The history of Düsseldorf's Jews goes back to the late Middle Ages . However, permanent settlement of Jews was only possible from the end of the 17th century . The community grew rapidly during industrialization , but remained a middle community that barely exceeded around one percent of the total population. The most famous rabbi in Düsseldorf was Leo Baeck (1907–1912). The community was in the time of National Socialismdestroyed, the majority of Düsseldorf's Jews had to emigrate or were murdered. With around 7087 people, the Düsseldorf Jewish Community is now the largest community in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third largest in Germany after the Berlin Jewish Community and the Munich and Upper Bavaria Jewish Community . It belongs to the regional association of the Jewish communities of North Rhine . Since most of the Düsseldorf Jews come from Eastern and Western Europe , they mostly refer to themselves as Ashkenazim .
The contributions of Jewish people from Düsseldorf to cultural history were significant. Heinrich Heine , Düsseldorf's most important writer, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , a famous musician in Düsseldorf, Wilhelm von Schadow and Eduard Bendemann , well-known representatives of the Düsseldorf School of Painting , were of Jewish origin.
Middle Ages (1298-1500)
The origins of Jewish history in Düsseldorf are largely in the dark. In 1298, Count Wilhelm I von Berg is said to have defended some Jewish communities in his county against attacks by marauding insurgents, a "murderous gang". However, a permanent settlement of Jewish communities cannot be assumed for this period . The waves of persecution during the great plague ( Black Death 1349) caused numerous deaths and destroyed around 80 communities in the Rhineland. It cannot be said with certainty whether Jews were also persecuted in Düsseldorf. Some new settlements did not occur until the late 1350s, such as in Siegburg (1359), Mülheim am Rhein (1363), Blankenberg (1365) and probably also Düsseldorf (1382). Even a few incidental mentions of Jews presumably passing through in the city of Düsseldorf since the late 14th century offer neither precise insights into the early days of a Jewish community nor information about possible continuities of Jewish settlements in the vicinity of Düsseldorf.
In the years 1418 and 1446 at least one Jewish cemetery was mentioned. In 1438 the city received an "assurance" from Duke Gerhard von Jülich-Berg that no Jews would be tolerated in Düsseldorf for the next twelve years.
Early modern period (1500–1808)
In the early modern period, the Jews of Düsseldorf - as everywhere in Jülich and Berg - had to show a so-called letter of protection in order to be able to settle down. The protection money was obtained through the rural Jews and paid to the sovereign treasury.
Most of the first documentary evidence of communal or sovereign provenance, which proves Jewish families in the Bergisch cities neighboring Düsseldorf, mostly date back to the period after 1500, for example for Mülheim an der Ruhr (1508), Solingen (1568), Ratingen (1592 ), (Düsseldorf-) Kaiserswerth (1611) or for the lordship of Hardenberg (1678), but a large part of it only in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
In Berg, too, ordinances were repeatedly issued calling for the expulsion and expulsion from individual cities or the entire country, but between the sometimes discriminatory Jewish policy of the rulers in the united states of Kleve, Jülich, Berg and Mark and the The Jewish laws of the neighboring territories hardly make any significant differences. There were evictions in the years 1438, 1459/1461 and 1476.
The Duke of Düsseldorf, Johann III. gave the order on October 3, 1514 that the Jews had to wear “a gelen rink” on their clothing on their breasts, ie a yellow or gold ring , “by recognizing them vur joeden.” The police ordinance issued in 1554 was his Son and successor, Duke Wilhelm V , on the other hand, demanded the expulsion of the Jews: “In our princes and lands, as with the sub-glories, or those places, so sit in communion with us, also with our feudal and Umbrella relatives are not Jews, if they are not baptized, permitted, delayed or slipped according to the Christian order, if a punishment and peen are avoided. "
The later amendments to this police ordinance (1558, 1563 and 1581) also banned Jewish settlements in Berg and Düsseldorf. Around 1680, a rural Jewry for the united duchies of Jülich and Berg had formed in Düsseldorf.
