|Based on||Abandonment of Ariadne by Theseus|
|Premiere location||Ducal Palace of Mantua ( Mantua , Duchy of Mantua )|
|Release date||May 28, 1608|
L'Arianna (in Spanish: Ariadna , SV 291) is the second opera by the Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi , composed between 1607 and 1608. It premiered in Mantua on May 28, 1608 as part of the celebration of the wedding between Duke Francisco Gonzaga and Margarita de Saboya . Monteverdi composed it under great time pressure and later claimed that the effort to create it nearly killed him. The performance, which featured lavish and innovative special effects, received much praise. In addition, the work was equally well received in Venice, when it was staged again under the direction of the composer in 1640, on the occasion of the inauguration of the Teatro San Moisè . [ 1 ]
The scores have been lost , except for the recitative known as Lamento d'Arianna ("Lament of Ariadna"), which has been preserved thanks to Monteverdi independently published it in different versions. This fragment is part of the most representative operas of the Baroque , it is one of the most influential pieces in later lyrical work, it became a highly influential musical work and has been widely imitated. The "lament" or "expressive recitative" became a fundamental characteristic of Italian opera for much of the seventeenth century . Recently, the Lament it has become popular as a concert and recital piece and has been recorded frequently.
Unlike the scores, the libretto written by Ottavio Rinuccini has been preserved in its entirety and in various editions. Rinuccini wrote eight scenes, based on the Heroides of Ovid and other sources classic , to tell the story of the abandonment of Ariadne by Theseus on the island of Naxos (located in the Aegean Sea) and its subsequent ascent to the Olympus as the wife of the god Bacchus .
Around 1590, Claudio Monteverdi, born in Cremona in 1567, [ 2 ] he obtained work as violagambista in the court of Mantua of Vincente Gonzaga . [ 3 ] Over the next ten years, he rose to become maestro della musica ("music teacher") to the duke. [ 4 ] [ 3 ] At that time, significant advances were taking place in musical theater; For example, in 1598 the work Dafne by Jacopo Peri was presented in Florence, generally recognized as the first of this new genre of " opera ." [ 5 ] The Duke of Mantua realized the potential of this new genre to increase the prestige of those patrons who were willing to sponsor it. [ 6 ]
As part of his work commitments to the Gonzagas, Monteverdi often had to compose or adapt musical pieces for stage performances at court. Among them was the opera Orpheus' Fable , adapted to a libretto by Alessandro Striggio the Younger , which was presented to the court on February 24, 1607. This performance pleased the Duke, who ordered it to be repeated on March 1. [ 7 ] According to a contemporary account, the piece "could not have been done [with a better result]; [ 7 ] [...] the music - which follows the canons - conforms to the poetry so adequately, that nowhere else can anything more beautiful be heard ». [ 8] Monteverdi was then commissioned to write several pieces for the wedding ofFrancisco, son and heir of the Duke, withMargaret of Savoy, scheduled for early May 1608. These included a musical prologue forL'idropica- a play byGian Battista Guarini- and the music for the dramatic ballet Il ballo delle ingrate , with text by Ottavio Rinuccini. An opera was also planned, although it was not initially known who would perform it. Due to this, several works were proposed as an alternative, among which were Le nozze di Peleo e Tetide (The Wedding of Peleo and Thetis), with music by Peri and libretto byFrancesco Cini , and a new version of Dafne , by Marco da Gagliano . However, in the end it was decided to present a completely original opera to liven up the wedding. [ a ] The Duke then decreed that the opera be based on the myth of Ariadna - hence its title, L'Arianna - and that Rinuccini write the libretto, while Monteverdi would be in charge of the musical composition. [ 9 ]
At the time he was commissioned to write the libretto for L'Arianna , Ottavio Rinuccini was probably the most experienced and illustrious of all librettists. His literary career dated back to 1579, when he wrote verses for the Maschere d'Amazzoni , a Florentine courtly entertainment , [ 10 ] and was widely known for his contributions to the intermezzo of Girolamo Bargagli's play La Peregrina , which was performed in May. 1589 at the wedding of Fernando I de Medici and Cristina de Lorena . [ 11 ] According to Gagliano, Rinuccini had a major influence on the emergence of opera as a genre: he adapted the conventions of contemporary lyrical poets when writing the librettos for two of the first operas, Dafne , with music by Jacopo Peri , and Euridice. , with music Giulio Caccini . [ 12 ]
