Location of Mantua in Italy
Location of Mantua
|Entity||Commune of Italy|
|Fractions||Castelletto Borgo, Formigosa|
|Bordering municipalities||Bagnolo San Vito , Curtatone , Porto Mantovano , Roncoferraro , San Giorgio of Mantua , Virgilio|
|• Total||63,97 km²|
|• Media||19 m s. n. m.|
|• Total||48,366 have.|
|• Density||736 hab / km²|
|Time zone||CET (UTC +1)|
|• in summer||CEST (UTC +2)|
|Cadastral code||E897 [ 2 ]|
|Patron (a)||Saint Anselm|
|Official Web site|
Mantua [ 3 ] (in Italian Mantova ) is an Italian city located in the Lombardy region , capital of the homonymous province . It is surrounded on three sides by the Mincio River . Agricultural and tourist center, it has factories that produce agricultural machinery, fertilizers, furniture, footwear and toys. It is the setting for the Rigoletto opera . Mantua was named the capital of Italian culture in 2016.
Mantua was founded, according to myth, by Ocnos , son of Manto (daughter of Tiresias ), who named the city in honor of his mother. Actually, Mantua was founded by the Etruscans , and later conquered by the Romans . The name derives from the Etruscan god Mantus , from arides Hades . After being conquered by Cenomaniacs , a Gallic tribe , the city was again conquered by the Romans between the First and Second Punic Wars . The territory was populated by veteran soldiers of Octavio Augusto, its most famous citizen being the poet Virgilio .
After the fall of the Roman Empire , it was invaded by the Byzantines , the Lombards and the Franks . In the 11th century it became the possession of Bonifacio de Canossa , Marquis of Tuscany . The last ruler of the family was Countess Matilde de Canosa , who died in 1115, who according to legend, ordered the construction of the beautiful Rotonda di San Lorenzo (1082).
After the death of Matilde de Canosa, Mantua became a free commune , and it defended itself vigorously from the Holy Roman Empire in the 12th and 13th centuries . In 1198 Alberto Pitentino optimized the course of the Mincio , creating what the Mantuans called the four lakes to reinforce the natural protection of the city. Between 1215 and 1216 the city was under the podesteria of the Welf Rambertino Buvalelli .
During the fighting between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, Pinamonte Bonacolsi took advantage of the chaotic situation to seize power in 1273. His family ruled Mantua for the next century, making it more prosperous and artistically beautiful. On August 16, 1328, the last Bonacolsi , Rinaldo, was defeated in a revolt supported by the Gonzagas , a family of officers. The city prospered under the rule of the Gonzaga family (1328-1708). The Gonzagas built new walls with five gates and renovated the architecture of the city in the 14th century , but the political situation in the city did not settle until the third Gonzaga, Luis II Gonzaga., who eliminated his relatives, taking all power. In 1459 Pope Pius II held a diet in Mantua to proclaim a crusade against the Turks . With Francis II the famous Renaissance painter Andrea Mantegna worked as a court painter in Mantua , and produced some of his most outstanding works. The first Duke of Mantua was Federico II Gonzaga , who acquired the title of Emperor Charles V in the year 1530.
Composer Claudio Monteverdi worked for the Gonzagas in the Duchy of Mantua from 1590 to 1613. In 1627, the Gonzaga family's direct line was exhausted with the vicious and weak Vincent II and the city gradually declined under new rulers, the Gonzagas. -Nevers , a minor French branch of the family. The War of the Mantua Succession broke out and in 1630 an imperial army of 36,000 mercenary lansquenetes besieged Mantua, bringing with them the plague. Mantua never recovered from this disaster.
Fernando Carlos IV , an inept ruler whose only claim was to celebrate parties and theatrical performances, allied himself with France in the War of the Spanish Succession . After the defeat of the second, he took refuge in Venice , taking with him a thousand paintings. Upon his death in 1708, he was declared deposed and his family lost Mantua forever to the Habsburgs of Austria .
