Madrid is a municipality and a city in Spain . The town, with a historical category of town , [ 9 ] is the capital of the State [ 10 ] and of the Community of Madrid . Within the municipal term of Madrid, the most populated in Spain, there are 3 334 730 registered people, according to the INE of 2020. The associated metropolitan area has a population of 6 779 888 inhabitants , [ 11 ] making it the second of the European UnionAccording to the source, after Paris , and in some sources also behind the Ruhr Region , as well as the second most populous city in the European Union , only behind Berlin . [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
The city has a nominal GDP of 133,129 million euros -the 12% of GDP and national - per capita GDP nominal value of 41 600 € (2018), the 1st Spanish metropolitan area in economic activity --19% of GDP. [ 16 ] Madrid is also the Spanish city with the most hotel overnight stays. [ 17 ]
As the capital of Spain, Madrid houses the headquarters of the Government of Spain and its Ministries , the General Courts ( Congress and Senate ), the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court , as well as the official residence of the kings of Spain [ 18 ] And the President of the Government . Economically, it is the fourth richest city in Europe , after London , Paris and Moscow . [ 19 ]For 2009, 50.1% of the revenues of the 5000 main Spanish companies are generated by companies with headquarters in Madrid, which represent 31.8% of them. [ 20 ] It is the seat of the 4th largest stock market in Europe , [ 21 ] and 2nd in the Ibero-American sphere ( Latibex ) and of several of the largest corporations in the world. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] It is the 8th city in the world with greater presence of multinationals , following Beijing and Milan and ahead ofDubai , Paris and New York . [ 24 ] [ 25 ]
At the international level, it houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), belonging to the UN , the headquarters of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (OICV), the headquarters of the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), the headquarters of the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI), the International Youth Organization for Ibero-America (OIJ), and the headquarters of the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB). [ 26 ] It also houses the main international regulatory and broadcasting institutions of the Spanish language.: the Permanent Commission of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language , [ 27 ] and headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation for Urgent Spanish (Fundeu). Madrid organizes fairs such as FITUR , Madrid Fusión , ARCO , SIMO TCI , the Motor Show and the Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week .
It is an influential cultural center and has museums of international reference, among which are the Prado Museum , the Reina Sofía National Art Center Museum , the Thyssen-Bornemisza and CaixaForum Madrid , which occupy, respectively, the 14th, 10th .º, 67th and 79th place among the most visited museums in the world . [ 28 ] The Prado Museum is considered the largest art gallery in the world [ 29 ] .
The origins of the city are the object of historical revision after recent findings of Visigoth burials as well as remains that date back to the Folkloric or pre-Roman period . Archaeological excavations also reveal remains that are attributed to Roman Madrid. These findings from the Visigothic period have confirmed that the later Muslim fortified settlement of Maǧrīţ (from the 9th century ) had settled on a Visigothic vicus from the 7th century called the Matrice or matrix (stream). [ 30 ] [ 31 ]It would not be until the 11th century when Madrid was incorporated into the Crown of Castile , after its conquest by Alfonso VI of León in 1083. It was designated as the seat of the Court by King Felipe II in 1561, becoming the first permanent capital of the Spanish monarchy. The city has remained the capital of the country ever since, except for brief periods of time.
The first documented name is the one it had in Andalusian times , مجريط Maǧrīţ (AFI [ maʤriːtˁ ]), given in Old Castilian Magerit [ maʤeˈɾit ]), about whose origin many hypotheses have been formulated throughout history.
The most widespread theory until recent times was that of the Arabist Jaime Oliver Asín , who stated in 1959 that Maŷriţ or Maǧrīţ ( ŷ and ǧ are two ways of representing the same sound), derived from maǧra , which means "channel" or bed of a river. river, to which was added the Romance suffix -it , from the Latin -etum indicating abundance (Arabic-Romance hybrids were frequent in al-Andalus). At first, Oliver Asín stated, however, that the current name of Madrid does not come from Maǧrīţ but from the Mozarabic romance , Matrice , pronouncedMatrich with the meaning of "matrix" or "source." The two place names, Arabic and Romance, according to Oliver's initial hypothesis, coexisted in time and were used by two populations, Muslim and Christian, who lived respectively in the current hills of Almudena and Las Vistillas, separated by a stream that ran by the current street of Segovia, which is the one that originates both names. Oliver went further, stating that the popular name " los madriles ", in the plural, comes from these two populations , which is given to the city. However, shortly afterwards Oliver deviated from this theory of the double name and simply stated that the name of Madrid comes from the Arabic Maǧrīţ . [ 32 ]
The linguist Joan Coromines proposed an alternative theory in 1960, pointing out that Maǧrīţ is actually nothing more than the phonetic arabization of Matrich , with metathesis of ǧ and ţ and does not have to be related to the Arabic word maǧra , a possibility that Oliver Asín already pointed out but that he ruled out for reasons not exclusively linguistic. This theory was later developed by the Arabist and linguist Federico Corriente Córdoba , [ 33 ] and is the most widespread today. [ 34 ]
The capital , with its spatial, functional and physiognomic effects, constitutes the differentiating factor of Madrid with respect to the rest of Spanish cities. The capital city favored the demographic increase and the economic and cultural prosperity of the town. Despite the fact that since 1561 the permanent establishment of the Court in Madrid granted the Villa the status of capital (of the Catholic Monarchy and of the Spanish Empire then), the legal recognition of the function of capitality had to wait longer. Specifically, it was not until 1931, with the advent of the Second Spanish Republic, that this fact was made official constitutionally. Similarly, it was officially recognized as the capital of Spain during the Franco regime in the Special Law of Madrid of the July 11, 1963, [ 35 ] [ 36 ] a fact that was banned after the 1978 Constitution . It was not until 2006 that a law was enacted, the Madrid Capital and Special Regime Law , [ 37 ] by which Parliament legislatively developed the consequences of this specificity.
From 1561 it lost the condition of capital of Spain, and consequent seat of the Government and the administration of the State, during a series of historical stages: the first one between the years 1601 and 1606, when the capital passed to Valladolid ; later, from 1729 to 1733, in the so-called royal lustrum , the court moved to Seville by decision of Isabel de Farnesio , who was looking for a cure for the depressive state of her husband, King Felipe V ; [ 38 ] also during the War of Independence the Central Supreme Board , opposed to José Bonaparte , was established inSeville , in 1808, and in 1810, as the Regency Council, in Cádiz ; Finally, during the Civil War , although Madrid did not cease to be the capital of the Republic in accordance with Article 5 of the Spanish Constitution of 1931 , the Republican Government moved in November 1936 to Valencia and Barcelona in November of the following year, until the fall of Catalonia in February 1939, when a part of the Government headed by its president, Juan Negrín , moved to Alicante . The government of the rebellious side, for its part, was established in Burgos and, after the end of the war, the capital was established there until October 18, 1939, when it was moved to Madrid again.
The symbols of the city of Madrid are the crimson flag typical of the Castilian municipalities and the traditional shield with the bear and the strawberry tree , headdressed with an ancient royal crown, according to the current Protocol and Ceremonial regulations of the Madrid City Council. [ 39 ]
Although there is always talk of the "bear and the strawberry tree", in the past it was a bear. Likewise, the strawberry tree was not identified as such, but was a tree with red fruits, until the fruits of the strawberry tree were used to cure a plague that devastated the city. Since then the tree has been identified as arbutus. In the 16th century , the improvement of the shield was proposed:
To the blazon of this Council, which carries a bear and a strawberry tree on a white field, Your Majesty may grant that it wears a crown within the shield, or a blue border with seven stars of eight rays, as a sign of the clear and extended sky that covers this Villa
For a time the shield of Madrid had a dragon, although some experts point out that it was a winged shingles or a golden griffin.
Among the antiquities that evidently declare the nobility and ancient foundation of this town, has been one that in this month of June of 1569 years, to widen the Closed Door they demolished it, and it was at the top of the door, on the canvas of the wall carved in Berroqueña stone a frightful and fierce dragon, which the Greeks brought by arms and used them in their flag, ...Juan López de Hoyos , Spanish writer and humanist. History and true relationship of the disease, very happy transit and sumptuous funeral funeral of the serene Queen of Spain Doña Isabel de Valois, our lady . 1569
In 2004, the municipal corporation adopted a logo based on the shield of the town of Madrid, in a light blue line, which is used in internal documents and external communication.
Although no human fossil remains have been found, a great variety of tools have been found, especially in the surroundings of Arganda del Rey and Manzanares , which allow proving the existence of human settlements on the river terraces in the place that today occupies the city. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] The current city is built on territory than the previous time to the Roman domination occupied the group carpetano .
Roman and Visigothic times
The conquest and colonization by Rome of the Iberian Peninsula, initially carried out as a Roman military maneuver in its long series of wars with Carthage, lasted almost two centuries, from the Second Punic War to 27 BC. C. in which they complete the pacification of the north of the territory and divide it into three provinces. [ 44 ] The region currently occupied by Madrid would be located in Tarragona .
