The municipality is made up of a territory clearly defined by a municipal term with fixed limits (although sometimes it is not territorially continuous, being able to extend outside its limits with exclaves and presenting enclaves of other municipalities) and the population that inhabits it legally regulated by instruments statistics as the municipal register and grant rights mechanisms, such as avecindamiento or legal neighborhood , which considers only neighbor to the resident who meets certain characteristics -Origin or antiquity rather than the mere resident .
The municipality is governed by a collegiate body called the town hall , municipality , mayoralty or council , headed by a unipersonal institution: the mayor (in the Old Regime in Spain there was a mayor for the noble state and another for the plain state ; and, in the major cities, a magistrate appointed by the king). By extension, the term municipality is also used to refer to the town hall or municipality itself. In most modern states , a municipality is the smallest administrative division with its own leaders.representative , democratically elected . In some Spanish municipalities the medieval regime of government, management and decision by assembly participation called open council still operates .
In Ancient Rome , a municipium ( Latin word that originates from the Castilian "municipality") was a free city that was governed by its own laws , although its inhabitants enjoyed very different legal situations, since they obtained their rights not by their residence in it. , but for the possession of Roman citizenship , the condition of freedom or slavery , etc.