The Erlangen Jewish Cemetery in Erlangen , a town in the Bavarian administrative district of Middle Franconia , was established in 1891. It is located on the northern slope of the Burgberg , on Rudelsweiherstrasse .
The Jewish community Erlangen buried after its foundation in 1873 their dead first on the Jewish cemetery in Baiersdorf . After long negotiations between the board of directors and the city administration of Erlangen, a separate Jewish cemetery was established in Erlangen, which was inaugurated on September 30, 1891 by the rabbi of the district rabbinate Fürth Jakob Neuburger .
At the same time as the construction of the cemetery, a Tahara house with a cemetery keeper's apartment was built in the entrance area . The cemetery has an area of 27.20 acres. Today there are three distinguishable partial areas on this area: the area in the west, which was occupied with old graves between 1891 and 1947; adjoining this, but at a distance, grave area for the dead of today's Jewish religious community after its re-establishment in 1997 (see below). The third area is a garden plot with the Tahara house. The (first) partial area with the old graves in the western area contains the graves of 166 people who were verifiably buried there until 1939. The exact number of children's graves in the northwest is not known. In addition, there are memorial inscriptions on older epitaphs for family members who became victims of the Shoah , including z. B. Jenny Rotenstein, who lived in Theresienstadtperished. There are also some reserved grave areas for family members who managed to escape from their homeland in the Third Reich. The memorial for a Jewish soldier from an Erlangen family who died in France during World War I and was buried there (Lothar Hopfenmaier) is remarkable. After the liberation of Germany in 1945, a few Jewish dead were buried, of which only one woman from Bamberg received a tomb ( Mazewa ).
time of the nationalsocialism
The cemetery was desecrated by strangers for the first time in May 1939. A few weeks later, almost all of the tombstones were knocked over and a scrap metal dealer stole almost all of the metal grave jewelry. The last burial took place in this state in September 1939, before the holy place was closed for decades after two to five, mostly anonymous, burials between 1945 and 1947. When the American army marched into Erlangen in 1945, two former Erlangen soldiers were among the liberators who had the cemetery with the graves of their ancestors restored to a dignified state (Max Fleischmann and Leo Dingfelder).
After the cemetery and the Tahara house, which was aryanized during the Nazi era, became the property of the State Association of Israelite Communities in Bavaria in the 1950s, the city of Erlangen was responsible for maintaining the area in the coming decades. In 1983 they erected a memorial stone for the Erlangen Jewish community that was destroyed during the Nazi era . The cemetery keeper's apartment was inhabited for many years. This state of affairs was ended when, following the re-establishment of the Erlangen Jewish Community in 1997, it became necessary to restore the cemetery to its original use. The Jewish Community of Erlangen has been the legal owner of its cemetery again since 2014.
Today in the second part of the cemetery (see above) the dead of the new Jewish religious community, which came into being after its re-establishment in 1997, after Jewish quota refugees from the former Soviet republics had also reached Erlangen, are buried. There are now 40 new graves. The new graves offer an impression of today's sepulchral culture. One of the people buried here is z. B. Ruth Scherk, who was the founder of the first Montessori kindergarten in Berlin.
The Tahara House in the third part of the cemetery was restored in 2015-2017 and has been used exclusively for cultic purposes since its consecration by Rabbi Shimon Grossberg from Nuremberg on June 25, 2017.
To celebrate the 125th anniversary of the consecration of the cemetery in 1891, a memorial was erected on September 29, 2016 in the access area to the cemetery area, on which the names of the victims of the events of the Third Reich related to Erlangen are named. The realization was made possible by the patronage of Erlangen companies, associations and private individuals.
- Klaus-Dieter Alicke : Lexicon of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area. Volume 1: Aach - Groß-Bieberau. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2008, ISBN 978-3-579-08077-2 ( online edition ).
- Israel Schwierz: Stone evidence of Jewish life in Bavaria. A documentation . Published by the Bavarian State Center for Political Education in Munich. Bayerische Verlags-Anstalt, Bamberg 1988, ISBN 3-87052-393-X , p. 152.
- Ilse Sponsel: “Traces in Stone” - 100 years of the Israelite cemetery in Erlangen. September 30, 1891 - September 30, 1991 . Published by the city of Erlangen. Mayor and press office, City of Erlangen 1991, ( Erlanger materials booklet 6). [not evaluated]
-  The Jewish cemetery in Erlangen near Alemannia Judaica
-  Obtaining. In: Overview of all projects for the documentation of Jewish grave inscriptions in the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bavaria. Editor: Felicitas Grützmann, Central Archive for Research into the History of Jews in Germany , 2010
-  The House of Bavarian History on the Erlangen Jewish Cemetery
-  The House of Bavarian History about the Jewish fallen soldiers of the First World War from Erlangen
- Thomas Senne: Erlangen. Accompany the dead with dignity. With student help and a lot of personal contribution, the community is restoring its Tahara house. In: Jüdische Allgemeine. 17th December 2015
- Sharon Chaffin: “Three memorial plaques for Jewish victims of National Socialism” September 28, 2016
- Filiz Mailhammer: “The renovated Tahara house in Erlangen was inaugurated” June 25, 2017
- Rivka Wolff and Christof Eberstadt: "Holocaust memorial inaugurated in Erlangen"