For the libretto of L'Arianna , Rinuccini was based on various sources classics , particularly the Book X of the Heroides of Ovid , some verses of the carmen LXIV of Catullus and the passage of the Aeneid of Virgil in which the abandonment tells of Given by Aeneas . He also used literary works of his time as references, such as Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto , Jerusalem liberated by Torquato Tasso and the translation of The Metamorphoses of Ovid made byGiovanni Andrea dell'Anguillara en 1561. [ 13 ]
During rehearsals, Carlo de Rossi - a member of the duke's court - let Rinuccini know that Duchess Eleanor had complained that the piece was "very bland" and needed to be "enriched with more action," so the author had to expand the plot. The libretto, published in Venice in 1622, consists of a prologue and eight scenes. [ 14 ] [ b ]
Monteverdi probably began composing in late October or early November 1607, according to records documenting that Rinuccini's arrival in Mantua occurred on October 23 of that year. In addition to the hard task imposed by the Duke of composing an opera in such a short period of time, the composer had to endure the death of his wife, who had died on September 10, 1607, and was left in charge of their two children little ones. [ 16 ] Almost twenty years later, Monteverdi complained of this situation in a letter to Striggio, in which he recounted the difficulties he suffered: “It was a short period of time that almost brought me to death's door when I wrote L 'Arianna '. [ 17 ]
Monteverdi reportedly completed the score in early January, after which rehearsals began. However, his work was not finished, as he was asked to compose more music for the new scenes written after the request that Rossi made on behalf of Duchess Eleanor. Among the material added or expanded are the scene of Venus and Cupid and the blessing of Jupiter from Olympus at the end of the opera. [ 18 ] [ 14 ] In March of 1608, well advanced rehearsals, the premiere of the opera endangered due to death of the soprano principal,Caterina Martinelli , because of smallpox . [ 18 ] However, the actress and singer Virginia Ramponi-Andreini, known professionally as "La Florinda", who was performing in Mantua at the time, could be hired instead. A courtier, Antonio Costantini, later reported that he learned the role of Arianna in six days. [ 19 ] Musicologist Tim Carter suggests that the Lamento d'Arianna may have added it at this later stage to exploit the singer's recognized vocal abilities. [ 20 ]
It is unknown who was part of the cast at the opera's premiere, however, it can be seen that singers such as Virginia Ramponi-Andreini , "La Florinda", and Francesco Rasi participated . [ 21 ] [ 22 ] The sources are vague to the point what other interpreters were present that day. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 18 ] There are several versions of the script and published this list of characters have been used data published Gherardo and Iseppo Imberti (Venice, 1622). [ 23 ]
|Venere||Venus||Settimia Caccini (questioned)||Soprano||[c]|
|love||Cupid||A stranger||Probably Soprano|
|Teseo||Teseo||Possibly Antonio Brandi, "Il Brandino", or Francesco Rasi||Tall castrato||[ D ] [ and ]|
|Arianna||Ariadne||Virginia Ramponi-Andreini , "La Florinda"||Soprano|||
|Councilor||Adviser||Possibly Francesco Campagnolo||Tenor||[f]|
|Messaggero, Tirsi||Delivery courier||Possibly Antonio Brandi, "Il Brandino"||Tenor||[d]|
|messenger 1||First sent||Possibly Francesco Campagnolo||Tenor||[f]|
|announce 2||Second sent||A stranger|
|Coro di soldati di Theseus; Coro di pescatori; [ g ] Coro di soldati di Bacco —in Spanish: «Chorus of the soldiers of Theseus; Fishermen's Choir; Choir of the soldiers of Bacchus »-|
The action is preceded by a short prologue by the god Apollo . Then Venus and Cupid appear conversing on a desolate shore: Venus informs Cupid that Duke Theseus of Athens will soon arrive with Ariadne on the island of Naxos on his way to Athens. They are fleeing from Crete , where the couple was an accessory to the murder of the Minotaur , Ariadna's monster stepbrother, in the labyrinth under the palace of her father, King Minos . [ 28 ]
Venus knows that Theseus intends to abandon Ariadne in Naxos and continue the return to Athens without her. When Cupid offers to rekindle Theseus' passion for Ariadne, Venus indicates that she has decided to unite the beautiful mortal with the god Bacchus and asks Cupid to make love between Ariadne and the god possible. Cupid hides on the island waiting for Theseus and Ariadne to arrive. [ 28 ]
