Kirchdorf (type of settlement) - Kirchdorf (Siedlungstyp)

Plessa showed a multifaceted development . The local wood chapel belonged to the diaconate in Elsterwerda . Mass was not held every Sunday . Therefore, the Plessaer visited frequently to worship in Dreska . The village church of Plessa , built in 1792, burned down with the whole village in 1811 . For formed in the same year Parochie Plessa that counted village church in Kahla . Their mother church was rebuilt in 1814. The associated rectoryfrom 1865 led to the dissolution of the Diaconate Elsterwerda. Plessa were under the kirch loose Kraupa as well as daughter churches which to Dreska and Kahla. The Diakonat Elsterwerda, re-established in 1896, received Dreska and Kraupa, Kahla stayed with Plessa. On 1 January 1999 were Döllingen , Dreska, Hohenleipisch , Kahla Plessa and the parish Plessa summarized; the village church of Plessa around 1911. [1]

Kirchdorf refers to the lowest central settlement in settlement geography . The village religiously supplies a mostly small, surrounding catchment area made up of a few settlements . The traditional short form "the village " is used for emphasis. [2] [3]

Definition of terms

The official gazetteers for Bavaria (after the 2nd World War) understood Kirchdorf to be a settlement with a church . Services were held there regularly and it was not a parish church . The current status was recorded. The 1991 directory no longer systematically included the information. This definition did not find its way into the geographic literature. [4] [5] [6] [7]

Settlements with a higher central local function - the sub-centers could also offer church services. The Prignitz grew mid-14th century made up of several little country. Their centers housed bailiffs , held markets , etc. In four of them - Lenzen on the Elbe , Putlitz , Wittstock on the Dosse and Flecken Zechlin - stood the church, the parsonage of a large parish . They included several churchless villages. The minutes of the general visitation of the Reformation period first attested this extensively. Nevertheless, they probably reflected the state of the High Middle Ages , since the development of the country and the Elbe Slavonic mission . Both began with the Wenden Crusade of 1147. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Emergence

Gabriele Schwarz connected the emergence in Europe with two specific points - the time when the rural population lived almost completely self-sufficient , and the scattered settlements . More religious than economic reasons highlighted a town in distinct scattered settlement areas (northern and western Europe). They developed a closed local system, which was then given the name village . [2]

Looking back, Gerhard Henkel summed up the 19th and 20th centuries. Century. In the northern German scattered settlement areas, formed parishes . A few individual settlement groups and smaller hamlets (synonymous with scattered settlement) were attached to a central church village . [13]

That the genesis of church villages sometimes proceeded differently was subsequently demonstrated by the Altmark . [14]

Regional examples

  • In the Altmark, the medieval Lower Church system showed a wide range. Greater parishes predominated in the extreme northwest and in the northern tip. Their generously laid out parish churches were evidently designed to meet regional needs. Some fell under Kirchdorf, although changes occurred over time. The Henningen district supplied the village of the same name and six others. The latter received chapels in the late Middle Ages . Some acts of worship were now taking place on site. The central place function was now partially in the residence of the pastorand the rights of the parish church, which in contrast to the chapels are more extensive. The special features in this part of the local landscape led Lieselott Enders on networking with the Duchy of Saxony back or his successor countries. This was expressed, for example, in belonging to the Diocese of Verden . [14] [15] [16]
The natural conditions of the Wische resulted in only a few small, churchless villages. Those and some isolated agricultural settlements were looked after by a church village. In the central and southeastern Altmark, i.e. in the Diocese of Halberstadt , one small parish followed the other. They comprised one or a maximum of two daughter churches and very rarely a village without its own church. In the southern Altmark there were not enough written sources for a comprehensive evaluation. [14] [17]