Mantua was ruled by Austria from 1708 to 1866, except from 1797 to April 27, 1814, when it came under French influence during the Napoleonic era. Under Austrian rule, Mantua enjoyed a renaissance and during this period, the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters and Arts, the Scientific theater and numerous palaces were created. On June 4, 1796, during the Napoleonic Wars , Mantua was besieged by Napoleon as a movement against Austria, who joined the First Coalition. Austrian and Russian attempts to break the blockade failed but succeeded in getting the French to abandon the siege and go off to fight on other battlefields on July 31. They returned on August 24. In early February the city surrendered and the region came under French administration. Two years later, in 1799, the city ( Siege of Mantua (1799) ) was reconquered by the Austrians. Then the city returned to Napoleon's control again. In 1810 Andreas Hofer was shot next to Porta Giulia, a city gate in Borgo di Porto (Cittadella); he had led the Tyrolean insurrection against Napoleon.
After the brief French rule, Mantua returned to Austrian hands in 1814, becoming one of the Quadrilatero fortress cities in northern Italy. In 1866, Mantua was incorporated into unified Italy by the King of Sardinia .
Monuments and places of interest
Its monuments include the Palazzo Ducale with frescoes by Andrea Mantegna , whose tomb is in Sant'Andrea, a basilica that began to be built in the 15th century , together with the church of San Sebastiano , both according to Alberti's designs . The Magna Domus , the Palazzo del Capitano , the Palazzo Vescovile , the Palazzo degli Uberti , the Castle of San Jorge , the Palazzo Castiglioni (or Palazzo Bonacolsi), the Gabbia tower , and the Palazzo del Podestà, all of them examples of heritage in patrician constructions and Italian architecture.
Also noteworthy are the Cathedral of Saint Peter the Apostle built by Giulio Romano (1545) and the Palazzo Tè (1525-1535), a symbol of the city projected and decorated also by Giulio Romano (who lived in Mantova in his last years), made as a residential villa of Federico II Gonzaga , in an advanced Renaissance style and with certain touches of post-mannerism Raphaelian. It houses the civic museum.
In 2008 it was registered as a World Heritage Site by Unesco , together with Sabbioneta , for both representing two different aspects of Renaissance urban planning . Specifically, Mantua shows the renewal and existence of a pre-existing city, with an irregular scheme with regular parts that show the different stages of its growth, from Roman times, to the Renaissance, through the Middle Ages. Mantua, like Sabbioneta, offers exceptional testimony to the artistic, architectural and urban achievements of the Renaissance, united through the visions and actions of the Gonzaga family. [ 4 ]
- St. Peter's Cathedral (Duomo)
- Dedicated to Saint Peter, the current Romanesque-style duomo with Gothic additions was built between 1395 and 1401 after a fire, centuries earlier, destroyed a previous early Christian temple. It was renovated in 1545 by 1545 da Giulio Romano , who left the façade intact but modified form, inspired by the early Christian basilicas. The current facade, made of Carrara marble , dates from 1761. The side has Gothic inserts such as rosettes, cusps and pinnacles, remains of the old facade. Inside you can admire the coffered ceiling that dominates the three naves: the main one is decorated with statues of sibyls and prophets dating from the 16th century. Under the main altar the incorrupt body ofSant'Anselmo da Baggio patron of the city. The Cathedral, located in the monumental Plaza Sordello , is the bishopric of Mantua.
- Basilica of Saint Andrew
- designed by Leon Battista Alberti , it was built from 1472 and was completed 328 years later with the construction of the dome based on designs by Filippo Juvarra . In the crypt the relic of the Precious Blood of Christ brought to Mantua by the Roman centurion Longinus is kept inside the Sacri Vasi . In one of the chapels the funeral monument of Andrea Mantegna is preserved , housed by the bronze effigy of the painter of the Gonzaga court .
- Palatine Basilica of Santa Barbara
- church of the court of the Gonzagas wanted by Duke Guglielmo who commissioned the project to the architect from Mantua, Giovan Battista Bertani . An integral part of the Doge's Palace , the construction of the church was completed in 1572 .
- Rotunda of San Lorenzo
- It is the oldest church in the city, built in the 11th century during the Canossa rule . With a round central plan, the Rotonda di San Lorenzo is located on a lower level than the Plaça delle Erbe and preserves inside a matroneum and traces of frescoes from the Byzantine school dating from the 11th-12th centuries. Throughout the centuries it underwent radical transformations; Deconsecrated, it became a warehouse so much that at the beginning of the 20th century it was encompassed in successive buildings after its construction. Expropriated in 1908, the San Lorenzo roundabout was restored and reopened in
- Church of san sebastian
- started in 1460 by Luca Fancelli according to a project by Leon Battista Alberti , it was completed in 1529 . Unconsecrated in the 18th century, it was used for various purposes until 1925 when, after a questionable restoration that added the two entrance staircases, it became the famedium of the fallen Mantuans of all wars.