Ariadna reflects on her disloyalty to her father, but declares her love for Theseus. He goes out to find shelter to spend the night and the choir of fishermen compares his eyes with the stars in the sky. Meanwhile, Theseus, alone with his advisor, talks about abandoning Ariadne. Both justify the decision on the grounds that it would not be acceptable to the people of Athens for their ruler's consort to abandon her father and help her stepbrother to be killed. [ 28 ]
A chorus greets the dawn when Ariadna, after a sleepless night, returns to shore with her partner Dorila and notices that Theseus' ship is moving away. Dorila consoles her and Ariadna, despite her despair and knowing that Theseus will never return, decides to go to the pier to wait for him. In a pastoral interlude , a choir sings the delights of rural life and expresses the hope that Theseus will not forget Ariadne. When a messenger breaks the news that Ariadna is lonely and grieving, the choir sings again, this time to comfort her. [ 28 ]
On the beach, Ariadna sings a lament for her lost love and prepares to commit suicide. Just at that moment some fanfare announces the arrival of someone and Ariadna, hopeful, looks at the horizon trying to spot Theseus. In another interlude, the choir expresses Ariadne's hope for the return of her beloved, but a second emissary announces that it is not Theseus, but the god Bacchus, who has just arrived. A Sung Ballo celebrates the anticipated engagement of Bacchus and Ariadne. In the final scene, Cupid and Venus reappear, who, satisfied with their plan, rises from the sea before Jupiter proclaims his blessings from Olympus.. The union of Bacchus and the mortal beauty is sealed while the god promises Ariadne immortality on Olympus and a crown of stars. [ 28 ]
Premiere (Mantua, 1608)
The date of Francisco Gonzaga's wedding was postponed several times due to diplomatic problems that delayed the bride's arrival in Mantua until May 24, 1608. [ 22 ] The celebrations finally began four days later. [ 29 ] L'Arianna was performed on May 28, 1608 and was the first of several extraordinary performances. A large provisional theater was built for the occasion, which, according to court chronicler Federico Follino, would have housed 6,000 people, a figure that the historian Carter considers unlikely. [ 30 ]Whatever its size, the theater did not have enough capacity to accommodate all those who wanted to witness the play. Follino's chronicle records that, although the duke had strictly limited the number of families who could attend, some distinguished foreign visitors were unable to sit down and had to crowd around the gates. [ 29 ]
The performance lasted for two and a half hours [ 29 ] and, despite taking place in a single set, [ 30 ] the assembly was very luxurious and had 300 workers to manipulate the stage machinery. [ 31 ] Follino's chronicle describes the scene as "a wild rocky area in the middle of the waves, whose part of the far horizon was seen in constant motion". As soon as the action begins, Apollo appears "seated on a beautiful cloud ... which slowly descends ... reaches the stage in a short space of time ... disappears instantly". «Afterwards, all the artists proved to be excellent in the art of singing; all the scenes were more than marvelously successful. '
Follino's enthusiasm was echoed in other chronicles written by dignitaries for their own courts: the ambassador of the House of Este , who referred to the play as "a musical comedy," mentioned in particular Andreini's performance, who, in his lament, "made many cry", and that of Francesco Rasi in the role of Bacchus, who "sang divinely." [ 32 ] One of the composer's companions, Marco da Gagliano , wrote that Monteverdi's music "had moved the entire audience to tears." [ 33 ] In total, the opera lasted two and a half hours. [ 29 ]
Rerun (Venice, 1639-40)
Despite the good reception that L'Arianna had at its premiere, the Duke did not request a second performance, as he had done with The Fable of Orpheus the year before. [ 34 ] The next indication of a performance of L'Arianna is from 1614, when the Medici court in Florence requested a copy of the score, presumably with the intention of staging it. However, there is no evidence that there was any representation in that city. [ 35 ]
In early 1620, Striggio asked Monteverdi to send him the music for a projected performance in Mantua as part of the Duchess Catherine's birthday celebration . The composer went to the trouble of preparing a new manuscript with some revisions at his own expense. However, he later informed Striggio that if he had had more time, he would have reviewed the work more thoroughly. [ 36 ] Having no further news from the Mantua court, Monteverdi wrote to Striggio on April 18, 1620, offering help with the staging. A month later, however, she was informed that the celebrations for the Duchess had been reduced and that L'Arianna had not been performed . 
