Malta - Malta
Malta , officially the Republic of Malta (in Maltese : Repubblika ta 'Malta ; in English : Republic of Malta ), is one of the twenty-seven sovereign states that make up the European Union . It is one of the most densely populated states, made up of an archipelago and located in the center of the Mediterranean , south of Italy , east of Tunisia and north of Libya.. Due to its strategic location, it has been governed and disputed by various powers over the centuries. Since 1964 it has been independent and in 2004 it joined the European Union. [ 3 ]
Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, and architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage sites: the Hal Saflieni Hypogeum , Valletta , and seven megalithic temples which are some of the freestanding structures. oldest in the world. In 2018 it had a population of 475,700 inhabitants with a distribution of 1,457 inhabitants / km², the highest demographic density among the countries of the European Union. This island country is considered one of the six micro-states of the European continent .
The origin of the word "Malta" is uncertain. The most accepted etymology is that according to which it comes from the Greek word μέλι ( meli , 'honey'). The Greeks called the island Μελίτη ( Melite ), which meant 'sweet as honey', probably due to the quality of the honey produced by the archipelago's bees. In fact, there are endemic species of these insects in Malta , which is why it is called "land of honey". [ 4 ] The Romans continued to call her Melita, Latinization of Μελίτη.
The Maltese archipelago is located on the edge of the African plate , very close to the Eurasian . It is made up of the inhabited islands of Malta (the largest in size and importance), Gozo and Comino ( Malta , Għawdex and Kemmuna , respectively in Maltese). On its shores there are a large number of bays that provide good ports. It also has other smaller islands, among which are the islets of Filfla and Cominotto , or the San Pablo Islands .
The local climate is temperate Mediterranean with rainy but mild winters (~ 14 ° C) and hot, dry summers (~ 25 ° C). In fact, there are only two stations, which attracts many tourists, especially during the summer months.
From the phytogeographic point of view, the archipelago belongs to the Ligurian-Tyrrhenian province of the Mediterranean basin , within the Holartic Kingdom . The World Wide Fund for Nature ( WWF ) includes it in the ecoregion of Mediterranean forest called mixed forest and sclerophyllous of the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic . [ 6 ]
The main islands and the only inhabited ones in the country are Malta , Gozo ( Għawdex ) and Comino ( Kemmuna ). Other islands that are part of the archipelago are: Cominotto ( Kemmunett , uninhabited), Filfla , Roca Fungus (in Maltese Il-Ġebla tal-Ġeneral ), Manoel Island (which is linked by a bridge to the city of Gżira ), and the San Pablo Islands ; none have permanent inhabitants. The islands of Malta have been an independent republic since 1964. The center of government, commerce and culture is the capital, Valletta , located in the eastern part of Malta .
The islands of Malta are as follows:
Malta also has the following rocks: Barbaganni Rock, Fessej Rock, Fungus Rock, Għallis Rock, the Blue Lagoon (Great and Small) Rocks, Sala Rock and Xrob l-Għaġin Rock. .
Malta has a Mediterranean climate [ 7 ] ( Köppen Csa climate classification ), with mild winters and hot summers, hotter in the interior areas. Rain occurs mainly in fall and winter, and summer is generally dry.
The average annual temperature is around 23 ° C (73 ° F) during the day and 15.5 ° C (59.9 ° F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the typical maximum temperature ranges from 12 to 18 ° C during the day and the minimum from 6 to 12 ° C at night. In the warmest month - August - the typical maximum temperature ranges from 28 to 34 ° C during the day and the minimum from 20 to 24 ° C at night. Among all the capitals of the European continent, Valletta - the capital of Malta - has winterswarmer, with average temperatures of around 15 to 16 ° C (59 to 61 ° F) during the day and 9 to 10 ° C (48 to 50 ° F) at night in the January-February period. In March and December the average temperatures are around 17 ° C (63 ° F) during the day and 11 ° C (52 ° F) at night. [ 8 ] Large temperature fluctuations are rare. Snow is very rare on the island, although there have been several snowfalls in the last century, the last recorded in various places in Malta in 2014 .
The annual mean sea temperature is 20 ° C (68 ° F), from 15-16 ° C (59-61 ° F) in February to 26 ° C (79 ° F) in August. In the 6 months, from June to November, the average sea temperature exceeds 20 ° C (68 ° F).