literature

  • Hans-Joachim Aminde , Manfred Nicolai: Public and private institutions in the village (= work reports of the University of Stuttgart, Institute for rural settlement planning . Issue 9). Institute for Public Buildings and University Planning of the University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart 1982, DNB 840096208 .
  • Walter Christaller : The central locations in southern Germany. An economic-geographical study of the regularity of the distribution and development of settlements with urban functions . Fischer, Jena 1933, DNB 571889050 .
  • Lieselott Enders : The Altmark. History of a Kurmark landscape in the early modern period (end of the 15th to the beginning of the 19th century) (= Klaus Neitmann [Hrsg.]: Publications of the Brandenburg State Main Archives . Volume 56). Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8305-1504-3 .
  • Gerhard Henkel : The rural area. The present and processes of change since the 19th century in Germany (= Jörg Bendix , Hans Gebhardt , Ernst Löffler , Paul Reuber (eds.): Study books of geography ). 4th, amended and revised edition, Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin / Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-443-07109-0 .
  • Cay Lienau : The rural settlements (= The Geographical Seminar ). 4th, revised edition, Westermann Schulbuchverlag, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3-14-160283-2 .
  • Gabriele Schwarz : General settlement geography. Part 1. The rural settlements. The settlements between the countryside and the city . In: Allgemeine Siedlungsgeographie (= Josef Schmithüsen [Hrsg.]: Textbook of General Geography . Volume 6). 2 volumes, 4th edition, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-11-007895-3 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Association of authors under the direction of Dietrich Hanspach: B 3 Plessa, Elbe-Elster district . In: Luise Grundmann on behalf of the Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography Leipzig and the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig (ed.): Der Schraden. A regional survey in the area of ​​Elsterwerda, Lauchhammer, Hirschfeld and Ortrand (= landscapes in Germany. Values ​​of the German homeland . Volume 63). 2nd, improved edition, Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-412-23905-4 , pp. 106–111, here p. 107, including: Döllingen p. 74; Dreska p. 70; Hohenleipisch p. 68; Kahla p. 79; Kraupa pp. 62-63.
  2. a b c d Gabriele Schwarz: General settlement geography. Part 1 . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-11-007895-3 , VI. Center settlements. 1. Central points in scattered settlement areas, pp. 413–416, here p. 413.
  3. Cay Lienau: The settlements of the rural area . 4th edition, Westermann Schulbuchverlag, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3-14-160283-2 , 5 settlement function, infrastructure and socio-economic structure. 5.1 Settlement functions. 5.1.3 Supply function. b) lowest supply centers, p. 99.
  4. Bavarian State Statistical Office (ed.): Official place directory for Bavaria . Edited on the basis of the census of September 13, 1950 (= contributions to Statistics Bavaria . Issue 169). Bavarian State Statistical Office, Munich 1952, DNB 453660975 , 2. Preliminary remarks on the structure and content of the local directory. Basic information. 3. Designation of the so-called "topographical property". b) "Pfarrdorf" or "Kirchdorf", p. 9 *.
  5. ^ Bavarian State Statistical Office (ed.): Official local directory for Bavaria 1973 (= contributions to Statistics Bavaria . Issue 335). Bavarian State Statistical Office, Munich 1973, DNB 740801384 , content of the main part. Definitions. Topographic designation. b) "Pfarrdorf" or "Kirchdorf", p. 9 *.
  6. ^ Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing (Ed.): Official local directory for Bavaria . Territorial status May 25, 1987 (= contributions to Statistics Bavaria . Issue 450). Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing, Munich 1991, DNB 94240937X , explanations and definitions. 3. Topographical information. e) "Dorf", "Pfarrdorf", "Kirchdorf", S. XV.
  7. Matthias Schopp: Geography of the rural settlements. Summaries of book texts and articles in preparation for the state examination . Grin Verlag, Norderstedt 2014, ISBN 978-3-656-71291-6 , 5 settlement function, infrastructure and socio-economic structure. 5.1 Settlement functions. 5.1.3 Supply function, p. 19.
  8. Cay Lienau: The settlements of the rural area . 4th edition, Westermann Schulbuchverlag, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3-14-160283-2 , 5 settlement function, infrastructure and socio-economic structure. 5.1 Settlement functions. 5.1.3 Supply function. c) Sub-Centers, pp. 99-100.
  9. ^ Lieselott Enders : The Prignitz. History of a Kurmark landscape from the 12th to the 18th century (= Klaus Neitmann [Hrsg.]: Publications of the Brandenburg State Main Archives . Volume 38). 1st edition, Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2000, ISBN 3-935035-00-4 , A. Formation of rule and settlement. I. Initial situation, start and characteristics. 3. Features of the high medieval settlement image. Church and parish organization, p. 43.
  10. Rosemarie Baudisch: Geographical foundations and historical-political structure of Brandenburg . In: Ingo Materna , Wolfgang Ribbe (Ed.): Brandenburg history . Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-05-002508-5 , landscapes. Prignitz, pp. 24-25.
  11. ^ Lieselott Enders : The Prignitz. History of a Kurmark landscape from the 12th to the 18th century (= Klaus Neitmann [Hrsg.]: Publications of the Brandenburg State Main Archives . Volume 38). 1st edition, Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2000, ISBN 3-935035-00-4 , A. The political conditions. 2. Internal administration. a) Vogtei and Hauptmannschaft, pp. 135–140.
  12. ^ Lieselott Enders : The Prignitz. History of a Kurmark landscape from the 12th to the 18th century (= Klaus Neitmann [Hrsg.]: Publications of the Brandenburg State Main Archives . Volume 38). 1st edition, Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2000, ISBN 3-935035-00-4 , B. Das Städtewesen. 2. Development of the cities until the end of the Ascanian period. b) Economic development. Market function, pp. 81–82.
  13. ^ Gerhard Henkel: The rural area . 4th edition, Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagbuchhandlung , Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-443-07109-0 , 6 Infrastructure and local politics. 6.1 Infrastructure. Supply infrastructure. 12. Church, pp. 338–339.
  14. a b c Lieselott Enders: The Altmark . Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8305-1504-3 , D. Culture and way of life in town and country. I. Church, clergy and religious communities. 1. Church and parish organization. Großparochien, pp. 1169-1174.
  15. ^ Thomas Sternberg : Chapel . In: Walter Kasper with Konrad Baumgartner , Horst Bürkle , Klaus Ganzer , Karl Kertelege , Wilhelm Korff , Peter Walter (eds.): Lexicon for Theology and Church (LexThK). 5th volume. Hermeneutics to church fellowship . Special edition of the 3rd edition, Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2006, ISBN 978-3-451-22012-8 , I. Liturgiegeschicht, Sp. 1209.
  16. ^ Lieselott Enders: The Altmark . Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8305-1504-3 , D. Culture and way of life in town and country. I. Church, clergy and religious communities. 1. Church and parish organization. Great parishes. Footnote 29, p. 1170 (extension Sprengel Henningen).
  17. ^ Lieselott Enders: The Altmark . Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8305-1504-3 , B. The rural society in the early modern period. II. The settlement area in the early modern period. b) Construction and expansion of estates in old settlements until 1550, pp. 213–215, Wische-Einzelhöfe: p. 214.