There are indications of a representation in Dubrovnik shortly after 1620, since in 1633 a Croatian translation of the libretto was published in Ancona . [ 15 ] However, the only confirmed rerun of the play took place in Venice in 1640. The city's first public opera house , the new Teatro San Cassiano , had opened in March 1637 with a staging of L'Andromeda by Francesco Mannelli . [ 38 ]Following the popularity of this and other shows, other venues remodeled their facilities to accommodate the demands of the opera. L'Arianna was chosen for the opening of the Teatro San Moisè as an opera house during the Carnival of 1639-1640. [ h ] In 1639, a revised version of the libretto was published, with substantial cuts and modifications from the 1608 version, which eliminated those passages specifically linked to Gonzaga's wedding in Mantua. [ 39 ] The composer, who by then was around seventy-three years old, had acquired considerable prestige in Venice for having been music director at theBasilica of San Marcos since 1613. In the dedication of the revised and reissued libretto he was described as "the most admired Apollo of the century and the greatest intelligence in the sky of mankind." [ 40 ]
The Venetian public received the opera with great enthusiasm, already familiar with the Lament , which had been published in that city in 1623, [ 41 ] although a few weeks later the theater replaced L'Arianna with a new opera by Monteverdi, The Return. from Ulysses to the homeland , which turned out to be an even greater success. [ 42 ]
Disappearance of the score
After that of Venice between 1639 and 1640, there is no more evidence of representations of L'Arianna . Rinuccini's libretto, which was published several times in Monteverdi's lifetime, survived intact, but the opera score disappeared sometime after 1640, with the exception of Ariadna's lament in scene six, known as Lamento d'Arianna. . [ 43 ] [ 41 ] [ i ]
The disappearance of the music of this opera is not an isolated case; most of Monteverdi's theatrical works were lost , including six of his nine operas. Carter's explanation for such a high percentage is that "the memories were short and the music of large-scale plays often did not transcend beyond their immediate circumstances." In fact, this type of music was rarely published and it was common for it to be quickly scrapped. [ 44 ]
The Lamento d'Arianna survived thanks to Monteverdi's decision to publish it independently of the opera: first in 1614 as a madrigal for five voices for his Sixth Book , then in 1623 in two arrangements - one of them as a monody - and , finally, in 1641 as a sacred hymn , Lamento della Madonna , published in his collection Selva morale e spirituale . [ 45 ]
The five-voice adaptation was included in the composer's Sixth Book of Madrigals . There are indications that this arrangement was made at the suggestion of an anonymous Venetian gentleman who thought that the melody would benefit from the counterpoint . [ 46 ] In 1868, the Lament was published in Paris, and in 1910, the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi published an orchestral transcription . [ 47 ]
In her critical analysis, the musicologist Suzanne Cusick states that “to a great extent, Monteverdi's fame and historical legacy have endured for centuries thanks to the universal appreciation of his success with the celebrated Lamento , [which] was one of the most emulated and influential from the early seventeenth century . ' [ 48 ] He also considers it one of the best arious recitatives composed by Monteverdi. [ 48 ] In Cusick's view, Monteverdi "created lament as a recognizable genre of chamber musicvocal and as a habitual scene in the opera that would become fundamental, a genre that defines the large-scale public operas of the 17th century in Venice ”, [ 48 ] and concludes by noting that the women of Mantua would have recognized the transformations represented in the lament as a transcript of his own personal stories. Monteverdi, in his opinion, tried to represent with music the final triumph of feminine piety over promiscuity: “the gradual loss that Ariadna experiences of her own passion during lamentation constitutes a public musical display of the repentance of this reckless woman who becomes he had dared to choose his own companion. [ 48 ]
In her study The Recitative Soliloquy , Margaret Murata indicates that laments of this kind were a basic feature of the operas of around 1650, but that "thereafter they declined until the total triumph of the aria around 1670." [ 49 ] Mark Ringer, in his analysis of Monteverdi's musical dramas, suggests that lament defines creative innovation in a way similar to what, two and a half centuries later, the prelude and the Liebestod in Tristan and Isolde would announce Richard Wagner's discovery of new expressive frontiers. [ 50 ]
Let me die, let me die, / and what do you want to comfort me / in such a hard fate, / in such a great martyr? / Let me die
Dejadme morir, dejadme morir, ¿qué queréis que me comfortably before such a hard fate, before such a great martyrdom? ...