Although it is possible that during the Roman period the territory of Madrid did not constitute more than a rural region, benefited by the situation of crossroads and natural wealth, the discovery of the remains of a basilica from the Hispano-Visigothic period in the surroundings of the church of Santa María de la Almudena [ 45 ] has been presented as evidence of the existence of an urban settlement in that period. Other archaeological samples of the presence of a stable population in Madrid are found in the remains of two Visigothic necropolises, one in the former colony of the Count of Vallellano - Paseo de Extremadura , next to the Casa de Campo - and another in Tetuán de las Victorias.. Inside the medieval helmet a rather deteriorated tombstone with the legend was found, never completed and interpreted in various ways, but which could indicate the presence of a stable population as early as the 7th century:
min.n. bokatorum. indignvs. prs. the bottom of / in the third. kingdom. Dom. rvd. / Mi. REGVM. era DCCXXXV
The first historical evidence of the existence of a stable settlement dates from the Muslim era. [ 46 ] In the second half of the 9th century , the Emir of Córdoba Muhámmad I (852-886) built [ 47 ] a fortress on a promontory next to the river, [ 46 ] which is one of the many fortifications that he ordered build in the border territory of Marca Media with the triple purpose of guarding the steps of the Sierra de Guadarrama and protecting Toledo from raidsof the Christian kingdoms of the north, of being a starting point for Muslim incursions in these kingdoms and of establishing the authority of Córdoba in this region. The first written news about Madrid is found in the Cordovan chronicler Ibn Hayyan (987-1075), who, citing another previous chronicler, al-Razi (888-955), says:
Muhammad and the time of his reign are owed beautiful works, many deeds, great triumphs and total care for the welfare of Muslims, caring for their borders, guarding their gaps, consolidating their extreme places and attending to their needs. He was the one who ordered the construction of the Esteras castle , to keep the crops of Medinaceli , being on its northwest side. And he was the one who, for the people of the Toledo border, built the castle of Talamanca , and the castle of Madrid and the castle of Peñahora . He frequently collected news from brands and listened to what was happening there, sending people he trusted to check that they were doing well. [ 48]
Along with the fortress, mainly the town develops to the south and east. This population is called Maǧrīţ (AFI [ maʤriːtˁ ]) (in old Castilian Magerit [ maʤeˈɾit ]), which could be an Arabization of the Romance name Matrice , "matrix", alluding to a stream of that name that flowed alongside the primitive city, by the current street of Segovia, [ 33 ] or to be a hybrid between the Arabic word Maǧra , which means 'riverbed' or 'watercourse', and the Romance suffix -it (<Latin -etum), which indicates abundance; the meaning would therefore be 'place abundant in water', in reference to the various surface and underground streams that could be found on the city's site. [ 49 ]
The most complete news about Muslim Madrid is given by the geographer al-Himyari in the 15th century , who, citing older sources, says of this city that it was:
A noble city of al-Andalus built by the emir Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman. From Madrid to the Maqida bridge [ Valdemaqueda ?], Which was the limit of the lands of Islam, there are 31 miles. In Madrid there is a clay with which pots are made that can be used to put them on the fire for twenty years without breaking, and what is cooked in them is preserved without being affected by the cold or the heat of the environment. The castle of Madrid is one of the most powerful, built by the emir Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman. Ibn Hayyan mentions in his History the moat that was dug outside the walls of Madrid, saying that a tomb with a skeleton measuring 51 arms , that is, 102 spans , was found in it.(approx. 9 m), from the head cushion to the end of the feet. The qadi of Madrid drew up the minutes, certifying it, who went to the place and observed him together with several witnesses. [ 50 ]
The tradition has been maintained over time that the primitive hisn or Andalusian fortress occupied the site on which the Christian fortress and later the current Royal Palace were built . Many researchers have worked with this hypothesis, developing proposals for the reconstruction of the route of the walls of the old al-mudayna or citadel based on this idea. However, there is no archaeological or documentary evidence that the hisnwas in that location, and nowadays scholars tend to think that the citadel's wall passed through the current square that separates the Almudena cathedral from the Palace and therefore did not include the latter's site. The walled Andalusian city, therefore, would have risen on the hill delimited to the south by the ravine of the San Pedro stream (current Segovia street), to the north by the Arenal stream (current Arenal street) and to the west by the ravine that ends in the fertile plain of the Manzanares. Outside the walls, a larger population developed to the south and west, which was surrounded in Christian times by a second wall.
Of the various archaeological works carried out in the city from the middle of the 19th century onwards, they have found remains such as: the Arab wall of the slope of the Vega , the watchtower of the Plaza de Oriente and the vestiges of a water trip from the square of the Cars. Other remains of the wall, now missing, are known from the old plans of the city. The main mosque, whose existence gave the population the character of a medina or city, occupied the place where the church of Santa María was later built, demolished in the 19th century to widen the Calle Mayor . This was already in Andalusian times the main street of the city.
In the year 932, King Ramiro II in his process of territorial conquest in the south of the kingdom of León attacked the Umayyad fortress of Madrid, in his idea of conquering Toledo . But already occupied by al-Nasir , some time before, the fortresses on the right bank of the Tagus , Ramiro could only dismantle the fortifications of Madrid and prey on its closest lands, from where he brought many people. The walls of Madrid were reinforced after this attack.
Christian conquest and establishment of the capital
With the fall of the Taifa kingdom of Toledo at the hands of Alfonso VI of León , the city was taken by Christian forces in 1085 without resistance, probably through capitulation. The city and its fortress were integrated into the kingdom of Castile as royal territories. The Christians replace the Muslims in the occupation of the central part of the city, leaving the peripheral neighborhoods or suburbs , which in the previous period were inhabited by the Aljama de la Villa. There was also a Jewish quarter , which was initially located around the current Royal Theater , and later where the currentAlmudena Cathedral [ 53 ] , although late romantic tradition placed it in the surroundings of what would later become the Lavapiés neighborhood [ 54 ] , which is impossible because in the Middle Ages it was an inhospitable and uninhabited area, and also There have never been Jewish quarters outside the city walls.
During the following century, Madrid continued to receive attacks from the new Muslim powers of the peninsula, the Almoravids , who set the city on fire in 1109 and the Almohads , who put it under siege in 1197. The Christian victory of Las Navas de Tolosa definitively moves away the Muslim influence from the center of the peninsula.
Two outstanding religious events come from this period that mark the development of the personality of popular Christianity in Madrid: the "discovery" of the image of the Virgen de la Almudena and the life of Isidro Labrador , who would later be canonized. [ 55 ] The city is prospering and receives the title of town in 1123. [ 56 ] Following the usual repopulation scheme in Castile, Madrid is constituted as a council, head of a community of town and land , the community of town and land from Madrid . The government of the city falls on all the people of Madrid with the rank of neighbors, gathered inCouncil opened until in 1346, King Alfonso XI implanted the regiment , in which only representatives of the local oligarchy, the regidores, govern the city. In 1152, King Alfonso VII established the boundaries of the community of town and land between the Guadarrama and Jarama rivers . In 1188, a representation of Madrid participated for the first time in the Cortes of Castile . In 1202, Alfonso VIII granted him his first municipal jurisdiction, which regulated the operation of the council, whose powers were extended in 1222 by Fernando III el Santo .
Despite Madrid's support for Pedro I , later the sovereigns of the House of Trastamara would frequently reside in the town due to the abundance and quality of its hunting grounds, to which they were very fond. Before even as the Book of Montería of Alfonso XI wrote down: "Madrid, a good place of pig and bear" and that characteristic possibly derived the shield that the Madrilenian followers took to the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa . [ 57 ] Subsequently, a prolonged lawsuit between the City Council and the Church ended with an agreement for the distribution of pastures for the latter and tree feet for the former, with which a tree was incorporated into the shield next tobear or osa and the seven stars of the homonymous constellation . [ 57 ] The identification of the tree with the strawberry tree is more obscure, beyond the homophony with the name of the city.
The Cortes of Castile met for the first time in Madrid in 1309 under the reign of Ferdinand IV and later in 1329, 1339, 1391, 1393, 1419 and twice in 1435. From the unification of the kingdoms of Spain under a Crown Commonly, the Cortes were convened in Madrid with greater frequency.
In the war of the Communities , at the head of its ruler Juan de Zapata , Madrid joins the uprising against Carlos I (1520) [ 58 ] , taking the fortress on August 31, 1520 (see: Site of the Alcázar de Madrid ). However, after the defeat of the comuneros in Villalar , the town was besieged and occupied by royal troops in mid-May 1521. Despite all this, the successor of Carlos I, Felipe II decided to install the court in Madrid on February 13, 1561 (460 years ago). [ 59 ]
The establishment of the capital in Madrid would be decisive for the evolution of the city and would make the vicissitudes of the country and the monarchy, to a greater or lesser extent, influence the destiny of the city. Except for a brief period between 1601 and 1606, in which the court moved to Valladolid , the capital will be consubstantial with Madrid. A famous expression indicated that identity: "only Madrid is court", which, conceptistically, was also understood the other way around: "Madrid is only court." [ 60 ]
With the establishment of the court in Madrid, its population began to grow significantly. The royal bureaucracy, the members of the court and all the people necessary for their livelihood, join the disinherited and hustlers of the entire Spanish Empire . In 1625, Felipe IV demolished the city wall, already surpassed, and built what will be the last one near Madrid . This fence, built exclusively for fiscal reasons ( port tax ) will limit the growth of the city until the 19th century . The tasks of government are centralized in the Alcázar Real , a group of buildings located on the land that will later be occupied by the Royal Palace and thePlaza de Oriente . In parallel, the area of another palace is increased in the eastern end of the city, beyond the fence. It is about the Buen Retiro Palace , begun to be built by the Catholic Monarchs (who also moved the monastery of San Jerónimo el Real , formerly located near the Manzanares, area of the current Príncipe Pío station ), of which they are preserved its gardens , the Kingdom Hall and the Ballroom, the latter known as the Casón del Buen Retiro and used by the Prado Museum.
Enlightenment and neoclassicism
The change of dynasty would bring important changes for the city. The monarchs of the new dynasty found it as a dark population, with narrow streets, overcrowded, without sewage systems and pestilential. [ 62 ] The Bourbons consider the need to equate Madrid with other European capitals. The fire of the Alcazar of Madrid in 1734 (an unfortunate event that caused the disappearance of a third of the royal collection of paintings) led to the construction of the Royal Palace . [ 63 ] The works lasted until 1755 and it was not occupied until the reign of Carlos III.. Bridges, hospitals, parks, fountains, buildings for scientific use, sewerage ordinances and other actions were promoted by this last monarch, (who receives the popular title of "best mayor of Madrid"), with the collaboration of architects and urban planners from great professional and artistic category: Francesco Sabatini , Ventura Rodríguez and Juan de Villanueva , among others.
