Morocco (in Arabic , المغرب , El-Maghrib ; [ 9 ] [ 10 ] in berber , ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ , Murakuč ), officially the Kingdom of Morocco (Arabic : المملكة المغربية , el-Mamlaka el-Maġribiyya , in Berber, ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Tageldit-n-Murakuč ), is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb , North Africa , with coasts on the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Morocco became independent from France and Spain in 1956. It is separated from Europe by the Strait of Gibraltar . It borders Algeria to the east —the border has been closed since 1994—; with Spain to the north, with whom it shares maritime and land borders ; and with Western Sahara to the south, whose sovereignty it claims , it is disputed with the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially occupies , [ 11 ] after invading it in 1975 and abandoning it.Spain in 1976, which should decolonize it . [ 12 ] [ 13 ]
In 1984 the assembly of the Organization for African Unity (OAU), the predecessor body of the AU and of which Morocco was a founding member, accepted the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) as a member. [ 14 ] In response, Morocco withdrew from the organization. It is a member of the Arab League , the Arab Maghreb Union , the International Organization of La Francophonie , the Organization of the Islamic Conference , the Union for the Mediterranean , the European Broadcasting Union , the Group of 77 and the North-South Center.. It is also a major non-NATO ally of the United States. It is also the country where the Spanish language is most studied , with more than 80,000 students according to the information provided by the Instituto Cervantes in 2015.
From 1984 to 2017, it was the only African country that was not a member of the African Union . The Moroccan State was readmitted with an absolute majority, on January 30, 2017, during the XXVIII Summit of the African Union, which took place in Ethiopia .
The full name of the country in Arabic can be translated as The Western Kingdom . Al-Magrib, which means the West , is commonly used. For historical references, historians use Al-Maġrib al-Aqṣà ( The Far West ) to refer to Morocco, differentiating it from the historical region called Maghreb and which includes present-day Tunis and Algeria. The term Morocco in other languages comes from the name of the old imperial capital Marrakech , coming from the Berber expression that means "Land of God" or an expression related to the Berber caravans ( Marra - pass; Kesh - speed ).
Prehistory and antiquity
The current territory of Morocco has been populated since prehistoric times , at least since 8000 BC. Making it the oldest place where a Homo sapiens skull has been found according to the publication of the journal Nature in June 2017 "New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens", attested by traits of Capsian culture, in times when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. Many theorists believe that the Berber languageit appeared at the same time as agriculture, and was adopted by the existing population, as well as the immigrants who brought it. Modern analyzes confirm that several of these towns have contributed genetically in the current population, including, in addition to the main ethnic groups - that is, Berbers and Arabs - Phoenicians , Sephardic , Jews and African sub - Saharans. In the classical period Morocco was known as Mauritania , which should not be confused with the current country of Mauritania .
North Africa and Morocco and Fez were slowly drawn into the Mediterranean world by exchange colonies and Phoenician settlements in the classical period. The arrival of the Phoenicians announced a long rule in the Mediterranean, although this strategic region was part of the Roman Empire , known as Mauritania Tingitana . In the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell, the region fell under the rule of Vandals , Visigoths, and later under the Byzantine Empire in rapid succession. However, during this time, the high mountain territories remained under the rule of the Berber inhabitants.
Early Islamic times
At the end of the 7th century , with the arrival of Islam , there was the conversion of many Berbers and the formation of states such as the Emirate of Nekor , in present-day Rif . Uqba ibn Nafi , conqueror of the Maghreb in the 7th century , reached the Atlantic coasts on the beaches of Massa , entered the ocean with his horse and put Allah as a witness that there was no more land to be conquered. The country soon shed the dominance of the distant Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad under Idrís I, who founded the Idrisid dynasty. in 789. Morocco became a cultural center and the largest regional power.
The country reached its maximum power when a series of Berber dynasties replaced the Arab Idrisids . The first was that of the Almoravids , which was followed by that of the Almohads , who dominated Morocco and much of Northwest Africa, as well as large territories of the Iberian Peninsula or al-Andalus . Small states in the region, such as those of the Barghawata and the Banu Isam, were conquered. The empire collapsed due to a long period of civil wars .
The first European interventions
In 1260, it was the Battle of Salé .
In 1399, Tetouan was attacked by Enrique III the Mourner of Castile.
In the 15th and 16th centuries , Portugal undertook an expansionist policy in Africa, in what it called the Kingdom of the Overseas Algarve, aimed at controlling the coast and ending piracy. The first important initiative was the taking of Ceuta (1415) from the Benimerines; This was followed by the conquest of Asilah and Tangier (1471), Mogador (1506), Safi (1508) and Mazagan (1513). Although the Portuguese erected the powerful fortifications, they soon had to progressively abandon the southern squares, due to the constant Muslim attacks.
Tangier was ceded by the Portuguese to England in 1661, as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza , when this princess married King Charles II . The English, faced with continuous Moroccan pressure, decided to abandon it on February 6, 1684.
The Alawis 1666-1912 and 1956-until today
The Alawite dynasty , which until then controlled the Tafilalet region, managed to unify under its power in 1666 a country at that time divided, and since then it has been the ruling house of Morocco. The Alawites succeeded in stabilizing their position, in the face of pressure from the Spanish and Ottomans, and although the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it still maintained its wealth. In 1684 they annexed Tangier to their territory.
Through the mediation of Luis de Unzaga and Amézaga 'le Conciliateur', his intelligence service, among which were Antonio and Matías de Gálvez , Unzaga's brothers-in-law and later through the correspondence [ 19 ] maintained directly between the sultan From the kingdom of Fez Mohamed III and his son Muhammad Ibn Al-Yazid with Luis de Unzaga and Amézaga , Morocco became the third country, after France and Spain, to recognize the United States as an independent nation in 1777. The Treaty of Moroccan-American Friendship is considered the oldest treatyunbroken from the United States. Signed by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson , it has been in continuous effect since 1783. The US Consulate in Tangier is the first property the US government owns abroad. The building currently functions as a museum. This consulate would have a connection with the North American consulate of Malaga, also a pioneer, then located on a property of the American and Spanish Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga 'le Conciliateur' who was the first to respond to requests for help from the founding fathers of the United States. like Patrick Henry, Robert Morris or George Washington.