To 1704 which was initially Electorate of Cologne rabbi in Bonn or Deutz for the duchies of Jülich and Berg jurisdiction until finally in 1706 its own rabbi could be chosen with Samson Levi Cheerful again, took his seat in Dusseldorf.
The Jewish community in Düsseldorf comprised two (1663), later 16 (1738) and in the second half of the 18th century 26 Jewish families.
In 1712, the Düsseldorf Jews built their first prayer room with a hermitage in the multi-winged house of the court factor Juspa van Geldern on Neusser Strasse , today's Hubertus Stift . In 1771, Philipp Horn was vouched for as mayor of the Jewish community ("Sindic de la Communauté des Juifs") when, in this capacity, he contributed to the establishment of the "public library" in Düsseldorf through a book gift. 
On June 21, 1779, Elector Karl Theodor issued the last concession for the Jews, which was planned for 16 years. It stipulated that a maximum of 215 Jewish families were allowed to live in Jülich and Berg. In addition, there was an unknown number of “begging Jews” who were to be turned away in 1785 “with a beating”. A predominant part of the Jewry was destitute. Only the van Geldern family belonged to the tiny upper class in the 18th century.
In 1792, the first old synagogue with a house for the rabbi was built on Kasernenstrasse according to plans by the architect Peter Joseph Krahe (1758–1840). The properties at Kasernenstrasse 17 and 19 belonged to the Jewish community. Up until the end of the 18th century, the oldest Jewish cemetery near the city was located north of the Benrather Straße / Kasernenstraße intersection in the current eastern area of the houses around the property at Kasernenstraße 14 (occupancy before 1705 to 1884). Another Jewish cemetery was built on the "Greyish Bongard", today Bongardstrasse, on the northern Düssel in Pempelfort(Occupied from 1788 to 1877). The graves on Kasernenstrasse were reburied here after the Jewish community was requested to close the cemetery in the city center in 1780.
In 1907 a stone was found while laying a gas pipe in front of the House of the Latest News . This was set in 1782 for Isaak van Geldern, a son of Joseph Jacob van Geldern and great-uncle Harry Heine on his mother's side. Probably on December 13, 1797 Harry Heine was born as the first son of Samson Heine and Betty (Peira) van Geldern in Düsseldorf. Harry, who later called himself Heinrich Heine, witnessed the establishment of the Grand Duchy of Berg , a satellite state of the First French Empire. On July 22, 1808, the government of the Grand Duchy of Berg terminated the system of escort letters, to the great joy of the Jewish community. Since that time there has also been a Jewish school in Düsseldorf.
19th and early 20th centuries (1808–1933)
The so-called "Décret infame" (literally: the shameful decree) of March 17, 1808, with which Napoleonic France reintroduced discriminatory regulations for Jews in a step backwards compared to earlier emancipating laws, did not apply in the Grand Duchy of Berg and thus in Düsseldorf. On January 1, 1810, a law corresponding to the Civil Code came into force in the Grand Duchy of Berg, according to which Jews were in principle equal in court and administration ( Jewish emancipation ). When the Rhineland was allocated to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 , the grand ducal Bergische reform approaches were initially retained. In 1845 the Jews were obliged, like other citizens inKingdom of Prussia to adopt hereditary and mandatory family names.
Since around 1760 there was a Chewra Kadischa , a pious burial brotherhood in Düsseldorf . In 1877 the city claimed the area of the cemetery on Bongardstrasse for the expansion of Prinz-Georg-Strasse. So the community was forced to give up its cemetery and the dead were buried in the "old cemetery" Ulmenstrasse 187, between Möhlaustrasse and Esperantostrasse (occupancy period 1890 to 1922). In 1897 the "old cemetery" was expanded. In addition to the resting places from this time, it also houses the remains of the Jewish cemetery on Bongardstrasse. Due to a lack of space, the “New Israelite Cemetery”, Ulmenstrasse 236, was opened in the heart of the North Cemetery in 1922 .