The Saloon del Prado project , on the outskirts of the city, between the Buen Retiro complex and the fence, is probably the most important and the one that has left the most important legacy to the city: the Prado and Recoletos promenades, the fountains of Neptune , Cibeles and Apollo , the Royal Botanical Garden , the Royal Astronomical Observatory or the building originally destined to house the Royal Cabinet of Natural History , although it would eventually be assigned to the then newly constituted Prado Museum. However, the relationship of the "mayor king" with his subjects-neighbors was not always good; Several measures of its modernization program were violently contested during the Esquilache mutiny of 1766, although more complex causes also converged. [ 64 ]
The city is seen from the southwest, and somewhat different from how Wyngaer could have drawn it two hundred years earlier. The Alcázar de los Austrias has been replaced by the Bourbon palace of Felipe V , the Segovia bridge (on the left) is the current one, and the profile of the enormous dome of San Francisco el Grande dominates the rest of the town's churches. To the north (left) the "mountain" is guessed from the Principe Pio , where the executions took place on May 3, 1808, immortalized in the painting of Goya .
The Ensanche and the Industrial Era
The uprising of the people of Madrid against the French troops on May 2, 1808 marks the beginning of the War of Independence . [ 65 ] King José Bonaparte carried out reforms in the capital, and his orders to tear down convents to make plazas were frequent, for which he acquired the nickname of Pepe Plazuelas . [ 66 ] The evolution of the war forced him to flee Madrid on two occasions, but the occupation of the city resulted in the destruction of valuable precincts, such as the Buen Retiro Palace .
The confiscation meant a drastic change in the real estate property system, in addition to concentrating a large collection of art, the Museum of the Trinity , which was dissolved in 1872 and its collections began to swell those of the Prado Museum (created during the reign of Fernando VII in the building planned for the Cabinet of Sciences ). It also means the creation in Madrid of the Central University , which will retain the name Complutense since it comes from the physical and legal transfer of the cloister and students from the renowned University of Alcalá to the nearby capital.
During the 19th century , the population of the city continued to grow. [ 67 ] The perception of the changes that will make the pre-industrial city disappear stimulates the appearance of a "Madridista" literature, of a manners , such as that of Ramón de Mesonero Romanos . The statistical information of all kinds compiled by Pascual Madoz in his Geographical-Statistical-Historical Dictionary for the whole of Spain was especially exhaustive for Madrid, whose article has a very significant heading: «Madrid: audience, province, intendancy, vicarage, party and town ». [ 68 ]
In 1868 the fence of Felipe IV was finally demolished and the city could grow, in principle in an orderly manner, thanks to the Castro plan and the completion of the expansion . [ 69 ] [ 70 ] will be the opportunity of fabulous businesses, that enriched José de Salamanca, Marquess of Salamanca , who named the new district created to the east of what will become the central hub of the city ( the Paseo de la Castellana , extension of the promenade of El Prado ). A modern water supply system is established (the Canal de Isabel II ) and communication is established byrail to make Madrid center radial communications network, which also leaves its mark on the urban ( Delicias station , Atocha and Principe Pio station ).
In the first thirty years of the 20th century , Madrid's population reached more than one million inhabitants. [ 71 ] New suburbs as Sales , Tetuán or El Carmen welcomed to newcomer proletariat while in widenings Madrid middle class was installed. These transformations promoted the idea of the linear city , by Arturo Soria . At the same time, the Gran Vía was opened in order to decongest the old town and the metro was inaugurated in 1919. [ 72 ]During the reign of Alfonso XIII, lands of the royal pecunio, northwest of the Royal Palace, were ceded to found the University City .
Second Republic and Civil War
The municipal elections of April 12, 1931 gave a great triumph to the republican-socialist conjunction in Madrid, which obtained 69.2% of the votes [ 73 ] (90,630 votes for the conjunction and 31,616 for the monarchists, [ 74 ] that resulted in 15 council socialist and 15 Republicans against 20 monarchists council). Pedro Rico , of the Federal Democratic Republican Party , was elected mayor by the municipal corporation. The republican triumph in Madrid and most of the provincial capitals meant the decomposition of the monarchy and the advent of theSecond Spanish Republic , just two days after the elections. The republican committee assumed power on the afternoon of the 14th, and proclaimed the Republic in the Royal Post Office of Puerta del Sol , headquarters of the Ministry of the Interior , before an excited crowd. [ 75 ] The Constitution of the Republic promulgated in 1931 was the first that legislated on the capital of the State, establishing it explicitly in Madrid. [ 76 ] One of the first actions of the new government was to cede the Casa de Campo to the people of Madrid., until then real property; opening to the public for the first time on May 1, 1931 at a massive country party. [ 77 ]
The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War took place in Melilla in the mid-afternoon of Friday, July 17, and was known in Madrid in the following hours. Still on Saturday 18 and Sunday 19 the city kept a certain normality. After the crushing of the rebellion in Madrid, badly planned, in the Montaña barracks and the Carabanchel barracks, in which the loyal elements of the Army and the Security Forces were assisted by the popular militias (organized since the end of 1934 by the Communist Party of Spain under the name of Workers and Peasants Armed Militias), to which the Government authorized the delivery of arms. From that moment on, an indiscriminate repression began not only against those who had participated in the rebellion, but also against those who, because they did not share the political ideas of the Popular Front, were considered "disaffected to the Regime." Numerous interrogation, detention and torture centers (the " Czechs ") emerged, from which many detainees only came out to be "walked", and their bodies were later found in the outskirts of the city. There were numerous " sacks of prisoners"In which the so-called Vigilance Militias entered the prisons (San Antón, Ventas, etc.) with their lists of people to eliminate," took out "the prisoners who appeared on the lists and shot them on the outskirts of the city . The massacres of Paracuellos de Jarama and Torrejón de Ardoz were of special magnitudein November / December 1936, in which the most well-founded estimates show between 2,000 and 3,000 victims. Also innumerable private homes were seized, and the same fate ran the headquarters of the right-wing political parties. Churches were stormed and burned, with irreparable artistic and cultural losses, and by official government decree of August 1936, all the churches in republican Spain, and therefore also those in Madrid, were definitively closed.
The resistance of the militias, militarized in the form of the People's Army of the Republic in 1937, led by the Madrid Defense Board , manages to stop the offensive during the battle of Madrid in the western neighborhoods of the city, especially in the surroundings of the Argüelles neighborhood and the University City , where the front was stabilized, and which was devastated in the conflict, losing, in addition to the University buildings themselves, elements as valuable as the Real Sitio de la Moncloa, which included the homonymous palace (the current it is a postwar reconstruction) and the Casa de Velázquez . [ 78 ]
The city would not suffer another ground assault during the war, but it was punished by artillery fire and aerial bombardments, the first in history on a capital, in the image of which other Europeans will suffer during World War II . The operations of the aviation of the rebellious side, supported by Nazi Germany and fascist Italy [ 79 ], caused in four months, from November 7, 1936 to March 9, 1937, 1,490 deaths, 430 disappeared and 3,502 wounded. [ 80 ] apart from causing numerous damage to emblematic buildings, such as those that affected, from November 14 to 17, 1936, the Prado Museum, the Museum of Modern Art , the Cajal Institute , the National Archaeological Museum and the Liria Palace . [ 81 ] Aviation was also used to terrorize the enemy. [ 82 ]
The resistance of Madrid was exalted by the propaganda in favor of the republican cause with the slogan " They will not pass !" and mocked at the end of the war, with the song by Celia Gámez "We have already passed!", but the situation forced the institutions and the Government, as well as the civilian population, to be evacuated to the interior and southern regions. I raised. The end of the war was especially chaotic in Madrid, with the violent confrontation between armed units of the Communist Party and those loyal to the Madrid Defense Board, led by General Miaja , Colonel Segismundo Casado and the socialist Julián Besteiro.. Armed clashes in the streets of the city caused many victims and led to bloody reprisals and shootings on both sides. After the war ended on April 1, 1939, Madrid began to suffer from Franco's repression; in July of that year, Count Galeazzo Ciano , Minister of Foreign Affairs of fascist Italy , wrote in his diary that there are between 200 and 250 executions a day. [ 83 ]
After the war, the city continues its unstoppable spatial growth, while it heals the wounds that the war had left in the city, especially on its west facade. Hundreds of thousands of Spaniards emigrate from the countryside to the city. [ 84 ] Madrid (along with Barcelona or Bilbao ) is one of the cities that benefits the most from these population movements. As of June 5, 1948, the process of annexation to Madrid of up to thirteen neighboring municipalities begins, which ends on July 31, 1954 ( Aravaca , Barajas , Canillas , Canillejas , Chamartín de la Rosa , Fuencarral, Hortaleza , El Pardo , Vallecas , Vicálvaro , Villaverde , Carabanchel Alto and Carabanchel Bajo, with which its extension goes from 66 km² to the current 607 km² and gains about 300,000 new inhabitants. [ 85 ] Urban disorder was the norm: shanty towns (described masterfully by Luis Martín-Santos in his novel Tiempo de silencio ) grew , while the historic center was subject to speculationBy allowing the demolition of buildings of artistic or traditional value to be replaced by others of modern aesthetics, innovative architecture buildings such as the suspended Torres de Colón are built . In some cases, the architectural interventions have the character of marking the political presence, trying to promote the concept of Franco's "imperial Madrid", as in the Moncloa area , where the Arco de la Victoria and the Ministry of Air stand , in a Neoherreriano style , or the Trade Union House (currently the Ministry of Health), building of the Vertical Trade Unions .
The Metropolitan Area Management Plan, approved in 1963, prompted by the demographic explosion of the capital, began the trend to divert the urban population concentration of Madrid towards metropolitan municipalities such as Alcorcón , Alcobendas , Coslada , Fuenlabrada , Getafe , Leganés , Móstoles , San Sebastián de los Reyes , San Fernando de Henares and Torrejón de Ardoz , which become dormitory towns . In 1973 the first sections of the M-30 , the city's first ring road, were inaugurated . [citation required ]
Transition and Democracy
After the death of the dictator Franco , Madrid was one of the main scenarios during the Transition period . [ 86 ] The first months of 1977 were notable for political and social unrest, with strikes, demonstrations and violent counter-demonstrations with fatalities. Other serious events were the two kidnappings by GRAPO and the episode of the 1977 Atocha massacre that resulted in the murder by members of the extreme right of labor lawyers in an office located on this street. His massive burial, prior to the legalization of the PCE, was narrated cinematographically inSeven days of January , by Juan Antonio Bardem . With the consolidation of the democratic regime, the 1978 constitution confirms Madrid as the capital of democratic Spain in whose support the massive demonstrations would take place after the disastrous coup on February 23, 1981 .