French and Spanish protectorates
As Europe industrialized, North Africa, with its wealth and strategic interest, became an increasingly attractive target for the colonizing powers. France showed a strong interest in Morocco from 1830. In 1860, a dispute over the Spanish enclave in Ceuta led Spain to declare war. Victorious, Spain won a new enclave and an expansion of the Ceuta settlement. In 1884, Spain created a protectorate on the Saharan Atlantic coast opposite the Canary Islands.
In 1904 France and Spain established zones of influence in the country. The recognition by the United Kingdom of the French sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a strong reaction from the German Empire ; The June 1905 crisis was resolved at the Algeciras conference , held in Spain in 1906, where a French "special position" was formalized and the Moroccan policy was entrusted to France and Spain in common. A second Moroccan crisis caused by Berlin increased tensions between the European powers.
The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, as of November 27 of the same year, the northern territories (around the cities of Ceuta and Melilla ) and the south (bordering the Spanish Sahara ) became the Spanish protectorate of Morocco.. France and Spain control the Treasury, the army and the foreign policy of Morocco in their respective protectorates. In theory these do not suppose colonial occupation, they are regulated by treaties and Morocco is an autonomous State protected by France and Spain but under the sovereignty of the Sultan. In practice, Morocco became a colony of France and Spain, especially since 1930. The city of Tangier , next to the Strait of Gibraltar, obtained the status of an international city by the statute of 1923.
A part of the Moroccan population opposed the European colonial occupation. The French had to fight Al Hiba's troops between 1912 and 1919 in the Marrakech area . The Riffians rebelled against the Spanish protectorate of Morocco under Abd el-Krim and proclaimed the Rif Republic , occupying the northern part of present-day Morocco between 1921 and 1927, which would become the former Kingdom of Nekor . This republic did not recognize the Sultan of Morocco and declared its total independence. The Franco-Spanish coalition managed to defeat the Republic of the Rif after the landing of Al Hoceimaand the use of chemical weapons against the population in the course of the Rif war .
In the French protectorate there was a massive arrival of French settlers (they reached half a million in 1950), who cultivated the best lands. The settlers acquired these lands, a total of 1,100,000 hectares, in various ways: appropriating the communal lands ( melk ), [ citation needed ] and forcing the Moroccan smallholder peasants to sell their lands to them. On the other hand, the French Government built roads, ports, railways, telephone networks and promoted air navigation. Iron, copper, manganese, lead, zinc and, above all, the phosphates of Juribga and Yusufía were also exploited.. French colonization caused the ruin of native crafts, abrupt and abusive movements of the workforce, and little or no concern was given to investing in housing and education. Many Moroccan soldiers ( goumieres ) who served in the French Army collaborated with European and American troops in the First and Second World Wars. The sultans of Morocco at this time were Muley Yúsuf (1912-1927) and Mohammed V (1927-1961).
Under the French protectorate, various nationalist political parties appeared that based their ideals for a future Moroccan independence on the Atlantic Charter drawn up during World War II (a declaration between the United States and the United Kingdom that provided, among other things, the right of the population to choose the form of government under which they wanted to live). The Istiqlal Party manifesto in 1944 was one of the first public demands for independence. Later, the party, led by Allal al-Fasi , would have the leadership of the national movement.
In the 1950s, Moroccan nationalism had spread through Casablanca, Rabat, Fez, Tetouan and Tangier and enjoyed the support of the urban bourgeoisie and, later, also that of the peasants. The Istiqlal party won the support of Mohammed V and the Arab League in 1950. In that year Mohammed V asked for independence. In 1952 the case of Morocco was exposed at the UN .
On August 23, 1953, France sent Mohammed V into exile in Madagascar . The sultan was replaced by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa , whose reign was perceived as illegitimate. The change provoked active opposition to the French protectorate throughout the country and damaged the external image of France, which did not get support for this decision. The Arabs rebelled against the French. During the summer of 1955, there was a wave of terrorist attacks against French targets in Morocco, which unleashed police repression. The most notable event occurred in Oujda , where the Moroccans attacked French and other European residents on the streets. The new Army of Liberation ( Armée de Libération) carried out attacks on October 1, 1955. The Armée de Libération was created by the Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe (Arab Maghreb Liberation Committee) in Cairo ( Egypt ) to constitute a resistance movement against the occupation by of the FNL in Algeria . His goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia . During the fall of 1955 Aarafa resigned the throne and France allowed the return of Mohammed V. Negotiations for Moroccan independence began the following year.
All these events favored solidarity between the people and the recently returned king. For this reason, the Moroccan revolution, known as "The Revolution of the King and his People" is celebrated every August 20.
Morocco achieved its political independence from France and Spain on March 2, 1956; and on April 7 of the same year, France officially abandoned its protectorate in Morocco. With agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Morocco recovered territories previously controlled by that country. Morocco has been a member of the UN since November 12, 1956. The international city of Tangier was reintegrated through the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956. In 1957 it undertook the War of Ifni to conquer other Spanish colonial territories ceded by the Treaty of Wad-Ras , 1860, by Sultan Mohammed IV . In 1958, Morocco recovered the province ofCape Juby . Hassan II was proclaimed King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. Morocco was constituted as a constitutional monarchy and divine law at the same time. The monarchy is the national benchmark.
During the last years of Mohammed V, a code of public liberties was created (1958), there were communal elections (1960), a national coalition government was formed (1960), a popular bank was created whose users are shareholders and which finances SMEs and housing (1960). The Istiqlal suffered a split in 1959 from which the National Union of Popular Forces ( UNFP ) was born. In 1963 a brief border war broke out between Morocco and Algeria after the rejection of the Algerian president Ben Bella to the Moroccan claims on territories under the sovereignty of the Sultan of Morocco that had been incorporated by the French colonial regime to his then colony, Algeria, ( Béchar in 1903 and Tindoufin 1934). The conflict, unleashed by Morocco, was called the War of the Sands .