In the middle of the 19th century, many Jewish families were citizens; they earned their money in trade, small businesses, handicrafts or as employees. In 1843 a total of 412 Jews lived in Düsseldorf. Of these, 48 were boys and 48 girls under the age of 14, between 15 and 60 years were 148 men and 133 women, and over 60 years old were 22 men and 13 women. There were a total of 36 married couples.
Four Düsseldorf Jews were active during this time as "doctors, teachers, heads of educational institutions" or "in respected municipal offices". Two received their income from their own assets or from pensions, five from business with money, securities or bills of exchange. There were also four wholesalers “without open shops” and 16 merchants with shops, four pawnbrokers, suppliers or brokers, and twelve hackers, second-hand dealers or junk dealers. The merchants were supported by a total of eleven “commercial employees in the trade”. In addition there were 16 “traveling traders”, two innkeepers in pubs “for the educated classes”, nine craftsmen (jewelers, watchmakers, turners, opticians), a horse dealer, 22 helpers and employees in the traveling trade and two low-ranking officials.
According to this list, there were no Jewish beggars in Düsseldorf, nor were there Jewish farmers, fruit growers or horticulturalists. The way to the permanent shop with a spatially fixed business and customer base had therefore already been taken in Düsseldorf by a considerable part of the Jews there. This spectrum was supplemented by wholesalers who were able to use Düsseldorf as a location for their international trade. Statistics for the year 1846 also name Jews who worked as watchmakers, stocking makers, tobacco manufacturers, opticians, shoemakers, music teachers, lottery takers, bookbinders, brokers, painters, clothes makers, gold workers or accountants.
On the basis of the Prussian Emancipation Act of July 23, 1847 , the Dusseldorf synagogue community was founded in 1858 as a tax-raising corporation under public law. The Upper President of the Rhine Province approved the statutes on May 7, 1858.
In 1904 the community built the large neo-Romanesque synagogue on Kasernenstrasse according to plans by the architect Josef Kleesattel . Since the service was to be held here according to a liberal rite, there was also an organ in this synagogue. This was reason enough for the Orthodox parishioners to found their own Orthodox Israelite religious society, whose services were held from 1904 onwards at Bilker Strasse 37 and later in the building at Poststrasse 4.  Also the East JewishAt the beginning of the century, immigrants had their own prayer rooms in various parts of Düsseldorf. In addition, the rural communities of Gerresheim and Benrath had their own synagogues, as did the cities of Neuss and Ratingen , which are now part of the Düsseldorf community .
Düsseldorf rabbis and rabbinical assistants were from the 19th century until the Shoah:
- Jehuda Löb Scheuer (1733–1821, term of office 1779–1821)
- Jacob Rosenberg (died 1868, term of office 1837–1843)
- H. Joel (term of office 1850–1855)
- Wolf Feilchenfeld (1827–1913, term of office 1855–1872)
- H. Plato (term of office 1872–1874)
- Abraham Wedell (1875-1891), who wrote a comprehensive church history in 1888
- Samson Hochfeld (1903–1907)
- Leo Baeck (1907–1912)
- Max Wiener (1908-1912)
- Max Eschelbacher (1912-1939)
- Heinrich Weyl (1866–1943, term of office 1920–1938)
- Siegfried Klein (1919–1941)
1919: Foundation of the Düsseldorf Reich Association of Jewish Frontline Soldiers (RjF) . 1925: Of the 5,130 Jews in Düsseldorf, around a fifth were Polish immigrants.
National Socialism and Holocaust (1933–1945)
In 1933 around 5500 Jews lived in Düsseldorf, around half of whom had emigrated by 1938. In the 1930s in particular, many found out about options for emigration. One opportunity for this was the sound film Das Land der Verheissung (1934), which the Zionist Association for Germany had shown in January 1936 in the Ibach House .