- Lamento d'Arianna , escena VII.
In its operatic context, the lament takes the form of a prolonged expressive recitative of more than seventy vocal lines, performed in five sections divided by commentary from the choir. Some of the expressions are foreshadowed in the immediately preceding scene, in which the first envoy describes Ariadna's plight with a chorus of compassionate fishermen. The lament manifests various emotional reactions of Ariadna after her abandonment: sadness, anger, fear, self-pity, desolation and futility. Cusick draws attention to the way in which Monteverdi is able to match the "rhetorical and syntactic gestures" of Rinuccini's text with music. [ 48 ] The opening words repeated Lasciatemi morire("Let me die") are accompanied by a dominant seventh chord that Ringer describes as "an unforgettable chromatic stab of pain." Monteverdi was one of the first to use this musical device. What follows, says Ringer, has a scope and depth "comparable to most of Shakespeare's incisive soliloquies ." The words Lasciatemi morire are followed by O Theseus, O Theseus mine ("Oh Theseus, my Theseus"). The two phrases represent Ariadna's conflicting emotions: despair and desire. Throughout the lament, indignation and anger are interrupted by tenderness, until the final repetition of O Theseus, after which a downward line leads the lament to a quiet conclusion. [ 50 ] The lament or "expressive recitative" became a fundamental characteristic of Italian opera for much of the seventeenth century . [ 51 ]
A century later, Benedetto Marcello put music to the theme of the opera, developed on the libretto by Vincenzo Cassani , in a version of the same title: Arianna . Other composers who have adopted the format and style of Ariadna's lament include Francesco Cavalli , whose opera Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo contains three of these pieces, Francesco Costa , who included a version of Rinuccini's text in his collection of madrigals Pianta d'Arianna , [ 52 ] and Sigismondo d'India , who wrote several laments in the 1620s after the monodic version of theLamento d'Arianna published in 1623. [ 53 ] Monteverdi himself used the format of the "lament" or "expressive recitative" in his two late operas, The Return of Ulysses to the Fatherland and The Coronation of Poppea , for the characters in Penelope and Octavia, respectively. [ 54 ] In 1641, Monteverdi converted the Lamento d'Arianna into a sacred song over Latin text , the Pianto della Madonna , which he included in his Selva morale e spirituale , the last of his works published while alive. [ 55 ]
Recordings of Lamento d'Arianna
There are numerous recordings of both the madrigal for five voices, as well as the version for solo voice, of Lamento . Solo recordings include several versions for tenor or baritone voice . Among the lead singers who have made recordings are sopranos Emma Kirkby and Véronique Gens , and mezzo-sopranos Janet Baker and Anne Sofie von Otter . [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Furthermore, statistics Operabase L'Arianna and Lamento d'Ariannaare represented in the period from 2004 to 2019. [ 58 ]
At least eight versions of the libretto were published between 1608 and 1640:
- Aurelio et Ludovico Osanna, Mantua, 1608. Publication of the text of the work in 1608, which is included in the chronicle of Federico Follini. [ 15 ] [ 59 ]
- Heredi di Francesco Osanna, Mantua, 1608. Possibly the text that was circulated among the public representation of 1608. [ 15 ]
- I. Joints, Florencia, 1608. [ 15 ] [ 59 ]
- Bernardo Giunti, Giovan Battista Ciotti & Co., Venecia, 1608. [ 15 ] [ 59 ]
- Ghirardo and Iseppo Imberti, Venecia, 1622. [ 59 ] [ 23 ]
- GF Gundulić, Ancona, 1633. Croatian translation, prepared for possible performance in Dubrovnik c. 1620. It is a version in five scenes. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
- Angelo Salvadori, Venice, 1639. Revised version, which was made for the rehabilitation of 1640. [ 15 ] [ 59 ]
- Antonio Bariletti, Venice, 1640. [ 15 ] [ 59 ]
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- Opera history
- Peri's play was rejected entirely, but Daphne's remake was scheduled for the carnival of 1607-1608.