During the sixties the lands belonging to the European settlers passed to the Moroccan landowners. School, vocational training and university were also promoted . On December 7, 1962, the Constitution was approved, but since 1962 there was a distance between the king and the political parties. In the background to Hassan II(1961-1999) he never liked parliament or democracy. In 1963 the Istiqlal ministers resigned. Months later there were elections in which the Istiqlal wins in the field and the UNFP in Casablanca, Rabat and Agadir. From then until 1996 the Istiqlal and the UNFP have been in opposition. Between 1962 and 1990 the National Security Directorate and the police repressed the population, while corruption was rampant in both institutions. Between 1965 and 1970, due to a popular rebellion in Casablanca, Hassan II suspended the constitution and proclaimed a state of emergency. In 1970 a new constitution tailored to the king was passed, which was opposed by the Istiqlal and the UNFP. A third constitution was approved in 1972, according to which the administration elects a third of the deputies. Hassan suffered three assassination attempts by the army between 1971 and 1973.
The Moroccan government was marked by great political unrest, and its ruthless response to opposition movements earned the name Years of Lead . The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south of the country, became part of the new Morocco in 1969.
Morocco claimed the territory of Western Sahara since its independence in 1956. In August 1974, Spain, wishing to withdraw, announced the organization of a referendum on self-determination for 1975. [ 20 ] Morocco opposes any referendum that could lead to the independence of the territory and asks the International Court of Justice to rule on his claim. The following day, the International Court of Justice gives its opinion: it recognizes that the territory of Western Sahara was not Terra nullius [ 21 ] before the colonization of Spain and that it had legal ties of loyalty with Morocco. [ 22 ]However, it does not find any bond of territorial sovereignty. It concludes that these links cannot hinder "the application of the principle of self-determination through the free and genuine expression of the will of the populations of the territory."
In November 1975, Morocco began a civil and peaceful march called the green march , towards the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara , disputed with the Polisario Front), launched by the Moroccan king Hassan II to recover it, considering it historically linked to Morocco and as part of the Moroccan Sahara. [ 23 ] The March followed the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice issued at the request of Hassan II, this opinion recognizes the bonds of partial loyalty but denies any bond of sovereignty and recognizes the right to self-determination. [ 24 ] [ 25 ]
November 6 became the day of a national holiday in Morocco. [ 26 ]
There were legislative elections in 1979 and 1984. In 1981 there were riots in Casablanca over rising prices. The balance showed several hundred dead. [ citation needed ] In January 1984 there were bread riots in Nador and Tetouan that ended with a hundred deaths. Morocco was in debt, so in 1983 the WB-IMF imposed a Structural Adjustment Plan. This consisted of the privatization of phosphates, telephony and the textile industry and the reduction of customs duties from 60% to 45%.
Between 1985 and 1990 the situation became critical and problematic. Unemployment rose, the dirham fell, there was capital flight and subsidies for basic necessities were cut. To pay the foreign debt the IMF and the World BankThey impose cuts in health and education and the termination of the hiring of civil servants. In those years there were strikes and demonstrations. Political reform was carried out from above in 1991. In 1993 there were legislative elections, in which there was fraud. Amnesties for political prisoners were held in 1994 and 1996. In 1995, teaching in Berber was recognized. On September 13, 1996, the Constitution was amended: the entire parliament began to be elected by universal suffrage, and a chamber of councilors (a kind of senate) was created whose members are elected by communities, municipalities, regions, unions and professional associations. . In 1997 all the elections were held; the legislative elections produced a great political division: the most voted party got 13.8% of the votes.
In 1999 Hassan II dies, his eldest son Mohammed VI succeeds him to the throne and promises to carry out profound democratic changes. That same year he reformed the legal code for women and in 2004 the family code: the minimum age for marriage is raised from 15 to 18 years, polygamy is abolished, the guardianship of the father or older brother over the adult woman is not married, and women can choose a husband and file for divorce on equal terms with men with regard to child custody.
In May 2003, the country's largest city, Casablanca , suffered a terrorist attack. The attack took place in places related to Westerners and Jews, and resulted in the death of 33 people and more than 100 wounded, mostly Moroccans. This attack caused an involution of civil liberties: preventive detention was extended, the police can enter private homes without a court order, intercept mail, telephone calls and checking accounts. In the municipal elections of September 2003 the PJD rises to second place.
According to the Constitution of Morocco , the country is a constitutional monarchy , with an elected Parliament . The King of Morocco has broad executive powers, with the possibility of dissolving the government and Parliament and directing the military forces , in addition to other powers. Opposition political parties are allowed and several have stood for election in recent years.
|CESCR||CCPR [ 29 ]||CERD [ 30 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 32 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 36 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
The Greater Morocco is a concept developed by the government of Morocco in 1950 and 1960. The latter published a document to reclaim territories that have historically belonged to Morocco: Mauritania , part of Mali , part of the Sahara Algeria and Western Sahara . The Greater Morocco claim is mainly based on different dynasties that ruled Morocco since the Almoravids . [ 37 ] The gallery below shows the maximum length of each of these dynasties Almorávide , [ 38 ]Empire almohade , [ 39 ] marinid dynasty [ 40 ] and the Sultanate saadí , [ 41 ] in addition to the maximum of Morocco under current ruling dynasty, the alauí Dynasty .
