See also: Portal: Music
|Musical origins||Late Renaissance music (1550-1620)|
|Cultural origins||European baroque|
|Common Instruments||Harpsichord, organ, violin, viola, viola da gamba, lute, bassoon, cello, flute and oboe|
|Popularity||17th century and first half of the 18th|
|European Neoclassicism of the 20th century|
The baroque music or music of the Baroque is the musical style European , related to the cultural epoch homonym , covering roughly from the birth of opera around 1600 until the death of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1750 . It is one of the styles of what is generally called classical or cultured European music, preceded by the music of the Renaissance and followed by the music of the Classicism . Characterized by the appearance of tonality and the use of continuous bass, the baroque was the time in which musical forms such as the sonata , the concert and the opera were created . Baroque musicians include Johann Sebastian Bach , Georg Friedrich Händel , Antonio Vivaldi , Domenico Scarlatti , Georg Philipp Telemann , Jean-Baptiste Lully , Arcangelo Corelli , Claudio Monteverdi , Henry Purcell .
The term baroque was taken from architecture , where it designated something «twisted», a «heavy, elaborate, wrapped» construction (the original term being «barrueco» or «berrueco», a Lusism that described a deformed pearl or false jewel ) . In the 18th century it was used in a pejorative sense to describe the characteristics of the musical style of the previous century, which was considered "crude, strange, harsh and old-fashioned." [ 1 ]
The main characteristics of the music of the Baroque period are:
- The constant presence of the counterpoint and the appearance of the complex counterpoint.
- The classification of the counterpoint of the first and second species, and the appearance of the counterpoint of the third and fourth species.
- The polarization of the texture towards the extreme voices (high and low). Although music is still being written for four and five voices, these are no longer of similar importance, but the upper voice and the bass stand out, shortening the writing of the intermediates in the so-called continuous bass ; This texture is usually called bipolar or accompanied monody .
- The obligatory presence of the basso continuo : along with the lowest melodic line (the bass), figures are written that summarize the harmony of the higher voices. The continuous bass was usually played by one or more serious melodic instruments ( cello , viola da gamba , bassoon ...) plus a harmonic instrument that improvised the chords ( harpsichord , archlute , positive organ , baroque guitar , harp, theorbo ...) ).
- The development of tonal harmony , in which the melodic movement of the voices is subject to the progression of functional chords , assembled from the continuous bass . The harmonic rhythm is fast (frequent chord change).
- The rhythm of the bass itself establishes a clear and simple beat (be it binary or ternary), very uniform, even mechanical.
- The development of its own instrumental language differentiated from the vowel, with adaptation of musical writing to each type of instrument (idiomatic writing). In the opera houses the orchestra appears , with a predominance of stringed instruments , the basis of the current symphony orchestra .
- The appearance of new vocal and instrumental forms: the opera , the oratorio and the cantata among the former, and the concert , the sonata and the orchestral suite among the latter.
- The taste for strong sonic contrasts (between choirs, between instrumental families or between soloist and orchestra), materialized in the polychorality and the "concert style", as opposed to the uniformity of textures and timbres usual in the Renaissance.
- The wide space left to improvisation , both in free works and in those already written, in the form of ornamentation.
Aesthetics and function of music in the Baroque
Style emerged in the midst of the struggle between the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation , music was used in the Baroque as a means of propaganda by competing churches and by the high nobility , the only institutions (along with some free cities) capable of maintaining a chapel. of professional musicians. Music becomes essential for any activity, so the musician becomes one more servant of those who accompanied the nobles. The product of these aims is, as in other arts of the time, an expressive and dramatizing aesthetic: profusion in the use of ornamentation, drama, use of resources for pomp and splendor in public performances, strong sound contrasts ...
The transmission of emotions was organized through the theory of affects and rhetoric , which transfers concepts from traditional oratory to the composition of musical discourse. In vocal genres, music is subject to poetry, since its purpose is to reinforce the transmission of meaning and feelings linked to the word; the most successful show, which best sums up the taste and aesthetics of the time, will be opera , a fusion of poetry, music and theater. Clarity in the diction of texts is therefore a fundamental condition, imposed both in religious music and in theatrical (appearance of the recitative style ).