In 1935 the private “Jewish elementary school” was founded in Kasernenstrasse in the converted community center. On April 28, 1935, the "Jewish Private School Düsseldorf" was officially opened in the Great Synagogue . Head was initially Studienassessor Kurt Heart (born 1903 in Offenbach), which had been dismissed in 1933 as a Jew from the civil service. On the night of November 9th to 10th, 1938 , the “Jewish elementary school”, which was located in the building next door to the synagogue, was demolished and, after a short interruption, the classes were in the building of the Jewish B'nai-B'rith-Lodge in Grafenberger Avenue 78 continued.  In 1938, the synagogue community had its secretariat at Bilker Strasse 25. 
As a result of the November pogroms, Herz was deported to the Dachau concentration camp, after four weeks he was released again, whereupon he and his wife Ellen emigrated to England in February 1939. His successor was the pedagogue Kurt Schnook. In November 1941 he was deported from Düsseldorf to the Minsk ghetto and murdered there.  The Düsseldorf painter Julo Levin was banned from working in 1933 and had to do forced labor. From 1936 he taught as a drawing teacher at the Jewish elementary school in Düsseldorf. In 1943 he was murdered in Auschwitz. The school initially had six classes, increasing over the years until the tenth year was introduced in 1937. The student body grew rapidly, as discriminated and marginalized children from surrounding cities came to the school. Later came the students who came from a so-called “mixed marriage”. When the school was founded, there were 210 children and adolescents, in 1936 384 children, at the start of the war in 1939 only 66 and finally in 1941 only 42 children. Between November 1938 and September 1939, numerous children were able to be sent by their parents on a Kindertransport to Great Britain or to relatives in other refugee countries. [8th]
On the night of October 27-28, 1938, Jews from Poland were arrested in Düsseldorf, taken to the police prison and deported in trains to the Polish border in the “ Polenaktion ”. The lodge order B'nai B'rith was banned. In 1938 the community was revoked from the status of a corporation under public law and downgraded to associations. Jewish doctors were no longer allowed to practice and the publication of the community gazette was prohibited. The community chairman was Erich Felsenthal.
The ordinance on the use of Jewish assets of December 3, 1938 obliged Jewish homeowners to sell their properties. Due to the law on tenancy agreements with Jews , housing authorities, house owners and brokerage firms worked closely with regional Gestapo and party offices to "de-Jew" houses and apartments. The allocated replacement apartments were in buildings that had not yet been Aryanised. So-called Jewish houseswere among others at Adersstraße 8, Bilker Straße 25, Duisburger Straße 77, Grupellostraße 8, Grimmstraße 36, Jahnstraße 60, Konkordiastraße 8, Kreuzstraße 58, Teutonenstraße 9, Wagnerstraße 7 and Yorckstraße 42. The community building belonging to the synagogue community in Düsseldorf in Grafenberger Allee 78 was used as a Jewish retirement home from 1939.
On the night of November 10, 1938 ( November pogroms 1938 ), 141 Jews were arrested in Düsseldorf. 87 of them were deported to the Dachau concentration camp , 80% of Jewish private homes and businesses were destroyed, and the synagogue on Kasernenstrasse was devastated and set on fire. It had to be demolished in December 1938 and the Jewish school was closed. At least 7 people died of abuse by the National Socialists as a result of the pogromsincluding the restaurant owner Paul Marcus, who was shot that night. At least ten other people died of suicides or injuries or after-effects of the pogrom. Rabbis Eschelbacher and Klein were taken to the Düsseldorf police prison. Eschelbacher, who wrote a comprehensive report on the events, was able to emigrate to England in 1939. Siegfried Klein was deported in 1944 and murdered in Auschwitz .
From October 1941, there were targeted deportations from Düsseldorf of more than 2,000 Jews from the Düsseldorf administrative district to ghettos and assembly camps in Eastern Europe - to Minsk (November 10, 1941), Riga (December 11, 1941), Lodz / Litzmannstadt (October 27, 1941 ), Theresienstadt (July 21, 1942,  July 25, 1942, June 25, 1943), Izbica (April 22, 1942, June 15, 1942) - from where most of them were deported to extermination camps.   First of all, the people were taken to the Düsseldorf slaughterhouse and cattle yard assembly pointbrought to Rather Straße, then sent on the transport via the loading ramps at the Düsseldorf-Derendorf freight yard . One last deportation train, mainly with people from Düsseldorf who had previously lived in so-called “privileged mixed marriages”, left Düsseldorf on September 9, 1944. The last deportation from Düsseldorf took place on January 26, 1945.