|5||Beni Melal-Jenifra||Beni Melal ||
|12||Dakhla-River of Gold||Dajla|
The regions are divided into 75 provinces and prefectures and 1503 municipalities. [ 43 ]
Most populated towns
|Annex: Towns of Morocco|
| ||Location||Region||Population||Location||Region||Population|| |
|1||Casablanca||Casablanca-Settat||3 359 818||11||Safí||Marrakech-Safí||415 323|
|2||Did||Fez-Mequinez||1 112 072||12||Three||Oriental||398 131|
|3||Tangier||Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima||947 952||13||Inezgane||Sus-Mass||385 612|
|4||Marrakech||Marrakech-Safí||928 850||14||Agadir||Sus-Mass||384 987|
|5||Dirty||Rabat-Sale-Kenitra||890 403||15||Nador||Oriental||369 102|
|6||Meknes||Fez-Mequinez||632 079||16||Juribga||Beni Melal-Jenifra||326 674|
|7||Rabat||Rabat-Sale-Kenitra||577 827||17||Settat||Casablanca-Settat||323 821|
|8||Kenitra||Rabat-Sale-Kenitra||572 700||18||Temara||Rabat-Sale-Kenitra||302 872|
|9||Tetouan||Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima||463 968||19||Ait Melloul||Sus-Mass||198 879|
|10||Beni Mellal||Beni Melal-Jenifra||447 330||20||El-Jadida||Casablanca-Settat||298 673|
|Source (Population Census 2014) [ 44 ]|
Armed Forces and Public Safety
The defense of the Alawite kingdom is the responsibility of the Armed Forces of the Kingdom of Morocco , composed of:
- Royal Army : it was founded after the country's independence in 1956 by King Mohamed V , grandfather of the current King Mohamed VI . It is the branch of the Royal Moroccan Army responsible for military operations on the ground. The army has about 195,000 active soldiers and 150,000 reservists. [ 45 ]
- Royal Air Force : they are the Moroccan Air Force . The Royal Moroccan Air Force was founded May 14, 1956, employs 13,000 people and is equipped with more than 282 aircraft. [ 45 ]
- Royal Navy : is the branch of the Moroccan Armed Forces responsible for carrying out naval operations. Its mission includes the protection of the coasts and the exclusive economic zone, as well as maintaining the security of the Strait of Gibraltar and the fight against smuggling .
- Royal Gendarmerie : it is in charge of protecting civilians and ensuring public order in rural and urban areas of the country, they are also in charge of safeguarding the borders as well as safeguarding the lives of citizens living in the country.
- Royal Guard : it is responsible for the protection of the king, his family, and all the important areas of the monarchy in the country; The Royal Guard was created with the best members of the Royal Mounted Police and the Royal Army.
- Auxiliary Forces : they are autonomous paramilitary bodies of the armed forces, they fulfill all the functions of this (mounted police, navy, army, royal guard), in addition to espionage inside and outside the country, in times of crisis they become an independent military force and in peacetime they provide aid to the armed forces as well as special care to various civilian sectors.
Frigate Mohammed VI , FREMM Class
Morocco has four mountain ranges: the Rif , the Middle Atlas , the High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas . The highest mountain is the Toubkal , which reaches an altitude of 4162 meters. Between the Rif and the Middle Atlas is the Sebu Valley. From Larache to Agadir is the Atlantic plain and between the former and the Middle Atlas there is a plateau located above 500 meters of altitude. To the south of the Antiatlas the Sahara desert already begins. The main rivers: Sebu , Muluya , Um Er-Rbia , Tensift , Sus and Draa .
Among the Maghreb countries , Morocco is distinguished by the high altitude of its mountains and its plains. The High Atlas has the highest peak in Morocco and all of North Africa, but the flat surfaces of Morocco are much more extensive than in Algeria or Tunisia . Three large groups of relief must be distinguished: the mountains, the plains and plateaus located north of the Middle Atlas and the arid plateaus located south of the Anti-Atlas to the east and south. The mountains themselves are made up of two sets that differ in their genesis and geomorphology .
The climate is Mediterranean on the coasts and more continental in the interior, with a clearly winter distribution of rainfall (ranging between 300 and 800 mm (and 1000 mm in the Tangier-Tetouan region ) and January temperatures of around the 12-13 ° C on the coast and 10 ° C in Fez , Meknes , Oujda and Marrakech . July temperatures are around 25 ° C on the coast and inland areas. In the mountains rainfall is more abundant and temperatures lower In the Sahara the climate is already desert and very arid.
The flora of Morocco, with about 4,200 species, is one of the richest in North Africa and one of the most diverse in the Mediterranean region. In the north of Morocco, in the Tingitan region and the Rif, they end [ when? ] of cataloging 2915 species and 344 infraspecific taxa. [ 46 ] Mediterranean-type vegetation, staggered in elevational floors. Main species: holm oak, cork oak, cedar, pine. The dominant biome in Morocco is the Mediterranean forest , divided by WWF into three ecoregions : the North African Mediterranean forest , to the north, the Mediterranean shrub steppe, in the center-east, and the Mediterranean dry forest and succulent scrub of acacias and erguenes , to the southwest. Also present are the North African montane coniferous forest, the High Atlas juniper steppe in the mountains, and the more desert-like northern Sahara steppe in the southeast.
Among the national parks of Morocco are the Sus-Masa , Toubkal, Tazekka, Iriki and Talassantane national parks. One of the most threatened bird species in the world is the hermit ibis , whose last natural population is in the Souss-Massa National Park .
The coast of Morocco borders the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Not including its claim to Western Sahara, Morocco's coastline is 1835 km. [ 4 ] If you include Western Sahara, has a total of 3500 kilometers, [ 48 ] being the largest in the continent of Africa , and covering 500 km of Mediterranean coastline and 3,000 kilometers [ 49 ] [ 50 ] In the Atlantic. Moroccan waters are considered among the richest fishing grounds in the world. 
Since the center of the country is very mountainous, the rivers run towards the three slopes that surround them, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the pre-Saharan. In the latter there is only one relevant river, the Ziz River , with its tributary the Rheis River, which disappears into the desert, in Algeria.
On the Mediterranean side, the Muluya River (Moulouya) stands out, the largest hydrographic basin in Morocco, in which two dams have been built, which give rise to the Mechra Homadi reservoir (1957) and the Mohamed V reservoir (1967). Its tributary is the river Za.