Diversification of styles
In the Baroque period, the unity of the musical style of Renaissance Europe was broken: different styles coexisted, used with full consciousness by composers according to the place in which they worked and the musical genre practiced.
A first differentiation was between the stile antico ( stylus gravis ), consisting of the permanence of the old Renaissance polyphony (marginal but in force for example throughout the seventeenth century in part of Italian and Spanish religious music), against the modern stile ( stylus luxurians ), already fully baroque and widespread in theatrical and chamber music. Thus, Monteverdi wrote his Messa da capella as an example of the antico style , and Bach called his church cantatas concerted music as opposed to simpler motets or choirs.
Two completely different national styles clearly dominated the European music of the middle and late Baroque:
- The French style . With the court of Louis XIV in Versailles as the center of radiation and Jean-Baptiste Lully as a reference, it is a strongly conservative style based on dance forms: short pieces (united in the suite ) in a fixed bipartite way, structured in closed and symmetrical sentences. , with very restricted harmonies (although used with subtle imagination) and a complex ornamentation, standardized in written figures.
- The Italian style . Thanks to the constant stylistic innovation generated in Italian cities ( Venice , Naples , Rome and, above all, Bologna ), the inventions of Italian music were imitated in all European musical centers, including the French, to the point that the Italian style prevailed in the 18th century throughout the continent: the massive landing of Corelli's disciples in London, the quarrel of the jesters in France, the Italianization of the Madrid court after the arrival of the Bourbons, etc. The Italian style, exemplified in Vivaldi , was characterized by a strongly marked tonality byscales , cadences and progressions , the melody at the service of harmony, the frequent modulations , the rapid harmonic rhythm, its open forms (of asymmetric phrases) and the free use of improvisation.
The rest of the nations imitated one or the other of these styles: thus, in Germany the composers alternately adapted to one or the other, applying the strong local polyphonic tradition at the same time: for example, Telemann wrote hundreds of overtures and concertos, while Bach exemplified his versions. of both styles in his first publication, which included the Italian Concerto, BWV 971 and the French Overture, BWV 831 .
Periodization and evolution
The early Baroque (1580-1630)
From the last decades of the 16th century the dissolution of the old Renaissance polyphonic style began, characterized by a homogeneous imitative polyphonic texture. Two were the main novelties:
- The polychorality (the use of several choirs), typical of the religious music of the Venetian school ( Giovanni Gabrieli ), consisting of the alternation between different vocal or instrumental groups located in different locations ( cori spezzati , typical of the Basilica of San Marcos ) . A natural evolution of polychorality was the concertante style, in which instruments are contrasted against voices (as in the concerti ecclesiastici ), or soloists against the general ensemble.
- The accompanied monody , in which a single high-pitched voice concentrates all the musical interest. His instrumental accompaniment was written in shorthand as continuous bass . The Florentine Camerata (called Camerata Bardi in honor of its promoter, Count Giovanni de Bardi) was decisive in the diffusion of this accompanied monody, whose objective, to put music as a servant of the word, finally crystallized in opera; That is why they were interested in imitating the ancient Hellenic monody with the accompaniment of Khitara : Vincenzo Galilei , father of the astronomer Galileo , wrote in 1581 a treatise against the Dutch polyphonic musical genre under the titleDialogue della Musica Antica e della Moderna . His new recitative, expressive and representative musical genres also used new freedoms in dissonances and modulations ( Seconda pratica ).
In this artistic context appears the figure of the Cremonian Claudio Monteverdi . Master of the antico style (applied to the polyphonic madrigal genre) and modern style ( accompanied monody ), he would shape this newly created opera . In parallel to it the religious oratory developed , thanks to the influence of Felipe Neri .
The Middle Baroque (1630-1680)
The international success of Italian music in general and of opera in particular spread throughout Europe (Germany, Austria, England, Spain ...) the resources of the monody and the concert style. Meanwhile, in Italy authors such as Cesti , Francesco Cavalli and Luigi Rossi softened the harshness of the original monodic style to develop bel canto opera, in which recitatives and arias were already clearly separated. The new opera went from being an aristocratic spectacle to entertainment for the upper layers of the middle class, thanks to the free purchase of tickets in the Neapolitan and Venetian theaters. French opera (under various names) began its takeoff at the court of Louis XIV, at the same time and place in which the Hotteterre family developed the new baroque wooden instruments (oboe, bassoon, transverse and recorder flutes ...) and in which the French instrumental suite was fixed .