Moritz Sommer, who was persecuted as a " half-Jew " but had been able to hide from his henchmen since the pogrom night in 1938, was picked up by an army patrol on April 15, 1945 and hanged at Oberbilker Markt .  In an air raid on Düsseldorf in the spring of 1943, the famous painter Max Stern , who had been ostracized since the mid-1930s , died together with his brother Leopold, who had worked as a doctor until he lost his license to practice medicine. As Jews, they were forbidden from accessing air raid shelters. On April 17, 1945, Düsseldorf was liberated by US troops. At the time of National Socialismand the persecution of the Düsseldorf Jews has been a reminder of the Düsseldorf memorial since 1987 .
The history of the Jewish houses in Düsseldorf has so far only been incompletely researched, the exact number is unknown. The seminar "Searching for traces - neighborhood, expulsion, memory" at the Faculty of Social and Cultural Studies at the Düsseldorf University of Applied Sciences dealt intensively in 2018 with the history of the so-called "Jewish houses" - or "ghetto houses" in the former Düsseldorf city area.  A project group from the seminar "Searching for traces - neighborhood, displacement, memory" designed an interactive website in cooperation with the GIS academy on the basis of the sources available up to that point. The previously known “Jewish houses” in Düsseldorf are now visible on a city map. 
Post-war and present
Only just under 60 Jewish survivors returned to Düsseldorf in 1945 and re-established the community. For example, on Rosh Hashanah (New Year festival) in autumn 1945 , a Jewish service was held again in the large courtroom of the Higher Regional Court ; a memorial plaque that was only unveiled a few years ago testifies to this historical function of the meeting room. In 1948 the community received a domicile with a prayer room at 6 Arnoldstrasse. In 1946, the journalist Karl Marx receivedfrom the British occupying power the license for the first Jewish newspaper in post-war Germany, it was called “Jüdisches Gemeindeblatt für die Nordrhein-Westfalen and Westphalia” and appeared in Düsseldorf. Since 1948 this newspaper was called “Allgemeine Wochenzeitung für Juden in Deutschland”, since 1973 “Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung”, since 2002 Jüdische Allgemeine . His wife Lilli founded the Düsseldorf Jewish Women's Association in 1949 . In 1951 the Central Council of Jews in Germany took its seat in Düsseldorf, where it stayed until 1985.
The inauguration of the New Synagogue , which was built according to plans by Hermann Zvi Guttmann together with a community center in Zietenstrasse in the Golzheim district , took place on September 7, 1958. The number of parishioners was then about 850; among them were the well-known soprano Edith Boroschek and her husband Paul since 1957 . The light rotunda has 250 seats for men and - on the gallery - 150 seats for women. The synagogue has been standing a few years longer than the old synagogue on Kasernenstrasse. Between 1993 and 2003 Michael Goldberger (1961–2012) was a community rabbi. The committed and well-known members of the post-war period included, among othersPaul Spiegel (1937–2006), board member and later President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, Josef Neuberger , later Minister of Justice of North Rhine-Westphalia , the journalist and publicist Karl Marx and administrative director Paul Hoffmann (1921–2008).
After 1990, the membership of the Jewish community increased considerably due to immigration from the countries of the former Soviet Union . It increased fivefold in 1991.  Today the Jewish community in Düsseldorf is the third largest in Germany with around 7,500 members.
The municipality as a corporation under public law is a unified municipality according to its statutes . This means that all religious directions are respected. The services are in accordance with the Orthodox rite. Between 2003 and May 2011, the rabbi was Julien Chaim Soussan from Freiburg / Breisgau, and his successor in May 2012 was Aharan Vernikowsky. Over 90 percent of the parishioners come from Eastern Europe. The community includes a kindergarten and a primary school, the Yitzhak Rabin School. It is a state-approved elementary school and a Jewish denominational school that is responsible for kosherFeeding the children. A nationwide comparative study recently showed that the school is one of the 25 best primary schools in North Rhine-Westphalia. The community also has a sports club ( Makkabi ), a youth center and a cemetery (in the north cemetery ).