The hours of sun duration add up to around 3,000 per year, from an average of 5.2 hours of sun duration per day in December to an average of more than 12 hours in July. This is roughly double that of cities in the northern half of Europe , to compare: London - 1,461; [ 9 ] however, in winter it has up to four times more sun; For comparison: in December, London has 37 hours of sunshine while Malta has more than 160.
|Malta average climatic parameters (Malta International Airport)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||22.2||26.7||33.5||30.7||35.3||40.1||42.7||43.8||37.4||34.5||28.2||24.3||43.8|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||15.2||15.5||16.7||19.1||23.3||27.5||30.7||30.7||28.0||24.2||20.1||16.7||22.3|
|Temp. media (°C)||12.2||12.4||13.4||15.4||19.1||23.0||25.9||26.3||24.1||20.7||17.0||13.9||18.6|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||9.2||9.3||10.1||11.9||14.9||18.4||21.0||21.8||20.1||17.1||13.9||11.0||14.9|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||1.4||1.7||2.2||4.4||8.0||12.6||15.5||15.9||13.2||8.0||5.0||3.6||1.4|
|Total precipitation (mm)||89.0||61.3||40.9||22.5||6.6||3.2||0.4||7.0||40.4||89.7||80.0||112.3||553.3|
|Rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||13.7||10.9||8.9||6.4||2.8||1.1||0.4||1.0||3.9||10.2||10.6||14.2||84.1|
|Hours of sun||169.0||178.0||227.0||253.0||309.0||336.0||376.7||352.0||270.0||223.0||195.0||161.0||3049.7|
|Relative humidity (%)||79||79||79||77||74||71||69||73||77||78||77||79||76|
|Source # 1: World Meteorological Organization, [ 10 ] NOAA (sol, 1961-1990) [ 11 ]|
|Source # 2: Meteorological Office of Malta International Airport (extreme 1947-2010) [ 12 ]|
Prehistory and Antiquity
The first settlers of Malta were Stone Age farmers who came to the archipelago in 5200 BC. C., probably Sicanos from neighboring Sicily , since to date they are the only known settlers on the island at that time. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] For 3500 years the people built some of the oldest autonomous structures, within which are those of a religious nature, in Ġgantija on the island of Gozo . [ 15 ] Also in Hagar Qim and Mnadjrathere are other megalithic temples with the same characteristics. [ 16 ]
In 1000 a. C. , Phoenician merchants occupied the islands and used them as a base for their explorations in the western Mediterranean on their way to Cornwall . [ 17 ] Around 700 a. C., the Greeks came to the islands and settled near Valletta . [ 18 ]
The islands later came under the control of Carthage (in 400 BC ) and after Rome in 218 BC. C. During this period Malta was considered a municipium and civitas foederata . Many vestiges of the Roman presence are still preserved, attesting to the close relationship between the two peoples. In 60 d. C., the islands were visited by Pablo de Tarso , who is said to have been shipwrecked on the shores of what is now known as the Bay of San Pablo . [ 19 ] Malta in Roman imperial times was administratively part of Sicily .
After a brief Byzantine rule in 533 and a probable sack by the Vandals , Malta was conquered in 870 by the Arabs , who almost completely changed the Romanized population of the island. The Arabic influence can now be recognized in the modern Maltese language , which was originally derived in part from the heavily Romanized vernacular Arabic (although some linguists believe it has Phoenician origins). In 1090 , the Arabs were replaced by the Normans from Sicilyand Malta found itself under Christian rule and again linked to nearby Sicily. Many Sicilian settlers moved to Malta. It was then that the Maltese nobility was created, all of Italian origin, which is still in force; at present it has thirty-two titles, the oldest being that of the Barons of Djar il Bniet and Buqana .
Aragonese period and transfer to the Knights Hospitallers
From 1282 Malta passed to the Crown of Aragon together with Sicily, with which it had very close ties, after it was conquered by the Almogávars of Roger de Lauria . It continued under the control of the Crown of Aragon for two and a half centuries. In 1530 , King Carlos I of Spain left the islands in permanent lease to the Knights Hospitallers , at that time known as the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem , as Suleiman the Magnificent had expelled them from Rhodes in 1522. The delivery of a falcon was established as payment of the annual rent. The Knights Hospitallers (now known as the Order of Malta ) thanks to the intervention of Pope Clement VII , in addition to Malta they obtained Tripoli on condition of remaining neutral in conflicts between Christian nations . The Knights Hospitallers declared Italian the official language of Malta, favoring the immigration to the island of colonies of Sicilians and Neapolitans to strengthen the Christian character of Malta.