In the Atlantic slope the rivers are more numerous and shorter and mighty. Highlights, from north to south, are the Lukus River , the Sebú River , the Bou Regreg River , the Oum Er-Rbia River , the Tensift River and the Sus River .
As for the reservoirs in Morocco , around 140 large reservoirs have been built, mostly for irrigation purposes, and the project is to build one or two large reservoirs per year to reach one million hectares of irrigation. [ 52 ]
Morocco has a fairly stable economy with continuous growth over the last half century. GDP per capita grew 47% in the 1960s, reaching a maximum growth of 274% in the 1970s. However, this proved unsustainable and growth fell sharply to just 8.2% in the 1980s and 8.9% in the 1990s.
Real GDP growth is expected to average 5.5% in the 2009-13 period, given the outlook in tourism and non-agricultural industry, such as demand growth in the euro area, the main export markets of Morocco and the origin of tourists is expected to be more moderate. Growth will be well below the 10.8% levels that are widely considered necessary to have a major impact on poverty and unemployment. Economic growth is also hampered by intermittent dry spells in the rainfed agriculture sector, the country's largest employer. [ 53 ]
|Evolution of the GDP Moroccan ( IMF ) [ 54 ]||2004||2005||2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2004-2010|
|PIB Marruecos (PPP)||101.904||108.171||120.365||126.943||138.177||148.109||159.007||ND|
|GDP Morocco (Nominal)||56.948||59.524||65.640||75.116||90.470||97.680||106.590||ND|
|Morocco GDP (PPP) per capita||3.409||3.585||3.945||4.093||4.432||4.725||5.025||ND|
|GDP growth||4,8||3,0||7,8||2,7||6,5||5.6 (est.)||4.4 (est.)||Average growth 5.2%|
|Public Debt (percentage of GDP) [ 55 ]||59,4||63,1||58,1||53,6||51,9||51.8 (est.)||50.1 (est.)||ND|
The Moroccan dirham is the official currency of the Kingdom of Morocco. Its ISO 4217 code is MAD. It is divided into 100 cents (in Arabic سنتيما or سنتيمات santimat ; sing .: سنتيم santim ). The Central Bank of Morocco is in charge of issuing the notes and coins.
Morocco has been producing and manufacturing cars since 1959, and also transport trucks in Casablanca , where the Moroccan company SOMACA produces car models such as the Dacia Logan , Peugeot Partner , Citroën Berlingo and Renault Kangoo . In February 2007 more than 5000 Moroccan cars were exported to Spain and France . [ 56 ] In 2007, the Renault-Nissan group signed contracts with the Moroccan government for the construction of a car manufacturing plant near Tangier.worth one billion euros and which guarantees the export of 400,000 vehicles by 2012, leading to 440,000 vehicles exported per year. [ 57 ] [ 58 ] In early 2009, a waiver of bank loans amounting to 400 million dollars (in an investment plan of 500 million dirhams) was directed by SOMACA with three Moroccan banks. Which will increase the annual production capacity from 45,000 to 90,000 by the end of September. [ 59 ]
According to the 2017 figures, Morocco is the country that produces the most cars on the African continent, South Africa in second place. While Morocco produced 335,000 automobiles, South Africa manufactured 331,000 units. [ 60 ] [ 61 ]
The Moroccan motorway network is 1626 kilometers long (July 2015), [ 62 ] 1804 kilometers is expected for 2016. [ 63 ] The last road to be built is the final section of the A8 motorway, between Berrechid and Khouribga with a total length of 77 kilometers, July 16, 2015. In addition to the 1,626 kilometers of toll roads, Morocco has 751 kilometers of freeways (2x2 or 2x3) free to complete its network, which should be extended to 1,014 kilometers in 2015. The motorway network is managed by Autopistes du Maroc (ADM).
The Moroccan system is administered by the National Railway Office (ONCF), it extends over a length of 2,110 kilometers . [ 64 ] The Moroccan railway network is one of the most modern in Africa. It is made up of a main axis of general north-south orientation that connects Oujda to the northeast with Marrakech to the south through Fez , Meknes , Kenitra , Rabat and Casablanca . Two main workshops are available for equipment maintenance, in Casablanca ( electric motor ) and Meknes( diesel ). They are also well equipped and capable of routine maintenance depots in Marrakech , Oujda , Sidi Kacem , Rabat and Fez . Morocco in 2018 will have a high-speed line, the first on the African continent, between Tangier and Kenitra initially to continue to Casablanca , Essaouira , Marrakech and Agadir , and for the year 2035 the construction of a second line that will connect Casablanca is planned. , Meknes , Fez , Taza and Oujda .
Rabat has inaugurated its two tram lines in December 2010 (Rabat-Salé tram). Casablanca has inaugurated its tram in December 2012 in collaboration with the French group Alstom , which provides the track and a transport service, the company that operates the tram is called Casaway (Casablanca Tram). It is also currently studying trams for the cities of Tangier , [ 66 ] [ 67 ] Fez , [ 68 ] Nador , Marrakech , [ 69 ] Oujda ,Meknes . [ 70 ]
Morocco has a coastline on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, the maritime sector has 38 ports as follows:
Thirteen ports of international trade; passengers or vessels from six ports. Nineteen fishing ports or export of fishery products. Six ports for passengers or boats. Following the success of Africa's largest commercial port ( Tangier Med ), Morocco plans to build three new similar future ports: Nador West Med, Kenitra Atlantic and Dakhla Atlantic. [ 74 ]
Tourism in Morocco is well developed, [ clarification required ] with a strong tourism industry focused on the country, culture and history. Morocco has been one of the most politically stable countries in North Africa , which has allowed tourism to develop. The Moroccan government created a Ministry of Tourism in 1985. Morocco in 2013 became the most touristic country in Africa by reaching the symbolic threshold of 10 million visitors. [ 75 ] For 2020-2022, Morocco has set the goal of reaching 20 million tourists , to be in the "Top 20 destinations in the world", said the Moroccan Minister of Tourism in 2014.[ 76 ] In addition, Morocco has nine sites declared World Heritage Site byUnesco. [ 77 ] The most visited destinations in Morocco are:Rabat,Casablanca,Marrakech,FezandTangier.