On July 27, 2000, the bomb attack at Düsseldorf-Wehrhahn S-Bahn station, which has not yet been resolved , took place, in which ten people were injured and one child died in the womb. Since six of them were Russian-Jewish emigrants, an anti-Semitic motive cannot be ruled out. On October 2, 2000, two young people of Arab origin carried out an arson attack on the Düsseldorf synagogue . The fire was extinguished in time without causing major damage.
Since 2007 there has been an orthodox Chabad- Lubavitch center on Golzheimer Bankstrasse, near the synagogue . The Jewish community in Düsseldorf is part of the regional association of Jewish communities in North Rhine-Westphalia . Every year since 1991, it has awarded the Josef Neuberger Medal for intercultural or interreligious dialogue to non-Jewish personalities, including Johannes Rau , Rita Süssmuth , Roman Herzog , Wolfgang Clement and Lord Mayor Joachim Erwin . On December 10th, 2008 the award was given to Chancellor Angela Merkel forgive.
The municipal memorial and memorial in Düsseldorf holds a permanent exhibition about the Jews in Düsseldorf, including their persecution and extermination, as well as temporary temporary exhibitions, both of which also include other victims of Nazi persecution. An extensive range of literature and a library indicate that those involved also work scientifically and historically on the city's once large Jewish community.
- Synagogues in Düsseldorf
- History of the Jews in Germany
- Jewish history
- Salitter report on a deportation transport (December 1941)
- Central archive for researching the history of Jews in Germany
- Regional association of the Jewish communities of North Rhine
- Nelly-Sachs House
- Jewish life in North Rhine-Westphalia
- Abraham Wedell : History of the Jewish community in Düsseldorf . In: Düsseldorfer Jahrbuch , 3 (1888) [special edition: History of the city of Düsseldorf in twelve treatises. Festschrift for the 600th anniversary , ed. vom Düsseldorfer Geschichtsverein], pp. 149–254 ( digitized version ).
- Gotthard Deutsch, Peter Wiernik: Art. Düsseldorf. In: Isidore Singer (Hrsg.): Jewish Encyclopedia. A descriptive record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the earliest times to the present day, New York / London 1902, Bd. 5, S. 19–20.
- Erich Wisplinghoff: Düsseldorf . In: GERMANIA JUDAICA, Vol. 3: 1350-1519, Tübingen: Mohr 1987, ISBN 3-16-745107-6 , p. 262.
- Leo Baeck : The Jewish religious community . In: Joseph Hansen (ed.): The Rhine Province 1815–1915. One hundred years of Prussian rule on the Rhine, 2nd volume, Marcus & Weber, Bonn 1917, pp. 234–247.
- Bastian Fleermann: Marginalization and Emancipation: Jewish Everyday Culture in the Duchy of Berg 1779–1847 . (Bergische Forschungen, XXX), Neustadt an der Aisch: Schmidt 2007, ISBN 978-3-87707-702-3 .
20th century and the time of National Socialism
- Max Eschelbacher : The synagogue community Düsseldorf 1904–1929 . Festschrift to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the synagogue, Düsseldorf 1929
- Bastian Fleermann, Angela Genger (ed.): November pogrom 1938 in Düsseldorf. Edited by Mahn- & Gedenkstätte Düsseldorf, Klartext, Essen 2008, ISBN 3837500853
- Angela Genger and Kerstin Griese (eds.): Aspects of Jewish life in Düsseldorf and on the Lower Rhine. Mahn- & Gedenkstätte, Düsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-9805963-1-1 .