- Sinagoga Norsa Torrazzo
- It was faithfully moved and rebuilt in its current location, when the demolition of the Jewish quarter was decided between 1899 and 1902.
- Episcopal Seminary
- the building, located next to the Duomo in Via Fratelli Cairoli, was renovated in 1825 in a neoclassical style as can be seen in particular from the façade and the internal courtyard.
- Iglesia de Sant'Apollonia - via Benzoni 20
- Iglesia de San Barnaba - piazza Bazzani
- Iglesia de San Cristoforo - via Acerbi
- Iglesia de Sant'Egidio - via Frattini
- Iglesia de San Francesco - piazza san Francesco d'Assisi 5
- Church of Santi Gervasio e Protasio - via Trento 1
- Iglesia de San Leonardo - piazza San Leonardo
- Church of the Madonna del Terremoto - piazza Canossa
- Church of Santa Maria della Carità - via Corridoni 33
- Iglesia de Santa Maria del Carmine - alley Carmine
- Church of Santa Maria del Gradaro - via Gradaro
- Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria - via Fernelli
- Iglesia de San Martino - via Pomponazzo
- Iglesia de San Maurizio - via Chiassi
- Iglesia de Ognissanti - Corso Vittorio Emanuele
- Iglesia de Sant'Orsola - Corso Vittorio Emanuele 53
- Iglesia de Santa Paola - square of the Thousand
- Church of Santi Simone e Giuda - via Fernelli
- Iglesia de Santo Spirito - via Vittorino da Feltre
- Church of Santa Teresa - via Mazzini
- Iglesia de Santa Caterina - Corso Garibaldi
- Iglesia de San Giuseppe Artigiano - via Indipendenza
- Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli - via della Certosa (Borgo Angeli)
- Church of San Filippo Neri - via Pasquale Miglioretti (Borgochiesanuova)
Missing religious buildings
- Iglesia of the Forty Hours
- Church of San Domenico
- Church of Sant'Agnese
- Iglesia de Santa Maria of Capo di Bove
- Oratory of Santa Maria del Melone
- Ducal Palace
- Perhaps it is more correct to speak of "città-palazzo", since the architectural complex is made up of numerous buildings connected by corridors and galleries, and enriched by internal courtyards, some hanging gardens and large gardens. The Gonzaga reggia, by extension of the rooftops, is the second in Europe only surpassed by the Vatican . It does not seem improper to define the Gonzaga palace as the Palazzi Ducali, given the custom of almost all dukes to build their own residence in addition to what was previously built. Even before the Gonzaga came to power, the first nuclei of the palace had been built, but the history of the complex is mainly identified with that of the family that ruled the city until 1707. Among others, the most famous is the so-called Camera degli Sposi (Camera picta) in the castle of San Giorgio , part of the "città-palazzo", frescoed by Andrea Mantegna and dedicated to Ludovico III Gonzaga and his wife Barbara of Brandenburg. Once Mantua became Austrian, the renovations continued until the second half of the 18th century thanks to the governors sent by the emperor.
- Tea Palace
- It is the work of Giulio Romano who in 1525 designed it commissioned by the Marquis Federico II Gonzaga, who used it for his leisure. He made the "official" mistress Isabella Boschetti reside in him . Il "Palazzo dei lucidi inganni" was located in the center of an island full of forests and surrounded by the waters of a lake, now drained: mysterious, full of symbols and myths that stand out in the rooms beautifully painted in fresco by the own Giulio Romano , such as the famous Sala dei giganti and that of Amore e Psiche and, finally, the sala dei cavalli that celebrates the Gonzaga stables once famous throughout Europe.
- Palacio of the Reason
- It was built when Guido da Correggio was podestà ( 1242 ), in communal times , with public functions and to allow assemblies and meetings of the city. On the ground floor the building housed, as now, numerous shops, while justice was administered in the great hall on the upper floor. On the walls of this room you can see the remains of recently restored medieval frescoes from the late 12th and 13th centuries. This room is accessed through a steep staircase located below the Torre dell'OrologioErected in the 15th century, a period to which the arcades overlooking Piazza Erbe also date back. The Palace is now used as an exhibition venue hosting art exhibitions organized by the Comune di Mantova.