In 1979, the first democratic municipal elections took place since the Second Republic in which the UCD list with José Luis Álvarez at the head was the most voted, but without an absolute majority. Enrique Tierno Galván was elected mayor of the city , thanks to the pact of the PSOE with the PCE. During this mayoralty, the City Council regenerated the city from an urban and social point of view. What was the dying capital of the Franco regime became the most important cultural nucleus in Europe. The Movida Madrileña was an example of this strength. There were also important improvements in the quality of life of the city's inhabitants. After the death of Enrique Tierno Galván, he was replaced by Juan Barranco , of thePSOE , with support from the PCE . Later the city turned to more conservative positions with Agustín Rodríguez Sahagún , from the CDS , and José María Álvarez del Manzano , from the PP . Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón , of the PP, was appointed mayor of the city after his period at the head of the government of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Finally, on December 27, 2011, Ana Botella became the first mayor in the history of the municipality, after the appointment of her predecessor as Minister of Justice of Spain.
The democratic election of mayors definitely brings great benefits to the city, as mayors are forced to improve the quality of life of citizens, to which they respond (Franco's mayors were directly elected by Franco): construction of libraries, sports facilities, health centers; elimination of shanty towns; cleaning the Manzanares river ; road improvement; closure of the M-30 to the north, burial of the M-30 in the Manzanares area; construction of new ring roads ( M-40 , M-45 , M-50 ), while increasing the capacity of access roads (converted into highways or duplicated withtoll road ); parking regulation (ORA)in the interior of the city, which reaches the limit of the M-30, with repeated neighborhood protests, all with the aim of absorbing and regulating the growing traffic. The role of large real estate companies has been decisive in marking the new urban style in the city of Madrid. The new neighborhoods are structured around the block closed to the outside, with a nucleus made up of green areas, swimming pools, children's play areas, sports courts, etc. This new urban style has been shaping a new social concept in which the street is no longer understood as a place of coexistence but as a mere element of transit. People in Madrid now tend to gather more in bars, private homes, parks or even parking lots, with previously unknown phenomena such as the bottle..
On the morning of March 11, 2004, the city's commuter transport network was the scene of the March 11, 2004 attacks claimed by Al-Qaeda , the most serious terrorist attack ever suffered in Spain and the European Union. for which 192 people were murdered and more than 1,900 were injured. [ 87 ] On March 11, 2007, just three years later, the kings of Spain inaugurated in the Plaza de Carlos V a memorial to the victims of the attempt. [ 88 ] On December 30, 2006, ETAblew up the parking lot of terminal T4 of the then known Madrid-Barajas Airport , causing the death of two people. Since the attacks against Luis Carrero Blanco (1973) and the bar on Calle del Correo (1974, in front of the General Directorate of Security), Madrid has suffered a good part of the activity of this terrorist gang, as well as that of other groups of all signs, such as those of the extreme right , GRAPO or Islamic terrorism .
In the 21st century , the city continues to face new challenges: maintaining the population within the urban nucleus (Madrid is the municipality in Spain in which the increase in housing prices has been the highest); expansion of the city (with the creation of new neighborhoods through the Urban Action Plan : Montecarmelo , La Peseta , Arroyo del Fresno , Valdebebas , Las Tablas , Sanchinarro , Ensanche de Vallecas ...); remodeling of the historic center; absorption and integration of the immigration that comes to the city.
|Graph of demographic evolution of Madrid between 1842 and 2020|
Between 1877 and 1887 the term of the municipality grew because it incorporated La Alameda. Likewise, it grew between 1940 and 1950 because it incorporated Aravaca, Barajas de Madrid, Canillas, Canillejas, Carabanchel Alto, Carabanchel Bajo, Chamartín de la Rosa, Fuencarral, Hortaleza, El Pardo, Vallecas and Vicálvaro, and between 1950 and 1960 it incorporated Villaverde .
The population of Madrid has been experiencing a significant increase since it became the capital. This increase is especially significant during the period from 1940 to 1970, when its population almost tripled due to the large amount of internal immigration. [ 92 ] This accelerated growth and the lack of urban planning led to the organization of slums and residential areas, mainly in the southern districts, where public services would not arrive until many years later. [ 93 ]
Starting in the 1970s , this increase slowed down in favor of the municipalities of the metropolitan area and Madrid even began to lose population. Since 1995, population growth has been positive again, mainly due to foreign immigration. [ 94 ] According to available data, as of January 1, 2019 [ 95 ] the population of Madrid amounted to 3,275,195 inhabitants, compared to 2,938,723 in the 2001 census.
In 2017 , 29,032 births were registered in the city of Madrid, 14,916 males and 14,116 females. The birth rate is 9 points. Most of the births were by mothers between the ages of 35 and 40, accounting for 34% of all births; It was followed by mothers between 30 and 35 years old with 32% of the total and those between 25 and 30 with 13%. Mothers over 40 years old accounted for 12% of all births and those under 25 years old accounted for 8%. The mean age of the mothers was 33 years.
In 2017 , 28 594 deaths were registered in the city of Madrid.
|Main countries of origin of immigrants in Madrid|
|Position||Country [ 96 ]||2017|
According to the 2019 census [ 98 ] the foreign population of Madrid is 462,343 inhabitants out of a total of 3,238,191, which represents 14.12%. The districts with the largest immigrant population are Centro with 22.81%, Usera with 22.07%, Villaverde with 19.50% and Carabanchel with 19.37%. On the contrary, the districts with the lowest immigrant population are Retiro with 7.75%, Fuencarral-El Pardo with 8.50%, Moratalaz with 9.36% and Barajas with 9.45%.
Together with the city of Madrid, a series of urban centers are formed that establish a relationship of interdependence with each other. In the case of Madrid, interdependence clearly favors a dependency towards the center of the area, Madrid, which is known as a metropolitan area dependent on its nucleus, as opposed to a conurbation , in which the direction of dependency is less. clear, with greater interdependence in both directions. According to the modern concept of metropolitan area, [ 99 ]Regions of different intensity in their urban relationships are classified: metropolitan urban area, metropolitan suburban area, peri-urban expansion area and peri-urban diffusion area. There would be another level of relationship, that of Madrid's area of influence, which would reach inland areas of the neighboring autonomous communities of Castilla-La Mancha and Castilla y León . Each level of interdependence is stricter than the next, allowing the idea of a metropolitan suburban area to be assimilated with the idea of a metropolitan area defined by the Complutense University . [ 99 ] The population of this area in 2004 would be 5045 947. [ 100 ] [ 101]
The name of the inhabitants of Madrid is "Madrileño" or "Matritense". [ 102 ] [ 103 ] However, historically, the people of Madrid have also been dubbed as "cats" because, according to legend, the conquest of the city by the troops of Alfonso VI, at the end of the century XI , It was carried out by means of the assault of the wall by which the Castilian troops climbed. [ 104 ] Other legends point out, however, that this nickname "cats" was awarded to the citizens of Madrid in the Middle Ages for their great ability to climb walls and cliffs with bare hands.
Historical evolution of the map of Madrid
The old town , with its origin in the Muslim medina , arises from a strategic location (the control of a Manzanares ford) that will determine a series of topographic limitations: the layout of the original hamlet in the elevated areas above the river and the ravine of La Calle de Segovia , where the citadel will be established on the north side and on the south the Mozarabic and Jewish neighborhoods (transmuted into Morería and Jewish quarter with the Christian occupation of the 11th century ).
When Felipe II made Madrid the capital of Spain, he agreed with the authorities of the town to establish a so-called Room Charge , which was not exactly the same as the previous room royalty , since it was a permanent charge, not a transitory one, that the Madrid authorities agreed with the king, in exchange for establishing the capital in Madrid.According to this charge , those who had a house with more than one floor, would give one of them to accommodate the large number of officials and courtiersof second rank who were to reach the brand new capital of an important empire. The city authorities thought about the economic advantages that the capital would bring, but the Madrilenians, not particularly happy, began to build what were called houses of malice , with one floor, so as not to suffer the discomfort of the Cargo . As a result of this, the urban area expanded rapidly and in about forty years (at the beginning of the 17th century ) it reached the fence that would later be built (from the north to the so-called boulevards and from the east to the stream of the Castellana source , that is, the Paseo de Recoletos and El Prado ) and that would last practically until the centuryXIX , while the city grew in height again.
The urban extensions necessarily had to be made towards the east, due to the obstacle of the slopes over the river. The widest streets that lead to the Prado served as a prestigious space , as a stage for processions and court parades. The plan of the Paseo del Prado in the time of Carlos III responded to the same criteria, determined the future axis of the road and urban expansion of the Paseo de la Castellana .
The rapid expansion of the 16th century was done so quickly that it left no space for the creation of squares. It was at the beginning of the 19th century , with King José I , who intended to equate Madrid with other European capitals that already had royal museums open to the public. With this institution he intended to retain the works of art that his brother Napoleon and certain French soldiers were taking to France . The museum as such was never founded; It was his successor to the Spanish throne, Fernando VII of Spain, who addressed its creation and inaugurated it in 1819, as the Prado MuseumThe people of Madrid nicknamed him El "king squares", since he opened many squares in the capital to the detriment of churches and convents, which were demolished. The most important was the Plaza de Oriente , in front of the Royal Palace .
After a few centuries in which growth was contained in the old town, increasing the density of occupation originating, among other things, the model of the corralas , well described by Madrid's customs), the town hall, promoted by private developers ( Marquis of Salamanca ), proposed an ambitious urban expansion.