|2,602 ||2,693 |
|Morocco main ethnic groups [ 79 ]|
|Chleuh||12 000 000|
|Color||7 168 634|
|Banu Hilal||17 000 000|
|Riffians||6 000 000|
|Moriscos||2 000 000|
|Moroccan Jews||578 000|
|Moroccan Sahrawis||221 000|
The Moroccan population is Berber for the most part. The contribution of the Arab population has remained numerically limited, even small, but culturally significant. Through Islam, the Arabic language has gradually prevailed to the point of relegating the Berber languages to the background. [ 80 ] [ 81 ]
We can also mention the presence of Spanish Jews who came to swell the aboriginal community at the end of the 15th century and who left the country in the 1960s, after having played an important role in the country. [ 82 ]
There is no census on ethnicity or very reliable data, that is because starting in the 1970s a process of systematic Arabization of the Berber peoples began , even prohibiting the use of symbols, as well as the Amazigh dialects of the country. Like all Mediterranean peoples, Morocco is a heterogeneous country in terms of ethnicities, the Arab culture being the predominant one, although Berber nationalist movements such as the Amazigh Democratic Party have emerged.outlawed by the Ministry of the Interior considering it an ethnic party and therefore does not represent the entire Moroccan people. As mentioned above, Morocco is a heterogeneous country due to the peoples that have been in current territory, from the Phoenicians or Romans in antiquity, the Visigoths and Vandals in the high Middle Ages, the Arabs, and the Moors and Jews expelled from Spain in the 16th century. Currently, there is a significant number of foreigners, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa originating from Mali, Senegal, Nigeria and the Gambia. and Europeans looking for a second residence in Morocco or for work.
The majority religion is Sunni Islam , as it is practiced by 98.3% of the population. There are also Christian minorities present (6%), not related to the Christianity that was implanted in the territory in Roman times, [ citation needed ] Jewish (1%; Jews have been present in the territory of present-day Morocco since Roman times) and of other cults (1.8% in 2000). The king is the highest Islamic religious authority, as commander of all believers. In 2010, religious affiliation in the country was estimated by the Pew Research Center Forum as 99.9% of Muslims , with all the remaining groups representing only 0.1% of the population. [ 83 ]
There are an estimated 3,000 to 8,000 Shiite Muslims , most of them foreign residents mostly from Lebanon or Iraq . Followers of various branches of Islam such as Muslim Sufis from all over the Maghreb and West Africa undertake to make joint annual pilgrimages in the country. The Bahá'í community , located in urban areas, the numbers are 350 to 400 people. [ 85 ]
The unofficial languages of Morocco are:
- The Moroccan Arabic , set of varieties of Arabic dialect spoken in Morocco.
- Berber languages ( Riffian , Tamazight and Tashelhit ) that are used daily in the mountainous regions of Morocco.
- The French is the language of commerce; higher education is taught in French.
- The Spanish : regions of the Rif, Yebala and Tarfaya because in the past they formed the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco.
Classical Arabic is the language of legislation although laws are also translated into French and sometimes Spanish. [ 86 ]
The majority language spoken by the population is Moroccan Arabic, little by little influenced by the so-called cultured language. De facto there is a diglossia and even a triglossia , motivated because the vast majority of the population understands and speaks French. When the king of Morocco wants a speech to reach the whole world, he is forced to use classical Arabic for the Arab world and French for the rest of the world.
The Berber-speaking areas, in their three dialects of the Berber languages (Tarifit, Tamazight and Tachelhit) use their language daily.
In the cities of Tetouan and Nador the knowledge and use of Spanish is high; also in the Saharawi population of the former Spanish Sahara ; in most of the population of Larache , Tangier , Alhucemas and Sidi Ifni it is usual. There are groups of Spanish speakers in cities such as Rabat , Agadir , Kenitra , Casablanca , Taza , Fez, Marrakech , Meknes and Oujda . Currently, there are six centers of the Instituto Cervantes, being one of the largest concentrations in a single country of this institution in charge of the dissemination of the Spanish language in the world. The Spanish - speaking population in Morocco amounts to about 7 million people in 2017. [ 86 ]
The Moroccan media (press, radio, television) are available in Arabic, French and Spanish. In much of the northern part of the country, Spanish radio stations and television channels can be tuned in without any problems.
Morocco is a multilingual country. In the country Arabic, Berber , Spanish (in the north) and French (mostly in the south) are spoken and sometimes all of them can come from a single speaker. However, not all languages have the same official acceptance.
To understand the current situation of linguistic policies in Morocco, one has to go back in time to the 20th century because these, in a certain way, were the result of colonization. After independence, the government launched a policy of Arabization that consisted of a process whose objective was to demand the return to the Arabic language, as a form of linguistic, religious and cultural identity. In the 1962 Constitution, the State establishes Arabic as the official language. To carry out this process, the Government implements it in different areas, namely: the educational system, public life and the media, these three areas become the strong point to carry out this process. This policy does not take into account the multicultural nature of the country. The Moroccan government intended to follow the French model, and therefore its main objective was monolingualism as a form of identity. The Arabic language is thus adopted as the linguistic, religious and cultural identity of the country; language that everyone belonging to it should know, highlighting this above the AmazighFrench and Spanish. This process is achieved in all areas except the institutional one, in which French predominates to date. In the field of education, this process is implemented more slowly; First they start in primary education, then they move on to secondary education, and later and with less success to university education. In 1988 the State Arabized all levels of primary, secondary and part of university education in some faculties of letters.