In northern Italy (Modena, Venice and, above all, the Bolognese school) instrumental music lays the foundations for tonality and late Baroque forms. Authors such as Legrenzi , Cazzati , Alessandro Stradella or Vitali turn the old canzona into the new sonata into a trio, with a marked virtuous and contrapuntal character.
The late Baroque (1680-1730)
The late Baroque is located approximately between 1680 and 1730. Once again, Italy is the country that marked the innovative trends, among whose most notable features are:
- The full adoption of tonal formulas, starting from the Bolognese school ( Torelli ) and later Corelli : frequent and very clear cadences as a formal framework, progressions with movement of fifths, chains of delays, parallel sixth chords ...
- The extension of the concert style, applied to opera and instrumental music: use of ritornelles, contrasts between tutti and solo, bass with great rhythmic thrust, passages in unison, homophony governed by continuous bass ...
The enormous influence of Corelli brought the Italian style throughout Europe. In France he even displaced the very strong local musical tradition originating in Lully, not without great resistance (until the late quarrel of the jesters ), and in England his disciples, such as Francesco Geminiani , were directly the most influential authors. First-rate German authors such as Bach, Telemann, and Händel studied and imitated the Italian style.
The Baroque composers whose music is currently more widespread belong to the generation born around 1685: Antonio Vivaldi in Italy, Georg Friedrich Händel , Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann in Germany, Jean Philippe Rameau in France and Domenico Scarlatti , a Spaniard by adoption .
The transition to Classicism (1730-1750)
At the end of the Baroque there are several aesthetic trends: the French gallant style from 1730, the development in Italy of the buffa opera , the sonata and the symphony , and the German sentimental style ( Empfindsamer Stil ); they make up a kind of pre - classicism . Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), one of Johann Sebastian's sons, is considered the father of the classical sonata.
For many scholars, the end of the Baroque period is established with the death of the composer Johan Sebastián Bach on July 28, 1750.
Genres and forms
The emancipation of instrumental music from the vowel leads to a clear separation between instrumental genres and vocal genres. Instrumental music soon reached maturity with the creation of forms such as the sonata, the concert and the suite, of great later significance.
The vocal genres were already divided between theatrical and religious at the time: among the former is the great creation of the musical Baroque, the opera, while new forms such as the oratorio and the cantata are assigned to the religious, along with old ones such as the motet. and the mass.
Humanist currents, particularly the Florentine Camerata , and looking at the end of the XVI a start to the day of the ancient Greek theater, based however in recent musical forms, such as liturgical drama , the pastoral drama , the madrigalescas comedies with figures of the commedia dell'arte and the theatrical intermezzi . Successive experiments in which vocal music was combined with dances and spoken theatrical scenes finally forged a musically continuous spectacle, in which these spoken scenes were replaced by recitatives: opera was born . Among the first are Jacopo Peri's Daphne (1598), Whose solo music fragments and whose theme was significantly taken from preserved Metamorphoses of Ovid , and Eurydice , also Jacopo Peri, is itself preserved complete in its edition of 1600. But it was Claudio Monteverdi with his Orfeo (1607) who consolidated form.
The subsequent evolution and its fusion with other musical-theatrical forms ended up turning the baroque opera into a fully musical theatrical representation in which numbers of four types follow one another:
- Recitatives , in which the singers advance the dialogues of the dramatic work in a syllabic song barely accompanied by the continuous bass.
- Arias , the true musical nucleus of the opera. They are lyrical and very elaborate solo numbers, often virtuous, at the service of the singer's brilliance and pure musical delight (even at the cost of the theatrical course, here suspended). Towards the end of the period, the ABA form, called aria da capo , prevailed .
- Instrumental numbers performed by the orchestra from the pit, such as the opening symphony and, above all, the dances danced on stage.
- Choirs, generally four voices, in imitation of the choirs of the Greek theater.