- Other provisions of the text have been suggested. The musicologist Bojan Bujić, for example, has proposed an alternative of a prologue and five scenes. [ 15 ]
- Some sources claim that the role of second Soprano was played by Settimia Caccini . [ 24 ] [ 25 ] However, according to Carter, the assumption that she sang that role is incorrect, since she was not in Mantua at the time. [ 22 ] A letter from a courtier in Mantua, quoted by Fabbri, indicates that the fragment was given to a singer from Florence who had been sent as a possible replacement for Martinelli. [ 18 ]
- Fabbri points out that Antonio Brandi, "Il Brandino", sang in L'Arianna , but does not specify what role or roles. [ 26 ]
- Mark Ringer claims that Rasi "presumably" played the role of Theseus. [ 21 ]
- Carter indicates that Campagnolo sang in L'Arianna , but does not specify what role or roles. [ 27 ]
- According to Carter, one of the fishermen could interpret it Giovanni Gualberto Magli. [ 22 ]
- The exact date of this representation is not recorded.
- The Lamento d'Arianna is also known from the first words of his text Lasciatemi morire , "Let me die."
- Various Authors, 2009 , p. 8693.
- Randel, 2006, p. 602.
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- Fenlon, 1986a, pp. 5-7.
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- Fabbri, 1994 , pp. 63-64.
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- Fabbri, 1994, pp. 80-81.
- Carter, 2002, p. 210.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 205-206.
- Fabbri, 1994 , pp. 85-87.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 82-83.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 91.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 92.
- Redlich, 1952, pp. 101-103.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 40.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 144.
- Carter, 2002, p. 168.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 175.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 130.
- Fabbri, 1994, pp. 250-251.
- Rosand, 2007, p. 18.
- Carter, 2002, p. 299.
- Ringer, 2006, pp. 135-136.
- Whenham y Wistreich, 2008 , p. 67.
- Carter, 2002, p. 4.
- Carter, 2002, p. 203.
- Fabbri, 1994, pp. 140-41.
- Carter, 2002, p. 5.
- Cusick, Suzanne (1994). «There Was Not a Lady Who Failed to Shed a Tear». Early Music (en inglés) 22 (1): 21-43. JSTOR 3128481. doi:10.1093/earlyj/xxii.1.21.
- Murata, Margaret (1979). «The Recitative Soliloquy». Journal of the American Musicological Society (en inglés) 32 (1): 45-73. JSTOR 831268. doi:10.2307/831268.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 96.
- Hill, 2008, p. 213.
- Fortune , Nigel. "Francesco Antonio Costa" . Grove Music Online (in English) . Retrieved May 15, 2013 .
- Carter, 2002, pp. 217-18.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 248, 290.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 95.
- "Monteverdi: Il sesto libro de madrigali, 1614, 6th Book of Madrigals" . Presto Classical (in English) . Retrieved May 15, 2012 .
- "Monteverdi: Lamento d'Arianna (Lasciatemi morire)" . Presto Classical (in English) . Retrieved May 14, 2012 .
- "Statistics 2004/2019" . Operabase (in English) . Retrieved November 20, 2020 .
- Carter, 2002, pp. 202-203.
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