The Siege of Malta and the Battle of Lepanto
The siege of Malta began on May 18, 1565 . The Knights of the Order of Malta, under the command of Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette , faced more than 160 galleys and 30,000 Ottoman soldiers. As Muslims ruled North Africa at that time , the fall of Malta would have allowed Turkish access to strategic control of the western Mediterranean, as well as protecting its merchant ships. The Order managed to defend the island largely thanks to the help of the Spanish army.
To the Turkish failure was added, six years later, the defeat in the battle of Lepanto against the Holy League , formed by Spain , Venice , Genoa and the Holy See, which meant the neutralization of its Mediterranean expansion project. To protect the island from future landings, a fortified city was built on the peninsula of Mount Sceberras, named Valletta , in honor of the Grand Master Jean Parisot de La Valette .
Napoleon and the French occupation
The rule of the Hospitaller Knights ended after the French Conquest of Malta led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 [ 20 ] when he was heading towards Egypt . To occupy the archipelago, the then French general asked permission to dock in its port and, once there, the knights surrendered and seized the city. He abolished all feudal rights, reformed monasteries, and guaranteed the same rights for Christians, Jews, and Muslims. He also looted their coffers, before the passivity of the hospitable knights who had promise not to take up arms against any Christian prince.
The French occupation was unpopular [ citation needed ] , so the Maltese rebelled and the French were forced to take refuge in the fortifications. Great Britain and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies sent ammunition and aid. The British also sent their fleet, under the command of Admiral Nelson, who carried out the blockade of the islands. Isolated French forces surrendered in 1800 , and the British took control of the archipelago, making it their protectorate.
British rule and World War II
In 1814, as part of the Treaty of Paris , Malta officially became part of the British Empire . Due to its proximity to the Suez Canal it was used as a port of call to India and was the headquarters of the fleet until the mid-1930s.
In the 19th century Malta was the scene of a process of "Anglicanization" by the British authorities, in which the political attempt to unite Malta with the Kingdom of Italy (favored especially in the decades of Mussolini ) and successively the development Maltese independence movement in the 20th century. The culminating event was the abolition of Italian as the official language in 1936, strongly contested by many Maltese citizens who considered themselves irredentists (such as Carmelo Borg Pisani ).
Malta played an important role during World War II due to its proximity to the Axis shipping lines , which was why it was under siege again. The courage of his people motivated George VI to grant Malta, on April 15, 1942, the George Cross, [ 21 ] which today can be seen on the country's flag.
Although Malta became independent on September 21, 1964 , the British remained on their territory and maintained full control of ports, airports, post offices, and radio and television stations. Under the 1964 Constitution, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom remained the sovereign of Malta, and a Governor General exercised executive authority on her behalf. On December 13 of 1974 , however, Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations ( Commonwealth ), with the President as head of state.
On March 31, 1979 , the departure of the British became effective, as their government refused to pay the fee required by the Maltese government to allow their stay [ citation needed ] . At that time Malta found itself without foreign military bases for the first time in its history. This event is celebrated as Freedom Day .
government and politics
Malta's unicameral system is centered on a House of Representatives , known in Maltese as Kamra tar-Rappreżentanti , which is elected by direct universal suffrage by simple transferable vote every five years, unless the House is dissolved by the President in consultation with the first Minister. The House of Representatives has sixty-five seats. However, when a party obtains an absolute majority of the votes but not of the seats, it can obtain those it needs to achieve a parliamentary majority.
The President of the Republic is elected every five years by the House of Representatives.
The main political parties are the Nationalist Party of Malta which is a Christian Democrat and is integrated into the European People's Party , and the Labor Party of Malta which is a Social Democratic Party and is part of the European Socialist Party . There is a green party ( Alternattiva Demokratika ) and a far-right party ( Imperium Europa ) that has no seats. The Malta Labor Party is the ruling party, with Prime Minister Robert Abela , since January 13, 2020.
|CESCR||CCPR [ 25 ]||CERD [ 26 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 28 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 32 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
Since 1993 Malta has been subdivided into 68 localities or local councils ( Kunsilli Lokali in Maltese ), which are the sole administrative entities, as there is no other type of intermediary unit between it and the national government.