Opera was imposed as the great show of the time throughout Europe: in addition to all of Italy, they were regularly performed in places such as Vienna, London, Hamburg, Dresden, Hannover, Munich and Paris. With the notable exception of France, Italian continued to be the language of the librettos , and the theme was almost always mythological: it was the so-called serious opera , the arena of triumph for composers with Baroque pretensions of success.
At the same time, more popular musical-theatrical genres appeared, in the vernacular, with contemporary characters (often of lower class), sometimes humorous plots, and spoken passages instead of recitative ones . These shows were introduced either as an intermediate between the acts of the serious opera or as independent works; They received different names in each country: singspiel (Germany), ballad opera (England), zarzuela (Spain), opera buffa and intermezzo (Italy), opéra-comique (France), etc.
Musically almost identical to opera (although with more emphasis on choirs), it used to have a religious theme and was not staged (that is, it was performed in the manner of current "concert versions"). Unlike opera, almost always in Italian, oratorios were usually written in the vernacular. The most famous example is Handel 's Messiah .
A particular case of oratory, represented in the Protestant churches of the time, was the Passion , a long-lasting work that recounted, in recitative, the evangelical text of the Passion of Jesus Christ, with arias and choirs inserted. The St. Matthew Passion of Bach is his most illustrious example.
The assumption of monody, recitative and concert style by church music gave rise to a new musical form, the cantata , a work for liturgical use that interspersed instrumental symphonies, recitatives, arias and choirs. The composition and performance of new religious cantatas in the vernacular was part of the daily obligations of musicians in Lutheran countries, in the case of Bach in Leipzig: there he composed more than two hundred.
Secular cantatas were also written, a kind of chamber mini-operas usually formed by the Recitative-Aryan-Recitative-Aryan sequence . They are often avant-garde in character because they are aimed at a select and cultured audience. Although Alessandro Scarlatti was the most prolific author of the genre, [ 2 ] Bach's Cafe Cantata or those composed by Händel, in Italian, during his stay in Rome , are nevertheless better known .
The motet is a musical form already marginal in the Baroque. The denomination is reserved for certain choral religious compositions written in several equal voices, often in an outdated style. In the seventeenth century it remained in force in Germany and Italy, and in the eighteenth century the word was still sometimes used to designate some concertante style cantatas .
The Baroque saw the transformation of Renaissance instruments towards dynamically more flexible models and saw the orchestra appear in the modern sense of the term. Born during the sixteenth century in popular environments, the violin family ( violins , violas , cellos ) reached its maximum degree of constructive perfection in the seventeenth, to the point that then the models that, fundamentally, have been reproduced, were fixed. for the next three hundred years, thanks to the work of artisan families like the Stradivari and the Amati . Parallel to it, the manufacture of violas da gamba survived at full capacity., extinguished however towards the end of the period. The wooden instruments were radically transformed by the Hotteterre family at the French court of Versailles, then the oboe , the bassoon and the baroque transverse flute appeared . On the other hand, instruments from other times such as the sackbut , the trumpet and the horn are still used , both without pistons.
Instrumental music, which in the previous era gave its first appearance in academic music , had an unprecedented boom in the 17th and 18th centuries; for the first time in history, vocal and instrumental music were on equal footing. There was a great flourishing in musical forms, techniques, performers and composers, who already possessed a deep knowledge of the technique of the instruments, at the service of a strong emotional expression: they are typical testimonies like that of François Raguenet on the violinist Arcangelo Corelli who, when he played in public, he "lost control of himself."
Solistic forms: preludes, toccatas, fantasies and fugues
Preludes, fantasies or toccatas are pieces for a solo instrument (usually keyboard) of an improvisatory nature; as such, they tend to be rhapsodic, loaded with ornamentation, poorly defined in shape and measure and variable in texture. [ 3 ] These improvisatory pieces used to be followed by a fugue (2, 3, 4 or 5 voices): a form derived from the old ricercare , in it a short melody called subject is initially presented in each of the voices and developed later in imitative counterpoint.