- Kurt Düwell , Angela Genger, Kerstin Griese, Falk Wiesemann (eds.): Expulsion of Jewish artists and scientists from Düsseldorf 1933–1945 , Droste, Düsseldorf 1998, ISBN 3-7700-1097-3
- Memorial book of the state capital Düsseldorf for its Jewish victims of the National Socialist persecution and extermination. 1933-1945. Düsseldorf 1988 (handwritten by Düsseldorf students)
- Jews in Düsseldorf. Jews in Düsseldorf. A photographic memory book. A Photographic Memory Book. Edited by Hans Grosse-Brockhoff, Angela Genger et al., Mahn- & Gedenkstätte 1998, ISBN 3980596346 (bilingual) 
- Herbert Schmidt: The misery of the Düsseldorf Jews. Chronology of Terror 1933–1945. Droste, Düsseldorf 2005, ISBN 3770012046
- Donate Strathmann: to emigrate or stay here? Jewish life in Düsseldorf and North Rhine 1945–1960 . Essen: Klartext 2003, ISBN 3-89861-199-X .
- Website of the Jewish Community of Düsseldorf Kdö.R.
- Institute for Empirical Social and Communication Research, Neuss: November 10, 1938
- Website of the Düsseldorf memorial site
- Jewish cemeteries in North Rhine - Düsseldorf: Medieval cemetery, Kasernenstrasse, Bongardstrasse, Alter Friedhof, Neuer Friedhof , project of the University of Heidelberg Friedhof NRW, accessed on June 8, 2018
- Manfred v. Stosch: Düsseldorf's “public library” 1770–1809 . In: Gerhard Kurz (Hrsg.): Düsseldorf in the German intellectual history . Verlag Schwann-Bagel, Düsseldorf 1984, ISBN 3-590-30244-5 , p. 43
- At the end of 1827, the "Sammtgemeinde Düsseldorf", including the localities belonging to the city of Düsseldorf, recorded 427 Jews out of a total of 27067 inhabitants. - JF Wilhelmi: Panorama of Düsseldorf and its surroundings. Schreiner'sche Buchhandlung, Düsseldorf 1828, p. 69
- building at Poststrasse 4, photo around 1900. The prayer room of the "Israelite Religious Society Adass Yisroel" was on the first floor between approx. 1905 and 1938
- Grafenberger Allee 78 (E. = owner Israelitische Gemeinde, Bilker Straße 25) Private elementary school, Jewish school , in the address book of the city of Düsseldorf, 1940, p. 169
- Synagogue: Kasernenstrasse 67b; Municipal office: Bilker Straße 25 , in the address book of the city of Düsseldorf, 1938, p. 20
- The teachers , in “The Blog - Stadtmuseum Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf”, from March 8, 2012
- Article Julo Levin in the portal of the City Museum of the State Capital Düsseldorf , accessed on December 1, 2012
- The pupils , in “The Blog - Stadtmuseum Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf”, from March 8, 2012
- Transport VII / 1 on July 22, 1942 from Düsseldorf to Theresienstadt; Total deported: 966, murdered: 906, survived: 60 , on holocaust.cz/de, last change January 12, 2016
- House of the Wannsee Conference Memorial and Educational Center: Report by Captain Paul Salitter on the deportation of Jews to Riga, December 26, 1941 , accessed on July 29, 2015. After the facsimile in Annegret Ehmann, Wolf Kaiser, Michael Metto ua (ed.): The Grunewald ramp. The deportation of the Berlin Jews , Edition Colloquium, 2., corr. Berlin 1993, pp. 101-108.
- Hildegard Jakobs: Jews in Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf Memorial and Memorial. Working group of Nazi memorials and places of remembrance in NRW eV, accessed on July 29, 2015 .
- geschichtswerkstatt.info accessed on November 13, 2015.
- "Jewish houses" in Düsseldorf (Department of Social and Cultural Studies) ( erinnerORT-duesseldorf.de )
- "Jewish houses" in Düsseldorf ( steffiveenstra.de )
- Stefani Geilhausen: A collection of Jewish moments . Article from February 26, 2015 in the portal rp-online.de , accessed on February 27, 2015
- The book pays tribute to individual people in pictures and text, partly with their families. No overall representation