Jewish cemetery (Würzburg) - Jüdischer Friedhof (Würzburg)

Cemetery house
Mausoleum of the von Hirsch family

The Jewish cemetery Würzburg (also: Jewish Cemetery Lengfeld or officially Israelite cemetery ) is a protected monument in the district Grombühl in formerly located at the gates of the city district "Rose Mill" in today's Werner-von-Siemens-Straße in the independent city of Würzburg in Bavarian administrative district of Lower Franconia . Another Jewish cemetery is the Jewish cemetery Heidingsfeld in the Heidingsfeld district , which is located in the city today .

story

The medieval Jewish cemetery (X) in Würzburg, laid out in 1147. Detail from the cityscape made by Sebastian Münster around 1550 .

As early as the 12th century, at the time of the first Jews in Würzburg , there was a Jewish cemetery ("Judenkirchhöflein") on today's Blasiusgasse (in the 14th century still called Schleifergasse ) in the area of ​​today's eastern part of the market square. [1] Presumably because of its full occupancy, Efrajiim bar Jaaqov Rabbi Chiskija and his wife Edit bought a plot of land in the Innere Pleich district in 1147 on which a new cemetery was created.

In 1576, however, Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had the Juliusspital built on the site of the Pleicher cemetery, despite Jewish and imperial protests , after the stones from the cemetery had been used for municipal buildings in the 13th and 14th centuries. 1504 tombstones and tombstone fragments were recovered in 1987 when the church of a former St. Mark's monastery, which had been secularized since 1803, was torn down [2] [3] in the Pleich. [4]

In the decades before the current Würzburg cemetery was built, Würzburg Jews were buried in the cemeteries in Heidingsfeld and Höchberg . The inauguration of the Würzburg cemetery took place on July 4, 1882 after three years of construction. The first burial was that of three-year-old Amalie Bechhofer in 1882.

During the Second World War , the city confiscated the cemetery house with the mortuary, the Tahara house , the cemetery keeper's apartment and several common rooms. The cemetery itself was overseen by a vegetable gardener. In addition to the grove of honor for those who died in World War I , a memorial was inaugurated on November 11, 1945 for the Jews who perished in the Nazi dictatorship.

Location and characterization

The cemetery is located in the Würzburg district of Grombühl [5] on the B8 , not far from the boundary with Lengfeld, which was incorporated in 1978 .

In addition to the urn burials approved in 1900, some monumental grave monuments contradict Jewish burial rites . Among the latter, the mausoleum of the von Hirsch family on Gereuth stands out on the northern wall of the cemetery . Its member Jakob von Hirsch was raised to the nobility by the Bavarian King Maximilian I Joseph on August 13, 1818 , but in contrast to other ennobled Jews did not convert to Christianity, but remained Jewish.

literature

  • Lothar Mayer: Jewish cemeteries in Lower Franconia . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2010, pp. 196–201, ISBN 978-3-86568-071-6 (with many photos)

Weblinks

Commons : Jewish Cemetery - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Bruno Rottenbach: Würzburg street names. Volume 1, Franconian Society Printing Office, Würzburg 1967, p. 58.
  2. Georg Link: Monastery Book of the Diocese of Würzburg. Würzburg 1876, p. 627 ( The Marx women's monastery in Würzburg ).
  3. ^ Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1245.
  4. Christoph Pitz: Memory of the Jewish cemetery of the Middle Ages .
  5. City map of Würzburg with the boundaries of the city districts ( Memento of the original from June 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.1001-stadtplan.de

Coordinates: 49 ° 47 ′ 51.7 " N , 9 ° 58 ′ 43.9" E