List of Local Councils
|Island of Malta||Gozo Island|
Malta only produces 20% of the food it consumes, has a limited supply of fresh water and does not have its own energy sources. [ 34 ] The economy depends on foreign trade (serving as a transshipment port for ships), on manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles) and largely on tourism .
The film production is a growth factor of the Maltese economy, the annual number of foreign films shooting big budget. The country has increased exports of many other types of services such as banking and finance.
For entry into the European Union , some companies that were under state control were privatized and markets were liberalized. On January 1, 2008, it joined the euro zone together with Cyprus . [ 36 ]
The two largest Commercial Banks are Bank of Valetta and HSBC Bank Malta .
The Central Bank of Malta has two key areas: the formulation and execution of monetary policy and the promotion of a sound and efficient financial system.
FinanceMalta is the government organization charged with marketing and educating business leaders in reaching Malta and conducts seminars and events around the world highlighting the emerging strength of Malta as a jurisdiction for banking, finance and insurance
In 2010, Malta officially had a registered population of 420,000 inhabitants, [ 37 ] of which 10,000 live in Valletta (the capital has a conurbation exceeding 100,000 inhabitants), 20,350 in Birkirkara (38,000 in the conurbation), 20,300 in Qormi , and 13,500 in Sliema . Malta has the highest population density among the countries of the European Union , about 1,300 inhabitants / km².
- 95% Catholic
- 2% Muslim
- 1% Jews
- 1% other Christian confessions
- 1% helenistas
The Maltese are predominantly Catholic and the influence of the Church is present in almost all areas. Saint George Preca , Maltese priest , promoter of the laity , founder of the Society of Christian Doctrine for the apostolate of catechesis , was beatified in Malta on May 9, 2001 by the then Pope John Paul II and later canonized by Benedict XVI on June 3, 2007 in the Plaza de San Pedro .
Its official languages are Maltese and English, but two-thirds of the population are able to speak and understand Italian , as it was the official language of the state until 1934 . For many years the use of this language, which had been relatively large in the past, declined due to British influence and official policy against the Italian language. However, since the sixtiesItalian television is received in Malta, which has brought with it a reappearance of Italian, especially among young people; almost two thirds of them can speak Italian. The local festivals are similar to those in southern Italy: weddings, christenings and, most prominently, the Feasts of the Saints because Italy is predominantly Christian Catholic just like Malta. There is also a small minority that speaks French . [ citation required ]
But English also has an important presence on the island. It is the language used in business relationships and at the University. Today all Maltese speak English fluently and it is even the main language in most schools. British influence as a former English colony led to the emergence of British English schools. The climate and more competitive prices make this island an ideal place to study the language.
Malta's culture reflects the influence of the countries that ruled it until 1964 , particularly Italy and the United Kingdom. Maltese customs, legends and folklore are slowly studied and categorized, like any other European tradition.
In the Cathedral of San Juan, built in 1577 , you can see the painting of The Beheading of San Juan Bautista , by Caravaggio , who lived a few months on the island but was expelled on murder charges. In the seat of Government, located in the old Palace of the Grand Master the Armory, you can see more than 5000 armor of the Order of Malta . In Valletta you will find the Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Archeology, Fort Saint Elmo and the Museum of the Inquisition . The Maritime and Grand Site museums of 1565they reveal the turbulent past of the small islands. The National War Museum and World War II Shelter present information on more recent conflicts.
Discos, restaurants, and nightclubs in the town of San Ġiljan are open until the wee hours of the morning.
A 2010 Charities Aid Foundation study found Maltese to be the most generous people in the world, with 83% contributing to charity. [ 39 ]
Maltese folk tales include various stories about mysterious creatures and supernatural events. These were compiled more exhaustively by the scholar (and pioneer in Maltese archeology) Manwel Magri [ 40 ] in his central critique Ħrejjef Missirijietna ("Fables of our ancestors"). This collection of material inspired later researchers and scholars to collect traditional tales, fables and legends from across the archipelago .
