Jewish Hospital Berlin - Jüdisches Krankenhaus Berlin

Main building from 1914 in Iranische Strasse
New building on Heinz-Galinski-Strasse
Memorial plaque on Heinz-Galinski-Strasse 1, in Berlin-Gesundbrunnen

The Jewish Hospital Berlin (JKB) is a hospital in Berlin-Wedding . It has the legal form of a foundation under civil law and serves the Charité as an academic teaching hospital . The hospital has 305 beds and 500 employees. [1]

history

In 1756 the first "Jewish hospital" was built in Berlin on Oranienburger Strasse in the Spandau suburb . Supported by the Berlin Jewish community , it was the only major hospital in Germany at that time that was run by Jews. Due to a lack of space, it was relocated to Auguststrasse in 1861 , in the immediate vicinity of the New Synagogue, which was inaugurated in 1866 . Eduard Knoblauch built a new building from clinker in the classical styleStyle. Because of the internationally renowned doctors working at the hospital, the modern treatment methods and probably also because of the proximity to the Charité University Hospital, which is about a kilometer away , the Jewish Hospital was occasionally called the "Kleine Charité". The Jewish Hospital also enjoyed a good reputation among non-Jews; the number of patients grew steadily and made a move necessary in 1914, which led from Berlin-Mitte to Berlin-Gesundbrunnen to a new, contemporary clinic on Exerzierstrasse (since 1935: Iranische Strasse) in the style of the beginning of modernism . The architects of the new building were Konrad Reimer and Friedrich Körtewhose clinic buildings are now a listed building. [2]

During the Nazi era , the treatment of " Aryans " was initially banned in 1933; non-Jewish employees were subsequently forced to give up their work. The hospital was repeatedly threatened with closure; Multiple looting and a poor supply situation made regular hospital operations less and less possible. The establishment of Gestapo and police stations also made the situation much more difficult. In October 1942 Walter Lustig was appointed medical director of the Jewish Hospital. In addition to being closed to the general public, the house was gradually turned into a ghettoRepurposed and used as a collection camp for the transport of Berlin Jews to the extermination camps . When the Jewish Hospital was finally occupied by the Red Army in 1945 , there were around 370 patients, almost 1,000 internees , 93 children and 76 prisoners from the police station.

Immediately after the Second World War , regular hospital operations for the general public were resumed, albeit to a limited extent. Since then there have been numerous structural conversions and new buildings on the site. Most recently, a new farm building with a cafeteria was built in 1998.

Treatment priorities

The JKB is an acute hospital with around 305 beds and is included in the hospital plan of the State of Berlin.

It has the following specialist departments:

Moreover:

legal form

After the Holocaust , the financing of the hospital increasingly posed a problem for the Jewish community in Berlin . For example, Jewish life in Berlin had been almost completely destroyed, and the number of members of the community was low. Before the Shoah , there were more than 172,000 Jews in Berlin - in 1945 it was just over 6,000. Therefore, in 1963, the hospital was converted into a foundation under civil law, which, in addition to the Jewish community, is also supported by the State of Berlin.

See also

literature

  • Eva Brinkschulte, Thomas Knuth (Ed.): The medical Berlin - A city guide through 300 years of history. Be.bra, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-8148-0178-0 .
  • Rivka Elkin: The Jewish Hospital in Berlin between 1938 and 1945 . Edited by the Friends of the Jewish Hospital Berlin eV. From the Hebrew by Andrea Schatz. Edition Hentrich, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-89468-049-0 (= German Past , Volume 77).
  • Dagmar Hartung-von Doetinchem: Destroyed advances: The Jewish Hospital in Berlin 1756-1861-1914-1989. Dagmar Hartung-von Doetinchem and Rolf Winau (eds.), Berlin: Ed. Hentrich, 1989, ISBN 3-926175-61-3
  • Daniel B. Silver: Survival in Hell. The Berlin Jewish Hospital in the “Third Reich”. Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin 2006, ISBN 978-3-86650-580-3 .
  • Patricia-Charlotta Steinfeld (Ed.): 250 Years of the Jewish Hospital Berlin. Its role in civil society in Germany and Europe. Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-938485-58-3 (= Against Repression and Forgetting: Reports , Volume 5).

Weblinks

Commons : Jewish Hospital Berlin - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Numbers, data, facts
  2. Architectural monuments hospital of the Jewish community, district Berlin-Mitte / OT Gesundbrunnen
  3. Member company of the Academy of Health Berlin / Brandenburg e. V. ( Memento from November 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive )

Coordinates: 52 ° 33 ′ 20 ″ N , 13 ° 22 ′ 14 ″ E