Beyond the boulevards that were opened when the fence was demolished in the seventeenth century , the extension of the second half of the nineteenth century designed by Carlos María de Castro was built, reaching the urban area until then called Paseo de Ronda , which ran through the current Reina Victoria , Raimundo Fernández Villaverde , Joaquín Costa , Francisco Silvela , Doctor Esquerdo , Reina Cristina , Infanta Isabel , Ronda de Atocha , Ronda de Valenciaand Ronda de Toledo . From 1878 to 1910 the expropriation procedures for the construction of the Almudena cemetery in the lands of the then town of Vicálvaro lasted , which is why it loses part of its territory in favor of the capital, when the so-called “Las Huertas de Vicalvaro »(the neighborhoods of La Elipa and Las Ventas del Espíritu Santo ). In the areas that remain on the outskirts of the expansion area, spontaneous nuclei of more or less precarious self-construction houses appear on the access roads to the city.
At the beginning of the 20th century , the Linear City of Arturo Soria was planned in its northeast area . His ambitious plan was not completed in all its extremes, and his integration with nature was definitely distorted with the urbanization of all intermediate spaces, both towards the urban center and towards the outside. Buildability was also expanded in most of the plots, although there are still some that still have the same appearance as at the beginning of the century. It is also one of the few boulevards that have been preserved. [ 105 ]
Since the end of the 19th century, the historic center underwent occasional alterations of some importance, the most significant intervention being the opening of the Gran Vía , which together with areas of the Castellana ( Nuevos Ministerios , AZCA ) form "screen" axes that isolate both on its sides areas of lower building height and less width of the road.
The urban periphery of the twentieth century corresponds with the outer space to the so-called "central almond" defined by the M-30 , and which corresponds for the most part to the old municipalities absorbed after the Civil War. In addition to the historic centers of these towns, the new residential areas created on the old agricultural land are: shantytowns later rebuilt ( Orcasitas , El Pozo del Tío Raimundo ); o planning zones of the 1950s ( San Blas ); or private developments of urban speculation from the 1970s ( Barrio del Pilar) that have sometimes been described as "vertical shantytown". The interstitial spaces are occupied by areas of productive use or public facilities, which in most cases had to settle for the scant land that was left free of speculation, in the absence of planning with a greater perspective. [ 106 ]
In the 21st century , the city expanded with the creation of new extensions made in the shape of a checkerboard, to accommodate the middle and upper class that decided to abandon the city center in favor of new developments near green areas. This Urban Action Plan includes the neighborhoods of Montecarmelo , La Peseta , Arroyo del Fresno , Valdebebas , Las Tablas , Sanchinarro , Ensanche de Vallecas, etc). These extensions included two types of architectural proposals: construction of unique and signature houses made by prestigious architects; or construction of large private developments with high prices and luxurious endowments. The origin of these extensions coincides with the growth of the real estate bubble in Spain, around 2005-2010.
Most of Madrid's tourist attractions are located inside the so-called central almond (the area surrounded by the M-30 ), mainly in the Centro , Salamanca , Chamberí , Retiro and Arganzuela districts .
The nerve center of Madrid is Puerta del Sol . In it, in front of the Real Casa de Correos (current headquarters of the Community of Madrid), is kilometer 0 , the starting point for the numbering of all radial roads in the country . The reason is that when this numbering was made, in the 19th century , the Royal Post Office was the headquarters of the Ministry of the Interior, equivalent to the current Ministry of the Interior, which was the one that had the powers in the matter. [ 107 ] Ten streets are born from this square: Calle Mayor, Arenal, Preciados, del Carmen, Montera, Alcalá, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Calle de Espoz y Mina, Carretas and del Correo.
The main street leading to the Plaza Mayor , constructed and reconstructed in successive interventions of the greatest masters of Works of Madrid, the architects more present in the Madrid plane as Juan Gomez de Mora (1619) or Juan de Villanueva (1790). Continuing through the so-called Madrid de los Austrias (in reference to the Habsburg dynasty ) you finally arrive at Bailén Street, near the Almudena Cathedral and the Royal Basilica of San Francisco el Grande ( Francisco Cabezas and Francesco Sabatini, 1784). The Almudena Cathedral had various projects from the 18th century ( Ventura Rodríguez ) to the one that was finally executed (that of Fernando Chueca Goitia and Carlos Sidro, winners of the contest called in 1950); The neo - Romanesque crypt of the cathedral is the oldest and most valuable part of the complex, dating from the late 19th century (authored by Francisco de Cubas ). Near this point is the origin of Madrid, the ruins of the Muslim wall and Tower of the Bones of the ancient fortress of Mayrīt , as well as the later Christian wall. In this environment are some of the most beautiful garden areas of the city, such as Campo del Moro and the Sabatini Gardens (and a little further west are the Casa de Campo and Madrid Río Park , crossed by the Segovia bridge - Juan de Herrera— and Toledo Bridge - Pedro de Ribera— , close to the Toledo gate — by Antonio López Aguado -).
The street Arenal arrives at the Opera Square, where the Royal Theater ( Antonio Lopez Aguado and Custodio Moreno , 1850). Continuing on, you reach the Plaza de Oriente , where the Royal Palace ( Filippo Juvara and Juan Bautista Sachetti , 1738-1764) is located at the junction with Calle Bailén. From there in the northern direction you reach Plaza de España , which at 36,900 m² is the largest square in Spain, where you will find the monument to Miguel de Cervantes , the España and Torre de Madrid buildings.and the Temple of Debod (an Egyptian temple transferred stone by stone to Spain in gratitude for the help offered in the construction of the Aswan Dam ). Also in the Plaza de España (heading east) is Calle Princesa that leads to the Plaza de Moncloa (crowned by the Moncloa Lighthouse ) and the Ciudad Universitaria ; On the other hand, from Plaza de España (heading west) the Gran Vía de Madrid begins .
The Preciados street , street of El Carmen and the Calle de la Montera born at the Gate of the Sun and head towards the north cutting the Gran Via in Madrid . The streets of Carmen and Preciados do it in the Plaza de Callao and leave the Malasaña neighborhood to the north (an important night and cultural activity); and at the intersection of Gran Vía with Calle Montera, the Malasaña area gives way to the Chueca neighborhood (LGTB nerve center in Spain). The Gran Vía, which starts in the Plaza de España, finally reaches the intersection with Calle Alcalá in the vicinity of the Fuente de Cibeles and the Paseo de la Castellana .
The street of Alcala leads from the Gate of the Sun towards the northeast of the city. From there you reach the Plaza de Cibeles , where you will find emblematic places such as the Cibeles fountain , the Bank of Spain or the Palacio de Comunicaciones ( Antonio Palacios , 1918), current headquarters of the Madrid City Council . Later, the street reaches the Plaza de la Independencia , where the Puerta de Alcalá , Calle Serrano and an entrance to the Retiro Park (in which there are emblematic places such as theCrystal Palace from 1887 - Ricardo Velázquez Bosco -, the Big Pond , the Casón del Buen Retiro or the Casa de Fieras ). Calle Alcalá continues crossing the Salamanca neighborhood (Madrid's golden mile where the world's most important fashion and luxury brands are located) until it reaches the vicinity of the Palacio de Deportes (on Goya Street). Further on, Calle Alcalá reaches the Las Ventas bullring (by José Espeliús in 1929, a very late example of the Neo-Mudejar style ). Calle Alcalá crosses the M-30 and continues until you reach the A-2 roadin the vicinity of the Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas Airport .
The Carrera de San Jerónimo leaves from Puerta del Sol towards the southeast, crossing the Canalejas squares and the Cortes square (next to the Palacio de las Cortes , headquarters of the Congress of Deputies ), until finally reaching the Cánovas del Castle, where the Neptune Fountain and the famous Ritz and Palace historical hotels are located . Next to them is the so - called Art Triangle ( Prado , Reina Sofía and Thyssen-Bornemisza museums ), in the landscaped Prado Room . Not far away is theBotanical Garden , the Astronomical Observatory ( Juan de Villanueva ), the Ministry of Agriculture ( Ricardo Velázquez Bosco ), the Basilica of Our Lady of Atocha , the Pantheon of Illustrious Men ( Fernando Arbós and Tremanti ) and the Royal Tapestry Factory . Also in this environment is the church of San Jerónimo el Real , the Palacio de la Bolsa (by Enrique María Repullés ) and the Royal Academy of the Spanish language .
The street Mail , street Carretas and street Espoz y Mina , leave from the Gate of the Sun southwards towards Letras district (area where lots of bars and are pubs , especially in the environment the Huertas street , Calle Atocha and the Plaza de Santa Ana ), and subsequently reaches the neighborhood of Lavapies (current multicultural pub). The Barrio de las Letras ends at Paseo del Prado , in the vicinity of the Emperor Carlos V roundabout and the emblematic Atocha Station(by the engineer and architect Alberto de Palacio , enlarged in the 1990s by Rafael Moneo ). In this area you can also find the Railway Museum , in the Arganzuela district .
The Paseo del Prado , which begins at the Emperor Carlos V roundabout, reaches the Cibeles fountain, continuing north with the name of Paseo de Recoletos until the Plaza de Colón , where the National Library is located ( Francisco Jareño ), the Torres de Colón ( Antonio Lamela ) and an underground cultural center under the Discovery Gardens (in the space occupied by the old Casa de la Moneda - Jareño building - and outside of which stands the Monument to the Discovery of America - by Joaquín Vaquero Turcios-). There you can also find the Columbus Monument (by Arturo Mélida and Jerónimo Suñol ) and the largest flag of Spain in the country (with an area of nearly 300 square meters and a 50-meter high mast). At this point, Paseo de Recoletos changes its name again to Paseo de la Castellana , it becomes one of the most important roads in the capital, where the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium is located along with the business areas of Nuevos Ministerios , AZCA and Cuatro Torres Business Area(with some of the tallest buildings in the country, like the Cuatro Torres). Close to this are some outstanding works of contemporary architecture in Madrid: the Torre del Banco de Bilbao (by Francisco Javier Sáenz de Oiza , also author of another of the landmarks of this period: the Torres Blancas building ), the Torre Picaso and the popular Torres Kio (two inclined twin towers), from where the Madrid Nuevo Norte space is born .