Both the Berber languages and Spanish (always to a lesser extent) go into the background since the government considers that they can interfere in the process of linguistic, cultural and religious unification. Due to the continuous demands of the Berber people, in 2001 King Mohamed VI of Morocco delivered a speech in which he recognized the linguistic diversity of Morocco and the plurality of identity in the country:
Through this act, we want, first of all, to express together our recognition of the entirety of our common history and of our national cultural identity built around multiple and varied contributions. The plurality of tributaries that have forged our history and shaped our identity is inseparable from the unity of our Nation gathered around its sacred values. [...] the Amazigh constitutes a main element of the national culture, and a cultural heritage whose presence is manifested in all the expressions of the history and the Moroccan civilization, we grant a very particular solicitude to its promotion in the framework for the implementation of our project for a democratic and modernist society,.
After the speech, an organization called the Amazigh Cultural Movement (ACM) was created whose objective was to defend the rights of the Berber people, and a new model was created whose purpose was to bring the Amazigh language to public education. This produces a change in the linguistic policy of Morocco. It goes from monolingualism by which since independence has been working to an openness of languages granting the right to the Berber language. In the 2011 constitution , the Amazigh language became the co-official language of the country along with Arabic.
In several surveys that have been made to the inhabitants of this area of the Maghreb , the interest they have in learning them has been reflected. Let's see some of the results of these surveys: According to a study carried out by R. Loulidi Mortada , [ 87 ] bilingualism is important for young Moroccans. 94.6% of those surveyed believed that it is important to know how to speak more languages, including French, English or Spanish; while only 2.5% disagreed. 96.2% wanted their children, in the future, to speak languages such as French or Spanish. The current presence of the Spanish language, especially in the north, is important because, in addition to the institutions that have among other objectives the promotion of Spanish, such as the Instituto Cervantes , there are other forms that play a fundamental role in cultural influence Spanish in the area, as are the media. In the northern zone, TVE , Antena 3 , Cuatro , Tele5 , La Sexta andCanal Sur , in addition to Moroccan television, which also broadcasts a news program in Spanish. [ 88 ]Since Spanish is one of the languages with the greatest spread internationally, there are speakers who prefer its use in some areas. In addition, being able to speak and write this language can facilitate their access to other services and give them priority mainly in professional fields. Likewise, the large immigration to Spain (the Moroccan population is the main foreign minority) contributes to the increase in Spanish-speaking Moroccans, hence the use of Spanish is allowed in all competitive examinations and examinations organized by the State for access to any position in the Public Administration for more than seven years. A curious fact is that according to the results obtained from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Embassy of Spain in Morocco,[ 89 ] Although it seems that Spanish is a language that is widely used in Moroccan territory, French far surpasses it.
Unlike Spanish, French is used in the Administration together with modern Arabic and at the same time it is used in compulsory education, which is one of the languages taught from the first levels of basic education. It is also the vehicular language of teaching in scientific and technical faculties, in the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences and in Higher Schools and Colleges. [ 90 ] In large cities, especially those that were under French protectorate , this language is spoken by the upper-middle class that has been educated in French or, as Francisco Moscoso says, "seeks to assimilate into French culture as a form of to get closer to modernity while still being Moroccan ».[ 91 ] Upper-middle-class families tend to school their children in private French schools. Ennajiaffirms that a Moroccan student who has passed the selectivity in French and who has studied in a private French school, will have more job opportunities than one who has done so in a public one. Therefore, as is evident, French is seen as a prestigious language, while Arabic is not. [ 91 ] As with Spanish, French is used in the media, in the latter case there are two stations:Mediterráneo InternationaleandRadio Maghreb., which broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic and French. In addition, there is also a 2M television channel that mainly broadcasts in French. The most remarkable thing about this situation is that despite its wide use and its function as a vehicular language, the French language does not have any institutional or official status, although the king and the rest of the authorities in their appearances outside the Arab world address themselves in That language; In other words, it is not present in the Moroccan Constitution as a national language or as an official language.
The Imazighen are the indigenous peoples of North Africa and although their origin is still unclear, there is evidence that they already inhabited what we now know as the Maghreb in the time of the Phoenicians . [ 92 ] During the colonization period, they were designated by the term Berber, which literally means barbarian. Today, they call themselves Amazigh, in Spanish "free man" and they play a key piece in the linguistic policies of Morocco. It is important, before continuing, to clarify the meaning of the terms that we are going to use since they can lead to error. The term "Amazigh", whose plural is "imazighen", on the one hand refers to the culture and population of the indigenous peoples of North Africa and on the other it encompasses all the different languages they speak ( Riff , Tashelhit , Tanfusit , Tuareg …). For political reasons, in recent years the expression tamazight has been usedto refer to the language, but this change has not permeated the population, which continues to refer to the word "Amazigh". In Spain and in general throughout the West they are also known as Berber languages. Although they are, fundamentally, of oral tradition, today many of them have a written form thanks to an alphabet called tifinagh . Taking into account all the above and for reasons of use, we will refer to the language with the terms Amazigh and Berber languages.
The Amazigh cause is involved in great controversy, since apart from being a sociolinguistic conflict, in recent years it has turned into a political war. The Moroccan government assured after the 2004 census that only 28% of the population speaks Amazigh , while groups that defend the rights of the Berber people claim that speakers of this language represent more than 65% (Handaine, 2013. El In September 2014, weeks before the sixth population census in Morocco, the Amazigh World Assembly declared at a press conference in Rabat that “in 2004 the High Commissioner for the Census falsified the number of people who speak Amazigh». The Association states that the method followed has the clear objective of "minimizing the role of the Berbers in Morocco." [ 93 ] Some of the failures highlighted by the Association is to ask only Amazigh citizens if they can read or write in their mother tongue, when in the 2011 Constitution Arabic and "Amazigh" were established as co-official languages, being therefore heritage of all Maghrebis not only those of Berber origin.