Just as the word cantata designates a composition for soloist singing and basso continuo, the word sonata designates in the Baroque a composition to be "sounded", that is, for one or two instruments (solo sonata or trio sonata , respectively) plus the usual basso continuo . The most common combination included violin, transverse flute or oboe for the upper voice (s), plus cello and a chord instrument (organ, harp, lute ...) for the continuum: its texture shows the polarization of voices typical of the Baroque. Derived from the early Baroque canzona , the sonata used to be divided into three or four movements of character and tempocontrasting: typical is the Largo-Allegro-Adagio-Allegro sequence . [ 4 ]
The sonatas destined for the church ( sonate da chiesa ) used to consist of free-form movements, which included some escape between the rapids. Those for the civil rooms ( sonate da camera ) included bipartite dance movements, in the manner of the suite . Among the most famous sonata authors are Corelli, Vivaldi, and Bach. In the middle of the 18th century, the word sonata also designated keyboard works, such as the more than five hundred harpsichord sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti.
The big concert
It was only at the end of the 17th century when the concept of orchestra was consolidated , as a group in which several string instruments interpret the same melodic line in unison , so that music written in three or four voices (that is, in three-part or four staves) could be performed by an ensemble of up to fifteen or twenty musicians. Thus was born the possibility of alternating passages for the complete orchestral mass ( tutti , ripieno or concerto grosso ) with others for the soloists of the group ( concertmaster , usually made up of two violins and a cello). The works thus written were called concerti grossi .
After their first appearance at the Bologna school, the concerti grossi were spread throughout Europe thanks to the publications of Arcangelo Corelli ; Initially consisting of mere trio sonatas in which each passage was repeated by the tutti after being played by the concertmaster , the solo parts gained in sophistication and technical difficulty until they were differentiated thematically and musically from the orchestral parts: thus the virtuoso solo concert in three movements (typically Allegro-Adagio-Presto), fixed by Vivaldiand that crossed musical eras to the point of being still in force as a musical form. Important centers of the instrumental concert genre were Modena , Bologna and Venice .
A suite is a succession of movements or dance pieces that are performed one after the other (in French, suite ). His classic minimal sequence included:
- Allemande : German dance with a quaternary beat and moderate tempo.
- Courante : movement that is generally a little faster than the previous one, with a ternary beat and frequent hemiolias.
- Sarabande : slow dance with a ternary beat that characteristically accentuates its second pulse, of Spanish origin.
- Giga : fast dance in different measures of ternary subdivision, of Irish origin.
To which you could add an opening overture plus other dances after the jig, freely chosen, such as:
- Minuet : a ternary measure similar to that of the waltz The suite usually contains two paired minuets.
- Rondo : small piece based on the repetition of a theme (A), with intrusions (B, C, D, etc.).
Aristocratic in character, rhythmically vigorous and melodically highly sophisticated, the suite was derived from the ballets de cour of the French court of Versailles and ended up infiltrating all French, German and even Italian instrumental music, both for solo instruments (harpsichord, lute, theorbo) as well as for chamber groups or orchestral ensembles. Its transformation into chamber music stylized its pieces at the expense of its original danceable character. [ 5 ]
The vast majority of composers of the Baroque era worked in the service of patrons belonging to the high aristocracy or the high clergy : kings, German princes, cardinals, archbishops or possible religious institutions (such as cathedrals or notable convents). They used to supplement their income by publishing and selling their own printed works. In all cases they were performers who played and directed their own works, generally composed for the functions indicated by their patron: liturgy, chamber music, ceremonial music, etc.
Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1555-1612) is the main exponent of the early Baroque: his music already contains the essential styles of the new aesthetic period. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) is the first great Baroque composer; inaugurated the new operatic genre in Italy and Europe. Girolamo Frescobaldi (1578-1643) was of great importance in the development of keyboard music, particularly for his toccate for harpsichord and his canzone for organ. In the middle of the century, Giovanni Legrenzi (1626-1690) stood out .
From the early Baroque highlights Francesca Caccini (1587-1640), daughter of the also composer Giulio Caccini (1551-1618). Nicknamed "the Monteverdi of Florence", Francesca Caccini was the first woman to compose an opera, La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina , which in turn was the first Italian opera to be performed outside of Italy. Maddalena Casulana (c.1544-1590) was the first female composer to have music in print and published in the history of Western music.