Although Madrid has never been a city that stands out for its skyscrapers, during the 20th century , especially with the construction of the Gran Vía , the first ones were built which, although they could not be considered skyscrapers, they were outstanding buildings. It was not until 1953 when the first skyscraper in Madrid, the Edificio España , was erected and in 1957 the Torre de Madrid surpassed it . In the 1980s, the AZCA skyscrapers rose , such as the Torre Picasso and the Torrespaña telecommunications tower (popularly known as the Pirulí ), although this is not usually considered a skyscraper. During the 21st centuryThe Titania Tower (104 meters high, erected on the site of the destroyed Windsor Tower ) was built in AZCA ; and on Paseo de la Castellana the Cuatro Torres Business Area business park ( Torre Espacio , Torre de Cristal , Torre PwC and Torre Cepsa ) was built, a complex of four skyscrapers over 200 meters high, the four tallest in Spain. Together with them, in 2020 the Caleido Tower is built and the construction of the Madrid Nuevo Norte space is approved, where it is planned to house a large area of skyscrapers.
The streets of Madrid are a true open-air sculpture museum. From the century XVIII , the space of the Hall the Prado was adorned with an iconographic program of monumental sources with classic references: the source of the artichoke , the Four Fountains , the Fountain of Neptune , the Apollo Fountain and Cibeles fountain , all they designed by Ventura Rodríguez . In the three doors of the Museum of the Prado are the statues dedicated to Murillo ( Sabino Medina ), Velázquez ( Aniceto Marinas ) andGoya ( Mariano Benlliure ); and next, in the Plaza de la Lealtad is the Obelisk to the fallen by Spain with a permanently lit fire flame. Following the Salón de Prado , on Paseo de la Castellana, there is a series of statues of Spanish writers on the steps of the National Library (and inside, a remarkable one by Marcelino MenéndezPelayo ). On the Paseo de la Castellana statues are placed notables of the century XIX and XX as the statue of Columbus , the monument to Castelar(by Mariano Benlliure , a prolific sculptor who has a lot of work exhibited in streets, buildings and in the Pantheon of Illustrious Men in Madrid ), the Hand of Fernando Botero , the Monument to the Constitution (a marble cube from Macael - Almería -), the Monument to José Calvo Sotelo (in the Plaza de Castilla ) and the so-called Museum of Sculpture in the open air of La Castellana , dedicated to abstract works, among which the beached Siren (by Eduardo Chillida ) and Yunta Units (by Pablo Serrano). Important XXI century sculptures are also located on the Paseo de la Castellana : in the Plaza de Castilla the Obelisk of Calatrava stands out , and in the Plaza de Colón the Rana de la Fortuna (by Eladio de Mora) and the Julia head ( by Jaume Plensa ).
Equestrian sculptures are particularly important in the city. Chronologically, two seventeenth- century sculptures stand out : that of Felipe III , in the Plaza Mayor (the work of Giambologna ) and that of Felipe IV in the Plaza de Oriente (one of the most important statues in Madrid for being considered the first equestrian statue of the world supported only by the hind legs of the horse) designed by Velázquez and built by Pietro Tacca with scientific advice from Galileo Galilei . In the Puerta del Sol there is an equestrian sculpture of Carlos III, made on an 18th century designAnd, from the 19th century, they are the statue of Espartero (on Calle de Alcalá in front of the Retiro) and that of the Marqués del Duero (on Paseo de la Castellana). [ 109 ] In Nuevos Ministerios there was the equestrian statue of Francisco Franco (by José Capuz ), which was withdrawn in 2004 by decision of the government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero , causing some scandal and coinciding with the debate on historical memory .
In the center of the city of Madrid there are important sculptural areas with notable monuments: in the Plaza de Oriente a series of kings of Spain from the Visigoths and the different medieval Christian kingdoms are exhibited, which were lowered from the cornice of the Royal Palace of Madrid where they had previously been placed, as a consequence, according to one version, of a premonitory dream of Queen Isabel de Farnesio , in which she saw the statues collapse, which she interpreted as a fall of the monarchy. The other version says that the reason was the foundation problems that it was seen that their considerable weight could cause, so they were replaced by lighter decorations. Other of these statues are preserved in theSabatini Gardens , in the Retiro Park , in the Salón de Reinos (former Army Museum) or in the cities of Burgos and Toledo .
Another sculptural area is the Retiro Park , where the Fallen Angel (by Ricardo Bellver ), the Monument to Alfonso XII (designed by José Grasés Riera ), the equestrian statue of Martínez Campos (by Benlliure ) and more hidden monuments dedicated to Julio Romero de Torres and Ramon y Cajal ( Victorio Macho , 1926). In front of the Casón del Buen Retiro stands a statue of the Queen Regent María Cristina de Borbón (made by Benlliure ) and next to it, inside the Botanical Gardenthere is a statue dedicated to Carlos III .
Scattered in the center of Madrid are many other remarkable sculptures: in Puerta del Sol itself, at one end is the sculpture symbol of Madrid El Oso y el Madroño , and at the other end is the replica of La Mariblanca (whose original is in the Museum of History ). In the Opera Square is the statue of Elizabeth II (which was set aside during the Second Republic). Other of the most famous sculptures of the capital are the Lions of the Courts , made by Ponciano Ponzano with the cast bronze of the cannons of the War of Africa (1886), in front of which is a statue of Miguel de Cervantes. In the Plaza de España there is a large sculptural group: the Monument to Cervantes , by Lorenzo Coullaut Valera . Other popular statues in Madrid are the sculptural group dedicated to Daoiz and Velarde (in the Plaza del Dos de Mayo , where the Monteleón artillery barracks used to be) and the sculpture of Eloy Gonzalo , known as " the hero of Cascorro", who presides El Rastro de Madrid (work by Aniceto Marinas and with a pedestal by the architect José López Sallaberry ).
In contemporary times there are more sculptural examples, such as La Gloria and the Pegasos of the Palacio de Fomento (in Atocha), originally sculpted in marble by Agustín Querol and which were replaced by hollow bronze copies due to their excessive weight. After years of storage, the Pegasos made of marble were placed in 1997 in the Plaza de Legazpi , and La Gloria sculpted in marble was installed in 1998 in the roundabout of Cádiz, in Usera . Other notable examples are the Fénix located on the top of the La Unión building and the Fénix on Calle Alcalá; the Minervafrom the Círculo de Bellas Artes ; or the charioteers of the Banco Hispano Americano in the Plaza de Sevilla. Also, some statues of prominent Republicans were set aside after the Civil War and rescued in democracy, such as the bust of Pablo Iglesias , the work of Emiliano Barral . Another famous bust, that of Antonio Machado (the work of Pablo Serrano in 1966) was sculpted during the Franco regime and had to be kept hidden for years, today installed at the entrance of the National Library . [ 111 ] Another more modern sculpture is La Puerta de la Enlightenment., a structure of large semicircular tubes that crosses the avenue of the Illustration road, is made by Andreu Alfaro , also author of the sculptural group of the Aluche interchange . Likewise, scattered in Madrid are also important XXI century sculptures, such as La Dama del Manzanares (by Manolo Valdés and Ricardo Bofill ), and commemorative monuments such as El abrazo de Juan Genovés, (also known as a monument to the Atocha lawyers in memory of the victims of the 1977 massacre), the Monument to the victims of the 11M (in front of the Atocha Station) and The Tree of Life (by Jaume Plensa) in memory of the victims of covid-19.
In the form of reliefs, attached to buildings or perched on their cornices, there are a multitude of sculptures. At the end of the Baroque period, the complex façades by Pedro de Ribera stand out (that of the old Hospicio, today the Madrid History Museum , and that of Monte de Piedad , in addition to the decoration of the Toledo Bridge and many other unique buildings). In another vein, the neon luminous advertising signs also stand out, some of which have acquired the rank of historical and are legally protected, such as the one by Schweppes in the Plaza del Callao, or the one by Tío Pepe in the Puerta del Sol. [ 112 ]
Parks and gardens
Madrid is one of the European cities with the highest proportion of green areas per inhabitant, specifically 70 m² compared to the 20 m² on average in Europe. In addition, with about 300,000 trees, it is the second city in the world in number of these in the streets and walks, only surpassed by Tokyo. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Two of the three existing regional parks Madrid protect portions of the municipality of Madrid. More than a quarter of its term is protected by the Cuenca Alta del Manzanares Regional Park , which includes the Mount of El Pardo and the Soto de Viñuelas, natural spaces located to the northwest and north of the urban area, respectively. To the south, 783 ha are protected within the Southeast Regional Park .
- The Retiro Park is located in the heart of the city, and with 118 hectares, it is one of the most significant places in Madrid. Inside it has numerous monuments and places of interest, such as the Palacio de Cristal , the Puerta de España , from Calle Alfonso XII , La Rosaleda, the pond and a large number of fountains. It also has the first statue in the world dedicated to the devil: that of the Fallen Angel .
- The Royal Botanical Garden is located next to the art gallery of the Prado Museum . It has four stepped terraces, the terrace of the Cuadros, that of the Botanical Schools, that of the Plano de la Flor and that of the Laureles, which contain plants from America and the Pacific, as well as European plants.
- The Neoclassical Sabatini Gardens are located on the north façade of the Royal Palace, between Bailén Street and Cuesta de San Vicente. They are located in the place occupied by the Royal Stables, and which after their disuse gave rise to the new gardens. Next to the Sabatini Gardens are the Jardines de la Plaza de Oriente , on the eastern façade of the Royal Palace, where a sculptural group of great interest is located.