- Bonacolsi Palace (Castiglioni)
- It is located in the Piazza Sordello , it was built by Pinamonte Bonacolsi around 1272 and readapted by Luigi Gonzaga after the conquest of power in 1328. It was the former residence of the Bonacolsi family , who ruled the city from 1272 to 1328. The palace is in today the home of the family of the Counts Castiglioni , descendant of Baldassarre Castiglione , politician and scholar of the 16th century, author of The Courtier . On the ground floor, the original entrance door with a large two-colored pointed arch decorated with shields with the coat of arms of the Bonacolsi.
- Palace of the Podestà
- also known as "Palazzo del Broletto", it was built in 1227 by order of Laudarengo Martinengo from Brescia, named podestà de Mantua. [ 5 ] From 1462 it underwent a major restructuring by Giovanni da Arezzo commissioned by Ludovico III Gonzaga .
- San Sebastiano Palace
- it was built between 1506 and 1508 at the behest of the Marquis Francesco II who lived there and died there in 1519. It was used by the Gonzagas for thirty years and already in 1536 abandoned and stripped by later dukes. In the main hall of the palace were the nine canvases by Mantegna representing I Trionfi di Cesare that were sold to the English crown and are now kept in Hampton Court . Uploaded molteplici trasformazioni fina to 1998 when it was started and restarted. Dal 2005è adibito to Museo della Città. It underwent multiple transformations until 1998 when the restorations began. Since 2005 it has been used as a City Museum. In the rooms that still preserve traces of frescoes from the glorious past, such as the Camera del Crogiuolo, the Camera delle Frecce, the Camera del Sole and the Loggia dei Marmi, paintings, statues, busts, friezes and other architectural finds are exhibited.
- Arco Palace
- It was built in 1784 on a pre-existing palace from the 15th century by the architect Antonio Colonna for the D'Arco family of Trentino origin . Characterized by the large neoclassical façade inspired by the art of Palladio , the palazzo is the museum home to the artistic treasures it contains: still furnished with the family's furniture, it houses important art collections, including the 18th-century paintings by Giuseppe Bazzani , a library of more than six thousand volumes and a collection of scientific instruments. Nella Sala dello Zodiaco sono visibili affreschi (1520) attributed to Giovanni Maria Falconetto . In the Palazzo I saw if it celebrated in 1810 the process ofAndreas Hofer hero of Tyrolean independence against French domination.
- Casa del Mantegna
- residence of the painter Andrea Mantegna , it was built on land donated by the Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga who appointed him court painter in 1457. It is a square red brick building with a cylindrical courtyard in the center open to a circle of sky, re-proposed in the famous Camera degli sposi in the Doge's Palace.
- Casa de Rigoletto
- Giuseppe Verdi put music to his story and the people of Mantua gave him residence; Towards the end of Piazza Sordello is the house of Rigoletto , the court jester of Gonzaga. The character actually has little of Mantuan, Verdi's opera of the same name was in fact taken from a work by Victor Hugo and adapted in the territory of Mantua, transforming the King of France into the Duke of Mantua, and changing the name of the protagonist from Triboulet to Rigoletto. The 15th century building houses the sculpture of Rigoletto, the work of Aldo Falchi, placed in the small interior patio.
|Graph of demographic evolution of Mantua between 1861 and 2001|
ISTAT source - Wikipedia graphic elaboration
- Nevers (France, since 1959)
- Charleville-Mézières (Francia, desde 1959)
- Pushkin (Russia, since 1993)
- Weingarten (Germany, since 1998)
- Madison (United States, since 2001)
- Omihachiman (Japan, since 2005)
- Oradea (Romania, since 2005)
- Vitória (Brazil)
- Casale Monferrato (Italy, from 2010)
- Giulianova (Italy, from 2012)
- Worldpostacodes.org, postal code 46100 .
- "Cadastral Codes" . Comuni-italiani.it (in Italian) . Consulted on April 29th 2017 .
- Toponyms of Italy
- Unesco website.
- Carlo d'Arco, Monuments of painting and sculpture selected in Mantua or in its territory .