 2, p. 256; Leo Peters, p. 200; Kauwertz, p. 510
  241. Birth certificate 65/1890, marriage certificate 48/1921 with reference to the birth certificate Vilich-Beuel 366/1893, but without information on the parents, memorial book online ( and http://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch/de861296 ), NS memorials ( web.archive.org, accessed on May 10, 2019 ), Bonn poses itself crosswise ( web.archive.org, accessed on May 10, 2019 ); on May 14, 1952, declared dead by the Bonn AG as of December 31, 1945; Leo Peters (2015) - Alexander Herz gives in his letter to the adoption of the name "Israel" the address Wilhelmstr. 77 to, Helene Herz née Sanders in her letter to adopt the name "Sara" the address Wilhelmstr. 26; the stumbling blocks for both were in front of the former address Wilhelmstr. 77 relocated.
  242. Birth certificate 70/1895, marriage certificate 64/1928, Dachau concentration camp memorial, deportation list ( [332] and [333] ); Memorial book online ( [334] and [335] and [336] ); [337] , see also Ghetto Litzmannstadt # deportation lists on December 4, 1949, declared dead by the Düsseldorf AG on May 8, 1945; Hangebruch 2, p. 256 (there: Isidor), Leo Peters, p. 197f, 207, Kauwertz, p. 510 (with “5.11.1941 Lodz”; gives the name Grete / Sofia, Sofia is correct); Klaus HS Schulte, The Jewish families in Dülken, Süchteln and Viersen in the 19th century, 1998; Leo Peters (2015)
  243. http://mahnmal.ge-nettetal.de/kal-erich-sanders.shtml
  244. [338]
  245. Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial (with birthplace Straelen), public data from the US authorities (familysearch.org), Hangebruch 2, p. 255, Leo Peters, p. 197f, 200, Kauwertz, p. 510 (there: died around 1983 ); Ida Krebs' date of birth is known to the registry office in Reichenberg, but may not yet be disclosed for data protection reasons, as the 110-year protection period had not yet expired in 2014.
  246. Ruth Sanders in Kauwertz, S. 188; Leo Peters (2015)
  247. Gedenkbuch online ( [339] and [340] ), Steinheim Institute ( [341] ) (there: murdered in Treblinka), Joodsmonument ( [342] , there: Auschwitz September 30, 1942, [343] , there: Auschwitz September 30, 1942), Auschwitz Death Registers 25271/1942 and 33143/1942 ( [344] and [345] ); Leo Peters, p. 198, 205/207, Kauwertz, p. 510
  248. Kauwertz, S. 510
  249. In January 1939 he used a printed letterhead with the (business) address Hochstr. 3 (see Peters 2015)
  250. “On June 16, 1939, the Kaldenkirchen mayor informed the district administrator in Kempen that he had no concerns about the issue of the certificate of residence requested by Siegfried Sanders. Sanders had provided the following personal details in the application: businessman Siegfried Israel Sanders, Kaldenkirchen, Hindenburgstr. 53, born on January 24th, 1903 in Kaldenkirchen, single. Parents: Simon Sanders b. on April 27, 1862 in Kaldenkirchen, died on October 9, 1937 in Kaldenkirchen, Wilhelmine Sara Defries b. on 9 May 1866 in Kaldenkirchen, residing in Kaldenkirchen, Hindenburgstr. 53. The applicant and his parents have had their permanent residence in Kaldenkirchen since birth. Purpose of the document to emigrate to Haiti (this word deleted).The applicant, his parents and grandparents had Prussian citizenship. … Grandfather Benjamin Sanders was born on September 14th, 1811 in Kaldenkirchen. The applicant's parents and grandparents always lived in Kaldenkirchen. They have not yet stayed abroad. The applicant's parents and grandparents have neither lost their German citizenship nor acquired another one (KAV, StA Kaldenkirchen 2147) ”(Leo Peters (2015), footnote p. 214)
  251. Dachau Concentration Camp, Steinheim Institute ( [346] ), Hangebruch 2, p 256 (there: about 1940 San Francisco), Leo Peters, S. 197f, 200, 205; Kauwertz, p. 510, p. 13 ff (p. 79 with December 23, 1938 as the date of discharge from Dachau)
  252. birth certificate; Marriage certificate 1/1876; Steinheim Institute ( [347] )
  253. Birth certificate 45/1855, death certificate 15/1939, Leo Peters, p. 198, Kauwertz, p. 510; Leo Peters [2015], there “born on July 1, 1855” and: “The municipal clerk corrects the first name“ Bernhard ”in“ Benjamin ”and the date of birth by one day: June 30, 1855. Name and date change correspond to the entries in Birth register document 45/1855. "
  254. birth certificate 39/1864, 59/1938 death certificate, Steinheim Institute ( [348] ), Leo Peters, S. 197, Kauwertz, p 510; Else Heymann married Lion in: Kauwertz S 141ff
  255. Birth certificate 22/1867, deportation list ( [349] ), list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [350] and [351] ), memorial sheet under [352] , genealogy.net ( [353] ) (with date of birth March 18), Keuck ; Jewish Museum Milwaukee [354] ; Leo Peters (2015)
  256. [355]
  257. Birth certificate 42/1878, birth certificate 1876, marriage certificate 28/1904, Dachau concentration camp memorial, deportation list ( [356] ), memorial book online ( [357] and [358] ), Hangebruch 2, p. 257, Leo Peters, p. 198, 200, Kauwertz, p. 510; Gottwald, Schulle: Deportations of Jews, p. 217ff; Frieda Simon was declared dead on December 8, 1952 by the Lobberich group on December 31, 1945; Leo Peters (2015)
  258. [359]
  259. Birth certificate, deportation list ( [360] ), memorial sheet under [361] (there: * March 18, 1870), memorial book online ( [362] , there: lived in Kempen, and [363] ), Steinheim Institute ( [364 ] ), Leo Peters, p. 197f, 200, Kauwertz, p. 510; Leo Peters (2015)
  260. [365]
  261. GA Kaldenkirchen No. 598 (list); Birth certificate; Dachau concentration camp memorial; Deportation lists ( [366] ), memorial book online ( [367] , there: lived in Kaldenkirchen and Mönchengladbach, [368] and [369] ); Hangebruch 2, p. 256; Leo Peters, p. 200; Kauwertz, p. 509; Steinheim Institute ( [370] ); Leo Peters (2015)
  262. ^ Birth certificates of Samuel Sanders and Sara Wyngaard were not found; Steinheim Institute ( [371] and [372] )
  263. Birth certificate 107/1885, birth certificate 56/1892, list of inmates of the Theresienstadt camp ( [373] ), memorial book online ( [374] , [375] and [376] ), memorial sheet under [377] and [378] , Joodsmonument ( [379] , [380] , [381] and [382] ); Hangebruch 2, p. 255, Kauwertz, p. 513
  264. birth certificate 55/1891, birth certificate 1924; Marriage certificate 45/1921, there no information about the parents, only the reference to the birth certificate Niederündorf 123/1877; Deportation list ( [383] ); Memorial book online ( [384] and [385] on the parents, no entry on the son), Kauwertz, p. 513
  265. Birth certificate 92/1893, marriage certificate 20/1924 with details of the birth certificate Ticino 20/1886, but without details of the parents; Deportation list ( [386] ); Memorial book online ( [387] and [388]