Arcangelo Corelli (1658-1711), Giuseppe Torelli, and Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) dominate the national scene from the second half of the 17th to the early 18th centuries. Already in the first half of the 18th century, Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741), Tomaso Albinoni (1671-1751), Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757) and Giuseppe Tartini (1692-1770) represented the peak and the decline of the Baroque in their country .
The new baroque style was learned in Venice by a young Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672), the most influential musician in the first half of the German seventeenth century. Of notable importance are also Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654) and Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), author of the Syntagma Musicum treatise .
In the second half of the seventeenth century, the organist Dietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707), visited in Lübeck in 1705 by a young Bach, was together with the violinist of the Viennese imperial court Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber the most outstanding author. Also noteworthy are the keyboardists Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706) and Johann Jakob Froberger (1616-67), along with Georg Muffat (1653-1704), a privileged witness to the various musical styles of the moment. Straddling the 17th and 18th centuries, Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722), Bach's predecessor as Kantor in Leipzig, Johann Joseph Fux (1660-1741), Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (c. 1665-1746) andGeorg Böhm (1661-1733) are the most prominent composers.
Musical Baroque reached its maximum maturity and splendor in the first half of the 18th century with one of the most important composers of universal music, Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), who exhausted all the possibilities of Baroque music. His death traditionally marks the end of the period.
The remaining late German Baroque authors include the operatic composer Reinhard Keizer (1674-1739), the treatise writer Johann Mattheson (1681-1764), the lute player Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750), and Johann Adolph Hasse (1699-1783 ), Carl Heinrich Graun (1703-59) and a young Georg Friedrich Händel (1685-1759) -until he left for England in 1712- and, above all, Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767), who also marked the beginning of the transition from baroque music to classical music in the second half of the 18th century in his country.
The peculiar historical conditions of seventeenth-century England resulted in a peculiar persistence of the polyphonic style well into the century. After the restoration of 1660, John Blow (1649-1708) and his student Henry Purcell (1659-95) were the most prominent and influential authors.
In the first half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Händel (1685-1759), since his arrival in the country in 1712, is the most prominent and influential author and is still considered, along with his fellow countryman and contemporary Bach, the most important composer of the Late Baroque. After Händel, English music experienced a period of decline, although in the mid-18th century Thomas Augustine Arne (1710-78) and William Boyce (1711-79) stood out.
French Baroque music played a large part in the cultural brilliance of France. That time corresponds to a time of intense musical production in the country. The term "baroque music", which includes French music composed between 1600 and 1770, is both complex and diverse, as music in France evolved greatly during this period.
In the early 17th century, all the arts evolved. Renaissance polyphony, a type of music with two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, evolved and instrumental music increased, marking a departure from the voice, and the excellence of musical composition. Louis XIV wanted to expand France's political and economic power in the arts and lessen the influence of Italian music. Francia was adept at chords and was adept at creating music to tell stories, finding the right expression to imitate nature, retelling mythological stories, and expressing emotions. Composers, playwrights, and court and church musicians contributed to this French quest for elegance and perfection.
Music, a versatile instrument
Music was an everyday element in the French court. It accompanied ordinary and extraordinary life, religious services and royal entertainments. It was composed to enhance the splendor of public ceremonies, or to relax sovereigns and courtiers in private. At that time, music served both as entertainment and as an important political tool. Therefore, their functions consisted of consolidating the authority, prestige and status of the monarchy.
The tool of a monarch
Throughout history, French monarchs were known for their deep love for the arts, as they understood their social and political importance and therefore actively promoted them. For Louis XIV, power and the arts were linked. In contrast, Marie Antoinette's love for music was apolitical. The role of music changed over the centuries, as did its forms, instruments, performance, and reception.
The advent of French opera
At the beginning of the reign of Louis XIV, between 1650 and 1670, the French court allowed the development of two new genres that lasted until the French Revolution, adapting to the tastes of the public: the great motet and the opera.
In the 1650s, Cardinal Mazarin introduced Italian opera to the Court. Cavalli's music was highly appreciated and welcomed by the French public, but when Louis XIV became king in 1660, his popularity waned, and French opera was brought back ten years later. One of the earliest French opera productions was that of composer Robert Cambert and librettist Pierre Perrin, who created the first 'French' Pomone pastoral, which was performed at the new Académie Royale de Musique in 1671. Audiences were amazed by the mix. of poetry and music.