- The Madrid Río park is a new river park around the Manzanares river between the Puente de los Franceses and the Nudo Sur, with 121 ha and 6 km in length. It connects some of the main green areas of the city and the central and southwestern districts. Some of its most prominent areas are the Salón de Pinos, the Virgen del Puerto Gardens and the Puente de Toledo Gardens. The continuation of the Madrid Río park is the Manzanares linear park , which runs parallel to the river between the districts of Usera , Puente de Vallecas , Villaverde and Villa de Vallecas ; With an area of 530 ha, it is appreciated for its ecological value within the urban nucleus.
- The Casa de Campo is located in the district of Moncloa-Aravaca and with an area of 1,722.60 ha, the Casa de Campo is the true lung of Madrid. Such is its size that in its interior are located the Madrid Amusement Park , the Madrid Zoo , or the Cable Car that connects with the Parque del Oeste. Historically belonging to the Royal Household, the proclamation of the Second Republic meant its delivery to the people of Madrid in 1931, opening this forest park for the first time to the enjoyment of the locals.
- Capricho Park is located in Alameda de Osuna , northeast of the city, and has an area of 14 ha. It is considered one of the most beautiful parks in the city. Of its corners, the Plaza del Capricho, the Palace, the pond, the Plaza de los Emperadores, or the Fountain of the Dolphins and the Frogs stand out.
- The Quinta de la Fuente del Berro is located in the Salamanca district , and has an area of 13 hectares. It is a historical garden from the 17th century in a landscaped style where a series of water elements are developed (pond, estuary, waterfall and lake) that provide a romantic character. In it, the peacocks that live in freedom stand out and walk through the park and the surrounding streets.
- La Quinta de Vista Alegre is a historic garden declared a Site of Cultural Interest, with 45 hectares of surface, which is located in the district of Carabanchel . Built in 1802, it was the summer residence of the queens María Cristina de Borbón and Isabel II . Inside, the Vista Alegre Palace, the Old Palace, the navigable estuary and its romantic setting stand out.
- The Parque del Oeste is located between the La Coruña highway , the Ciudad Universitaria and the Moncloa area. It has an area of 98.60 ha and contains species such as cedars of Lebanon, poplars, linden and beech. In addition, every year, the International New Roses Contest of the Villa de Madrid is held in the park . In it is the Temple of Debod .
- The Dehesa de la Villa is located to the northwest of the city of Madrid, its main characteristic is that it maintains its condition as a forest, and is for the most part without landscaping. The most common tree in the dehesa is the pine, of which there are six species, mainly stone and holm oaks. Among these are many other species such as holm oaks, acacias or cypresses. The most common birds are, as in the rest of the city, pigeons, sparrows and magpies. Other species that are commonly seen are the hoopoe, the great spotted woodpecker or the robin.
- El Pinar de San José is located in the Peseta neighborhood , west of the city of Madrid. Its main characteristic is that it maintains its condition of forest without landscaping. In the Pinar de San José there are still thousands of stone pines that were planted in 1906 by the Order of San Juan de Dios . The most common birds in this pine forest are: starlings, hoopoe, wood pigeons, magpies, tree sparrows, Argentine parrots, real woodpecker, agateadoras, chickadees and blue tit. El Pinar de San José has a surface area of 27.03 hectares, and may occupy 50 hectares according to the current expansion project of the forest park.
- The Quinta de los Molinos is located in the Canillejas district , with an area of 25 hectares. It is a historical park that includes large areas of trees, in which the almond trees stand out, which bloom in February and March, offering a fantastic show.
- The Quinta de Torres Arias is located in the Canillejas district , with an area of 17 hectares. Inside, the 16th century palace and its gardens with 300-year-old holm oaks stand out.
- The Valdebebas-Felipe VI forest park is located in the northeast of the city in the Valdebebas neighborhood . With 470 ha , it is the second largest park in the city after Casa de Campo . [ 115 ]
- Juan Carlos I Park is one of the largest in the city, with 220 ha. The Juan Carlos I park is home to the IFEMA fairgrounds , where some of the most important annual exhibitions in Europe are held, such as the SIMO . In addition, the so-called Garden of the Three Cultures stands out , with three landscaped areas that represent the Christian, Jewish and Muslim cultures.
- The Enrique Tierno Galván park is located in the district of Arganzuela , has an area of 45 ha and is next to the Planetarium and the Railway Museum (former Delicias train station ), with a beautiful picture from earlier times.
Although it is the downtown area that concentrates most of the tourist interest, some places of interest are found in the suburbs.
The Royal Palace of El Pardo is located in the Fuencarral-El Pardo district . Its environment, the Mount of El Pardo , is protected both for being part of the National Heritage and for its ecological value, due to its abundant and diverse native flora and fauna. This protected area also houses the Palacio de la Zarzuela , residence of the Spanish royal family . [ 116 ] Near them, in the district of Moncloa-Aravaca , is the Palacio de la Moncloa , residence of the President of the Government of Spain.
Other places of interest found on the outskirts are the Metropolitano stadium , current home of the Atlético de Madrid football team ( San Blas-Canillejas district ), the Caja Mágica tennis pavilion ( Usera district ), the stadium of the Vistalegre Palace ( Carabanchel district ), the Madrid Arena multipurpose pavilion ( Moncloa-Aravaca district ), the Zarzuela racetrack ( Fuencarral-El Pardo district ) and the Real Madrid City of Valdebebas ( Barajas district )
They are also areas of special tourist interest: the IFEMA multipurpose fairground ( Barajas district ), the Cuatro Torres Business Area ; and the neighborhood of La Peseta, due to its great interest in being the extension with the most architectural awards per square meter in the world [ 117 ] . Likewise, the Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas Airport and the Madrid-Cuatro Vientos Airport (in the Latina district ) are also located on the periphery , whose tourist interest lies in the possibility of entering and leaving the city by plane.
|Nominations with representation||2019|
|Popular Party (PP)||24,23||15|
|Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE)||13,72||8|
The city of Madrid is governed by the Madrid City Council , whose representatives are elected every four years by universal suffrage of all citizens over 18 years of age. The body is chaired (2019) by the mayor of Madrid , José Luis Martínez-Almeida .
Below is a list of the city's mayors since the 1979 democratic elections:
|Mayor||Start of mandate||End of mandate||Match|
|Enrique Tierno Galván||1979||1986||PSOE|
|Juan Barranco placeholder image||1986||1989||PSOE|
|Agustín Rodríguez Sahagún||1989||1991||CDS|
|Jose Maria Alvarez del Manzano||1991||2003||PP|
|Manuela Carmena||2015||2019||Now Madrid|
|Jose Luis Martinez-Almeida||2019||-||PP|
|Numbered districts of Madrid . The numbers correspond to the classification on the left.|
Madrid is administratively divided into 21 districts, which in turn are subdivided into neighborhoods, not necessarily coinciding with the traditional neighborhoods. Each of the districts is administered by a Municipal District Board , with powers focused on channeling their citizen participation. The last administrative division of Madrid dates from 1988 and structures the city in a total of 21 districts and 131 neighborhoods :
- Center . Palace , Ambassadors , Courts , Justice , University and Sol .
- Arganzuela . Imperial , Acacias , La Chopera , Legazpi , Delicias , Palos de Moguer and Atocha .
- Withdrawal . Pacífico , Adelfas , Estrella , Ibiza , Jerónimos and Niño Jesús .
- Salamanca : Recoletos , Goya , Fuente del Berro , Guindalera , Lista and Castellana .
- Chamartín : El Viso , Prosperidad , Ciudad Jardín , Latin America , New Spain and Castilla .
- Tetuán : Beautiful Views , Cuatro Caminos , Castillejos , Almenara , Valdeacederas and Berruguete .
- Chamberí : Gaztambide , Arapiles , Trafalgar , Almagro , Ríos Rosas and Vallehermoso .
- Fuencarral-El Pardo : El Pardo , Fuentelarreina , Peñagrande , Barrio del Pilar , La Paz , Valverde , Mirasierra and El Goloso .
- Moncloa-Aravaca : Casa de Campo , Argüelles , Ciudad Universitaria , Valdezarza , Valdemarín , El Plantío and Aravaca .
- Latina : Los Cármenes , Puerta del Ángel , Lucero , Aluche , Camp , Cuatro Vientos and Las Águilas .
- Carabanchel : Comillas , Opañel , San Isidro , Vista Alegre , Puerta Bonita , Buenavista and Abrantes .
- Usera : Orcasitas , Orcasur , San Fermín , Almendrales , Moscardó , El Zofío and Pradolongo .
- Vallecas Bridge : Entrevías , San Diego , Palomeras Bajas , Palomeras Sureste , Portazgo and Numancia .
- Moratalaz : Pavones , Horcajo , Marroquina , Media Legua , Fontarrón and Vinateros .
- Ciudad Lineal : Ventas , Pueblo Nuevo , Quintana , La Concepción , San Pascual , San Juan Bautista , Colina , Atalaya and Costillares .
- Hortaleza : Palomas , Piovera , Canillas , Pinar del Rey , Apóstol Santiago and Valdefuentes .
- Villaverde : Villaverde Alto , San Cristóbal , Butarque , Los Rosales and Los Ángeles .
- Villa de Vallecas : Historic Center of Vallecas , Santa Eugenia and Ensanche de Vallecas .
- Vicálvaro : Historic Center of Vicálvaro , Valdebernardo , Valderrivas and El Cañaveral .
- San Blas-Canillejas : Simancas , Hellín , Amposta , Arcos , Rosas , Rejas , Canillejas and Salvador .
- Barajas : Alameda de Osuna , Airport , Historic Center of Barajas , Timón and Corralejos .
The city of Madrid is located in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula , a few kilometers north of Cerro de los Ángeles , the geographic center of the Peninsula. City coordinates are . The population center of Madrid is located 657 meters above sea level, [ 6 ] thus being one of the highest capitals in Europe . The maximum altitude of the municipality is approximately 846 meters, which occurs northwest of Pardo, near Torrelodones , and its minimum altitude of about 543 meters occurs in the south, on the banks of the Manzanares River .[ 7 ] Theclosestcoastalpointis 305 kilometers from Madrid, located in the province ofValencia. [ 119 ]
The geographical and climatic context of Madrid is that of the South Sub-plateau , within the Central Plateau . The city is located a few kilometers from the Sierra de Guadarrama and is hydrographically located in the Tagus basin .
