|Jesus Velasco Echave|
|Years of service||1894-1939|
|Loyalty|| Kingdom of Spain |
|Military branch||Land Army|
February 7, 1878 |
|Death|| c. 1944 |
Jesús Velasco Echave (1878-1944) was a Spanish military man who participated in the Spanish Civil War . During the war he came to command various units in the Teruel Front . Exiled in France, he would be arrested by the Nazis and deported to the Dachau concentration camp , where he died in terrible conditions.
He was born on February 7, 1878 in Madrid, into a family of military descent.
He joined the Army in 1984, studying at the Toledo Infantry Academy —of which he would become a teacher. He took part in the campaigns in Cuba and Africa . On a personal level, he was a man of deep Catholic convictions. In July 1936 he held the rank of colonel, being in command of the 9th "Otumba" Infantry Regiment , based in Valencia. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
After the outbreak of the Civil War he remained faithful to the Second Republic . In the first months of the war he came to be at the head of several militia columns, such as the "Torres-Benedito" [ 3 ] and the "Iberia" , [ 4 ] which operated the Teruel front. On November 15, 1936, the government appointed him commander of the Teruel Front, [ 5 ] with the mission of proceeding with the militarization of the various militias that operated in this sector. In April 1937 he commanded the newly created "Teruel Operations Army" [ n. 1 ] and in June he was appointed commander of theXIII Army Corps . [ 7 ] Later he went on to command the Northern Coastal Defense Group - made up of the 81st , 135th and 151st brigades , as well as a brigade and a cavalry regiment. [ 8 ] On January 24, 1939 he assumed the post of military commander of Barcelona. [ 9 ] [ n. 2 ] However, he could not organize the defense of the city against the Franco offensive, which conquered the city two days later.
After the fall of Catalonia, he went to France with other Spanish soldiers and civilians, being interned in a concentration camp in Ariège . In 1944, in the midst of World War II , he was arrested by the Gestapo and deported to the Dachau concentration camp along with other Spanish Republicans. Very ill and in terrible physical condition, Velasco Echave died shortly after his arrival at the concentration camp.
- The «Teruel Operations Army», created on April 14, 1937, grouped together the 39th , 40th , 41st and 42nd divisions . [ 6 ]
- In the beginning, General José Brandaris de la Cuesta had been appointed military commander of Barcelona. [ 9 ] However, he had remained for most of the contest as the military governor of Menorca and had been practically disconnected from the events in the peninsula, for which he refused to assume responsibility for the position.
- Engel , Carlos (1999). History of the mixed brigades of the People's Army of the Republic . Almena Editions.
- Gabriel , Pere (2011). History of the UGT IV. A trade unionism at war (1936-1939) . Siglo XXI de España Editores.
- Mainar , Eladi (1998). From militiamen to soldiers. The Valencian columns in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) . University of Valencia. ISBN 84-370-3349-7 .
- Martínez Bande , José Manuel (1978). The Battle of the Ebro . Madrid: Ed. San Martín.
- —— (1979). The Campaign of Catalonia . Madrid: Ed. San Martín.
- —— (2007). The critical years: Republic, conspiracy, revolution and uprising . Madrid: Meeting. ISBN 84-306-0487-1 .
- MÍNGUEZ GOYANES, José Luis (2011). Catholics on the losing side. Colonel Jesús Velasco Echave (1878-1944) . Magazine "Compostellanum", Vol. LVI, nº 1-4, 2011. Santiago de Compostela.
- Paz, Abel (2011). The Story of the Iron Column: Militant Anarchism in the Spanish Civil War. AK Press.
- Zaragoza , Cristóbal (1983). People's Army and Military of the Republic, 1936-1939 . Barcelona: Ed. Planeta.