The Royal Academy of Music
The Académie Royale de Musique was founded in 1669 to produce and develop French opera. Starting in 1672, the Academy was under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Lully, the true founder of French opera. At the request of Louis XIV, he produced an opera divided equally into song, music, poetry, dance, and theatrical effects. The tragédie lyrique was born. For many years, the genre dominated the French scene and evolved into great romantic opera in the 19th century.
The reign of the Roi Soleil marked the dawn of lyrical art, where opera flourished in the forms of comedy-ballet and tragédie lyrique. The first composer of his century and master of French Baroque music, Jean-Baptiste Lully revolutionized dance, music and theater at court.
From Cadmus and Harmony (1673) to Armida (1686), Lully explored music, acoustics, staging, and drama in her lyrical tragedy, where the choir and orchestra were given greater prominence. His shows included song and dance scenes, deep character development and daring sets, as well as theatrical effects.
Every year he collaborated with poets like Quinault, set designers like Bérain and Vigarani, and prestigious costume designers and choreographers like Beauchamp. Orchestras, choirs, soloists and dancers were all encouraged by Lully to surpass themselves and contribute to the emergence of French opera as a fundamental representation of the European arts. When Lully died in 1687, the Opera had become the leading theater in Europe and remained so until the 19th century with the opening of opera houses in Lyon, Lille, Bordeaux and Rouen.
In Spain , Gaspar Sanz , Juan Cabanilles , Antonio de Literes , Antonio Soler , Juan Hidalgo , Sebastián Durón , José Marín , José de Nebra , Francisco Corselli , José de Torres , Juan Francés de Iribarren , Jaime Facco , Joaquín García de Antonio and Tomás stood out. from Torrejón and Velasco . At that time the Italians Domenico Scarlatti and Luigi Boccherini lived in Spain, where they composed most of their works.. Musical activity was very important during the reign of Fernando VI , a great lover of this art. On the other hand, opera was not assimilated until the 18th century. In its place the zarzuelas were performed.
In the Spanish viceroyalties of America there was also musical activity, mainly in Mexico, Peru and Bolivia, with composers such as the Milanese Roque Ceruti, Juan de Araujo , José de Orejón y Aparicio , Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla , Ignacio Jerusalem , Domenico Zipoli , Manuel of Sumaya , José de Torres , Antonio Durán de la Motta and Manuel de Mesa y Carrizo , singers and instrumentalists. Much of this music is still preserved and performed.
Representative works of the Baroque
|1607||Orpheus (opera)||Claudio Monteverdi|
|1630||Musical flowers||Girolamo Frescobaldi|
|1640||Moral and spiritual forest||Claudio Monteverdi|
|1676||Atys (opera)||Jean-Baptiste Lully|
|1689||Dido and Aeneas||Henry Purcell|
|1700||Sonatas for violin and basso continuo op. 5||Arcangelo Corelli|
|1711||Harmonic inspiration||Antonio Vivaldi|
|1717||Water music||georg Friedrich Handel|
|1722||Brandenburg Concerts||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|1722-44||The well-tempered harpsichord||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|1724||Julius Caesar||georg Friedrich Handel|
|1725||The four Seasons||Antonio Vivaldi|
|1727||Passion according to Saint Matthew||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|1713-30||4 order books||Francois Couperin|
|1733||Tafelmusik||Georg Philipp Telemann|
|1738||Harpsichord exercises||Domenico Scarlatti|
|1742||The Messiah||georg Friedrich Handel|
|1749||Music for the royal fireworks||georg Friedrich Handel|
|1749-50||The Art of Fugue||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|1728-1750||Mass in B minor||Johann Sebastian Bach|
Contemporary performers of baroque music
Baroque music is currently performed by a large number of musical ensembles throughout the world, including those that play a wide variety of classical music; There are, however, groups that have specialized in music from this period.
One of the main characteristics of these groups is that they seek to rescue performance styles and instruments typical of the Baroque era. They use different tunings from those used by current symphony orchestras, as well as tempos and rhythms that are unorthodox with respect to the canon that has prevailed since the late 19th century in the West.
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