Municipalities bordering Madrid: [ 120 ]
|Northwest: Colmenar Viejo , Hoyo de Manzanares , Torrelodones||North: Tres Cantos , Alcobendas||Northeast: Colmenar Viejo , San Sebastián de los Reyes , Alcobendas|
|West: Las Rozas de Madrid , Majadahonda , Pozuelo de Alarcón||East: Paracuellos de Jarama , San Fernando de Henares , Coslada|
|Southwest: Alcorcón , Leganés||About: Getafe||Southeast: Rivas-Vaciamadrid|
The main river in Madrid is the Manzanares , which penetrates the municipality in the surroundings of the El Pardo mountain, feeding the reservoir of the same name, which is also served by the waters of the Manina and Tejada streams. After this natural space, the river begins its urban course around the university city, then briefly enters the Casa de Campo, where it receives the waters of the Meaques stream .
In this more properly urban section, towards the Puente del Rey, it received the waters of the Leganitos stream (its trough is the Paseo de San Vicente), then that of another stream that ran through the street of Segovia, and later the waters of the stream from the Castellana Fountain (the fountain was located in the so-called Altos del Hipódromo , where the current National Museum of Natural Sciences is located , and the stream valley ran along the current Castellana-Prado axis).
In its next section it serves as a border between numerous districts, leaving in its southwest margin those of Latina , Carabanchel , Usera and Villaverde and in the northeast the districts Centro , Arganzuela , Puente de Vallecas , Villa de Vallecas and the rest of the city . In this phase, specifically between the districts of Arganzuela and Puente de Vallecas, it receives the channel of the buried Abroñigal stream , whose route almost entirely coincides with that of the M-30 highway , as the depression caused by its channel is used as a soundproofing measure. of the fast track; also receives the waters of theButarque stream , you are around the Villaverde district.
On leaving the city of Madrid, the river enters the eastern end of the municipality of Getafe , where it receives the waters of the Culebro stream , to flow shortly after into the waters of the Jarama River , already in the area of Rivas-Vaciamadrid .
In addition to those that drain into the Manzanares, there are other small river courses in the city of Madrid and its surroundings. This is the case of streams of La Moraleja, de la Vega, Valdelamasa or Viñuelas, which drain directly into the Jarama or the Cedrón stream, which flows into the Guadarrama river .
According to the Köppen climate classification , the climate of Madrid in the period 1981-2010 can be considered a transition between the typical Mediterranean climate (Csa) and the cold semi-arid climate (BSk), tending more to the former. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] [ 123 ] [ 124 ] Other sources describe the climate of Madrid as continental Mediterranean, differentiating it from the typical Mediterranean climate (which occurs in areas near the coast), for having a greater annual temperature range and less rainfall due to its altitude and distance from the sea. Madrid's climate is highly influenced by urban conditions ( see : heat island ). The average temperature (reference period: 1981-2010) is around 14.5 and 15 ° C. [ 125 ] [ 126 ]
Winters are moderately cold, with average temperatures in the coldest month (January) around 3-6 ° C. Frosts are frequent in winter and occasional snowfalls (between one and five days of snow a year). In this month the average maximum temperatures are around 9 ° C and the minimum around 0-2 ° C. Summers are very hot. The warmest months are July and August, although July is slightly warmer. In this month, the averages exceed 25 ° C, with average maximum temperatures of between 32 and 33.5 ° C and average minimum temperatures of around 17 to 19 ° C. At some times of the day it can reach 41 ° C during the summer. [ 127 ] The temperature rangeDaily is important in the urban periphery (reaching over 13 ° C), but it is reduced in the city center due to the anthropic effect (even dropping below 10 ° C). The annual temperature range is high (between 19 and 20 ° C, a figure typical of the Southern Plateau ) as a consequence of the great distance to the sea and the altitude (around 650 meters).
Madrid enjoys around 2,800 hours of sunshine per year, which makes it one of the cities with the most hours of sunshine on the peninsula. In fact, together with Athens, which has a similar annual rainfall, although with less cold winters, it is the driest capital in Europe. Annual rainfall is around 400 mm, with a marked minimum in summer (especially in July and August). The maximum of precipitation occurs in autumn (from October to December) and in the spring months of April and May. The average humidity during the year is around 57%, with a great oscillation between the cold seasons, much more humid, and the warm ones, which are very dry. The average annual wind speed is between 7 and 10 km / h. [ 125 ] [ 126 ]
Below are three tables with the climatological values in the reference period between 1981 and 2010 in the three AEMET observatories located in the municipality of Madrid: the Retiro observatory located at 667 m asl, the airport observatory from Madrid-Barajas at 609 m asl and the Madrid-Cuatro Vientos airport observatory at 690 m asl. Note that the extreme values are also taken in the period 1981-2010. [ 125 ] [ 126 ]
|Average climatic parameters of the Madrid Retiro Park Observatory (667 m asl) (Reference period: 1981-2010)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||19.9||21.0||26.0||29.6||33.4||38.5||39.5||40.0||37.0||28.7||22.7||17.7||40.0|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||9.8||12.0||16.3||18.2||22.2||28.2||32.1||31.3||26.4||19.4||13.5||10.0||19.9|
|Temp. media (°C)||6.3||7.9||11.2||12.9||16.7||22.2||25.6||25.1||20.9||15.1||9.9||6.9||15.0|
|Temp. min media (° C)||2.7||3.7||6.2||7.7||11.3||16.1||19.0||18.8||15.4||10.7||6.3||3.6||10.1|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||−7.4||−6.5||−5.1||−1.6||1.9||4.4||10.2||11.1||6.2||1.2||−3.0||−5.5||−7.4|
|Total precipitation (mm)||32.8||34.5||25.0||45.3||50.5||20.9||11.7||9.6||22.4||59.5||57.7||51.1||420.9|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||5.7||5.2||4.1||6.7||7.3||3.4||1.7||1.7||3.3||6.9||6.5||6.8||59.4|
|Snowfall days (≥)||1.0||1.3||0.2||0.3||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.6||3.6|
|Relative humidity (%)||71||65||55||56||53||44||38||41||50||64||71||74||57|
|Source: State Agency of Meteorology [ 125 ] [ 128 ]|
|Average climatic parameters of the Madrid-Barajas Airport Observatory (609 m asl) (Reference period: 1981-2010)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||20.9||22.6||26.4||31.1||36.4||39.8||42.2||41.2||40.2||31.5||24.7||20.0||42.2|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||10.7||13.0||17.0||18.7||23.1||29.5||33.5||32.8||27.9||21.0||14.8||10.9||21.1|
|Temp. media (°C)||5.5||7.1||10.2||12.2||16.2||21.7||25.2||24.7||20.5||14.8||9.4||6.2||14.5|
|Temp. min media (° C)||0.2||1.2||3.5||5.7||9.3||13.9||16.8||16.5||13.1||8.7||4.1||1.4||7.9|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||−10.4||−10.0||−6.6||−3.2||−0.5||5.0||7.0||8.2||4.0||−1.0||−7.4||−10.5||−10.5|
|Total precipitation (mm)||28.7||31.9||21.5||37.7||43.9||21.7||8.8||9.5||24.1||51.3||49.3||42.3||370.8|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||5.2||4.7||3.5||6.4||6.8||3.6||1.5||1.5||2.9||6.6||6.2||6.3||55.1|
|Snowfall days (≥)||0.7||0.9||0.3||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.6||2.6|
|Hours of sun||144.1||168.1||224.0||225.7||258.0||310.2||354.4||329.1||257.8||198.7||151.1||127.7||2748.9|
|Relative humidity (%)||74||67||58||56||52||42||35||37||48||63||72||76||57|
|Source: State Agency of Meteorology [ 125 ] [ 129 ]|
|Average climatic parameters of the Madrid-Cuatro Vientos Airport Observatory (690 m asl) (Reference period: 1981-2010)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||20.6||22.4||26.8||30.4||35.6||39.6||40.6||40.6||38.6||30.7||24.0||19.6||40.6|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||10.4||12.5||16.5||18.3||22.6||28.9||32.8||32.2||27.3||20.4||14.3||10.7||20.6|
|Temp. media (°C)||6.0||7.6||10.8||12.6||16.5||22.2||25.6||25.1||21.0||15.2||9.8||6.7||14.9|
|Temp. min media (° C)||1.6||2.7||5.1||6.8||10.4||15.4||18.3||18.1||14.6||9.9||5.4||2.7||9.3|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||−8.0||−7.4||−5.6||−4.0||−1.2||3.6||5.8||9.2||4.6||1.2||−4.0||−7.5||−8.0|
|Total precipitation (mm)||33.9||34.7||25.1||43.3||49.5||24.5||11.8||11.3||24.0||59.7||56.7||52.9||427.5|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||5.6||5.3||4.2||6.7||7.2||3.2||1.6||1.4||3.2||6.9||6.7||6.8||58.8|
|Snowfall days (≥)||1.3||1.4||0.4||0.3||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.9||4.5|
|Hours of sun||158.0||173.0||220.8||237.6||279.8||315.6||363.5||335.4||250.2||202.7||160.7||135.0||2837.9|
|Relative humidity (%)||75||67||57||56||53||43||36||39||49||65||73||77||58|
|Source: State Agency of Meteorology [ 125 ] [ 130 ]|
Below are some extreme values recorded in the three meteorological stations of the AEMET of the municipality of Madrid considered from between 1920 and 1961 depending on the season and the climatological variable. The absolute maximum temperature is 42.2 ° C, recorded on July 24, 1995 at the Madrid-Barajas airport observatory , and the absolute minimum temperature of –15.2 ° C recorded on January 16, 1945 at the Madrid-Barajas airport observatory. The record for maximum precipitation in a day is 87 mm on September 21, 1972 at the Retiro Observatory, and the maximum wind gust of 147 km / h recorded on July 7, 2017 at the Madrid Airport observatory. Playing cards .