Magri's work also inspired a series of comics (published by Klabb Kotba Maltin in 1984): the titles included Bin is-Sultan Jiźźewweġ x-Xebba tat-Tronġiet Mewwija and Ir-Rjieħ. Many of these stories have been popularly rewritten as children's literature by authors who write in Maltese, such as Trevor Żahra. While giants , witches and dragons appear in many of the stories, some contain completely Maltese creatures such as the Kaw kaw, Il-Belliegħa and L-Imħalla among others. The traditional Maltese obsession with maintaining spiritual (or ritual) purity [ 41 ]It means that many of these creatures have the function of policing prohibited or restricted areas and attacking individuals who violated the strict codes of conduct that characterized the island's pre-industrial society.
|Malta on the UNESCO World Heritage List|
|Image||Name||Location||Observations||Year of Proclamation||Guy|
|Hippo by Hal Saflieni||Island of Malta||Hal Saflieni Hypogeum is the only prehistoric underground temple||1980||Cultural|
|Megalithic temples of Malta||Island of Malta and Island of Gozo||Temples of the megalithic era||1980, 1992||Cultural|
|Valletta||Island of Malta||old city of Valletta||1980||Cultural|
Maltese cuisine is born from the long relationship between the Maltese and the Spanish who have ruled the islands. The fusion of flavors has given his kitchen a distinctive flavor within the Mediterranean cuisine . Although it has many original dishes, many recipes have a strong Italian (especially Sicilian ) and Turkish culinary influence . Some typical Maltese dishes are ftira biż-żejt , ġbejniet , pastizzi and Ross il-Forn . The froż-del , better known as the prisoners' food, is a very typical dish among the Maltese.
In the 1990s, organized sports in Malta were reborn thanks to the creation of several athletic facilities, including a national stadium and a basketball pavilion in Ta 'Qali , as well as an athletic track suitable for archery , rugby and baseball. . In international sports competitions, the Maltese often support the English and Italian teams. [ 43 ]
- Malta national soccer team
- Maltese judo team
- Malta at the Olympics
- Malta at the Games of the Small States of Europe
- Malta Premier League
The football is the most popular sport in Malta. The national stadium is called Ta 'Qali Stadium. The national soccer team has won several matches against great opponents who reached the final stages of the World Cups, such as Belgium and Hungary . Recently a large number of soccer fields have been built throughout the island. The most important football league in Malta is called the Maltese Premier League, and it consists of 14 teams. The Futsal is also very popular.
The Rugby is also practiced on the island. In October 2018 , the men 's national team was ranked 39 in the world. They have recently achieved successes, defeating teams such as Sweden , Croatia and Latvia . In 2018, Malta achieved its biggest victory against Andorra , 89-3. In 2016 the Malta Rugby Union had 2,480 registered players. [ 44 ]
Rugby is also played, mainly due to the return migration of the Maltese Australians who bring it with them. In July 2018, the men's national team ranked 18th in the world. The national team is known as the Knights of Malta, and has players who currently play in the English Super League such as Jarrod Sammut, Jake Mamo, or the most famous player from Malta Mario Fenech. In 2016 the Malta Rugby League had 285 players, the vast majority of them in Australia .
In 2017 it had the highest dropout rate in the European Union. [ 45 ] Currently education in Malta is compulsory from ages 5 to 16, although 95% of children have previously spent at least two years in nursery school.
The main milestones have been:
- 1946: Introduction of Compulsory Primary Education.
- 1970: Introduction of Compulsory Secondary Education.
- 1974: The compulsory school age was extended from 14 to 16 years.
- 1975: Day care centers for 4-year-olds were opened.
- 1987: 3-year-olds are also accepted in nurseries.
- 1988: Revision of the Education Law that established that every child, regardless of their characteristics, had the right to receive a public education.
- 2000: Equal Opportunities Law of 2000. Provided a legal framework to guarantee accessibility to all and protect individuals against discrimination based on differences of any kind.
- 2014: Free preschool classes are introduced for children under 3 years of age.
- 2014-15: All public high schools are coeducational.
The University of Malta, founded more than 500 years ago, is the only one on the island and has around 10,000 students pursuing undergraduate and graduate programs in different disciplines and professions.
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