The fact that the Amazigh languagedeclaring itself the official language of the state in the 2011 Constitution is, without a doubt, a great achievement. But there is still much to do, since the mere change of policy does not lead to a change in the real situation. For legal and juridical reasons the "Amazigh" still does not have the presence that it should as an official language in the institutional sphere. Also, due to lack of interest on the part of the Ministry of Education, in 2012 the teaching of these languages in the centers was not successful. The responsibility of promoting and creating programs for their instruction was left in the hands of the directors, when this, of course, should have come from the hands of the minister and his collaborators. The same happens in the university, which can only be accessed if the student speaks Arabic and French, European language that is not recognized in the Constitution. Nor can the Berber languages be used in the courts or in Parliament. On April 30, 2012 during a parliamentary session,Fatima Chahou spoke in her mother tongue: Amazigh . As a result of this event, the president of the Chamber prohibited its use despite being official, claiming that the main cause was the lack of interpreters. [ 94 ] This act has been described as unconstitutional and "an attack on the dignity of the Berber", since it denies thousands of people who use it as a vehicular language the right to know what is happening in their country. In addition, like any mother tongue, it has a great emotional and personal charge, so many prefer to use it in their day-to-day lives outside the school and secular environment.
In addition, the Amazigh have also had to face discrimination from the government. The High Commissioner for Water and Forests prevents them from using the lands that have been theirs for centuries since 2012. [ 94 ] Currently there are associations such as the Amazigh World Congress , the IPAAC or the IRCAM that fight to conserve the Amazigh.
Moroccan cuisine is a cuisine mainly of Mediterranean diet that is characterized by its variety of mainly Arab and Berber origin with dishes influenced by Jewish cuisine . Despite its common with the cuisines of other North African countries , Moroccan cuisine has maintained its originality and unique cultural characteristics. Moroccan cuisine offers a variety of dishes: couscous , tajín , pastry , roast lamb , briouats (small triangular cakes filled with meat or fish). [ 95 ] [ 96 ]There are also other typical Moroccan dishes: Mrouzia , marrakchi tanjia (traditional in the region of Marrakech ) [ 97 ] Harira (soup to break the fast in Ramadan), the seffa , Moroccan salad, [ 98 ] chebakia .
Morocco is a country with an ethnic diversity and a rich historical and cultural heritage. Over the years, it has been home to various human groups from the East ( Phoenicians , Carthaginians , Jews and Arabs ), the South ( Sub-Saharan ) and the North ( Romans , Barbarians , Andalusians , Moors and Jews). All these civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco, where various forms of belief coexist, from paganism , Judaism to Christians and Islam .
Since independence there has been a flourishing in the Moroccan arts, especially in painting, sculpture, popular music, theater and cinematography. In addition, different art and music festivals are held throughout the country, especially during the summer. Each region has its own cultural characteristics that give it its identity, and that at the same time contribute to the historical-cultural legacy of the nation. For this reason, the Moroccan government has made the protection, conservation and promotion of Morocco's cultural heritage among its priorities.
Morocco is inhabited mainly by Arabs , along with Berbers and other minorities. His music is predominantly Arabic , al-Andalus and other imported influences have had a major effect on the musical character of the country. The most popular traditional genres in the center of the country are: Andalusí , Chaabi [ 99 ] and Gnawa, while in the north is the reggada genre (it is a Moroccan musical genre from the eastern Rif region, northeastern Morocco), east genre comes from an ancient dance for war. [ 100 ]
Morocco, together with Ethiopia (9), has more monuments declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in Africa and the first in the Arab world . It currently has nine declared assets. On the other hand, Morocco has four intangible cultural assets , which makes it the first country in Africa, along with Algeria , in number of assets declared on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity . [ 101 ]
|Muslim calendar date||Religious festivities||Name in arabic|
|1 from Muharram||First day of the year||Fatih Muharram|
|10 from Muharram||Ashura||Ashura|
|12 de Rabi 'al-Awal||Feast of the Prophet's birth||Aid al-Mawlid|
|Ramadan 26||The night of destiny||Lailat al-Qadr|
|1/2 de Shawal||The Little Party (end of Ramadan )||Aid al-Fitr|
|10/11 from Du-l-Hiyya||Aid al-Adha||Aid al-Adha|
|Gregorian calendar date||National holiday||Name in arabic|
|New Year's Day||First day of the year|
|January 11||Independence Manifesto Day|
|May 1||Labor Day|
|July 30||Throne Day|
|August 20th||Revolution Day|
|August 21||King Mohamed VI's birthday|
|November 6th||Green March Day||Al-Massira Al-Khadra|
|November 18th||Independence Day||Aid Al-Istiklal|
Moroccan writers in the Spanish language
In September 1997, the Association of Moroccan Writers in the Spanish Language was created based in Larache . Its first president was Mohamed Bouissef Rekab ; it is currently chaired by Mohamed Akalay ; the Secretary General is Mohamed Sibari ; The members are: Mohamed Mamún Taha , Nasir El Moussati , Mohamed Lahchiri , Abderrahmán El Fathi , Abdellatif Limami , Mulay Ahmed El Gamoun , Mohamed El Khoutabi , Ahmed Oubali , Sara Alaui , Fatima Zohra Koui ,Abdeljalil Rusi El Hassani y Mohamed Chakor .
School is compulsory in Morocco for children under the age of fifteen. The illiteracy rate of the population rose from 43% in 2004 to 28% in 2012. [ 102 ] In 2014, 53% of Moroccans are illiterate, a rate that reaches 71% in rural areas. [ 103 ] The educational system is marked by strong inequality. The Arabized public education system in the 80s is regularly criticized for its results and its pedagogy. The families of the bourgeoisie and the middle class prefer to send their children to private schools in the French language. The University of Qarawiyyin located in the city of Fez, is considered the oldest university institution still in operation according to the Guinness Book of Records. [ citation required ]
Traditionally, the most popular sports in Morocco focused on the art of horsemanship until European sports - such as football , polo , swimming, and tennis - were introduced in the late 19th century. Now soccer is the most widely practiced sport in the country, very popular among young people in urban areas, and in 1986 Morocco became the first Muslim and African country to qualify for the second round of the World Soccer Championship .
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