New York |
State of New York
|State of the United States|
| Other names : The Empire State|
(In English : The Empire State)
| Motto : Excelsior|
( Latin : "Always on top", "Always on top" or "Higher still")
New York location
|• Population||96 000|
|Most populous city||New York|
|Entity||State of the United States|
| Andrew Cuomo (D) |
Chuck Schumer (D)
Kirsten Gillibrand (D)
July 26, 1788 |
|Surface||27th out of 50|
|• Total||141 299 km²|
|• Water||(13,5%) 19 016 km²|
|• Media||305 m s. n. m.|
|• Maximum||1629 m s. n. m.|
|• Minimal||0 m s. n. m.|
|Population (2020)||Since 4 .º 50|
|• Total||20,201,249 hab. [ 1 ]|
|• Density||142.9 hab / km²|
|• Total (2019)||USD 1,731,964 million|
|• PIB per cápita||USD 85 695|
|IDH||0.959 ( 6th of 50) - Very high|
|Time zone||North America Eastern Time , UTC-5 and America / New_York|
|Official Web site|
The state of New York (in English , New York ) is one of the fifty states that, together with Washington DC , make up the United States of America . Its capital is Albany and its most populous city, New York .
It is located in the Northeast region of the country, Mid-Atlantic division , bordered to the north by Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River , which separate it from Canada ; to the east with Vermont , Massachusetts and Connecticut ; to the southeast with the Atlantic Ocean ; to the south with New Jersey and Pennsylvania ; and to the west with Lake Erie and the Niagara River , which again separate it from Canada. With 19,795,791 inhabitants } in 2015, it is the fourth most populous state (behind California, Texas and Florida ) and with 137.14 inhabitants / km² it is the seventh most densely populated (behind Delaware , Maryland , Massachusetts , Connecticut , Rhode Island and New Jersey ). It was admitted to the Union on July 26, 1788, as the 11th state.
It should not be confused with the city of the same name, New York City (official name: City of New York , or, informally, New York City ), located in the extreme south of the state. For this reason, the state is often called "New York state." New York City is not only the largest city in the state, with its 8.5 million inhabitants, about half the state population, but also the largest city in the United States .
The nickname of New York is " Empire State " ("Imperial State"). Historians believe this nickname comes from a comment made by George Washington who once commented that New York was the center of the American Empire . The state's motto is " Excelsior, " a Latin word meaning "always on top," "always on top," or "higher still."
New York was originally colonized by the Dutch , who called the region the New Netherlands ( Nieuw-Nederland ). They also founded a settlement on the island of Manhattan , called New Amsterdam . When England captured the state from the Dutch, the English renamed both the region and the city located in Manhattan "New York ." New York was one of the thirteen British colonies that rebelled in the American War of Independence . In this state a third of all the battles of the war took place.
After the war, New York became the 11th state to join the Union, on July 26 , 1788 . It became the most populous in the country around 1810 , although it was surpassed by California in the 1960s , by Texas in the 1990s, and by Florida in the 2010s .
European exploration and colonization
The region where New York State is located today was inhabited by two groups of Native Americans long before the arrival of the first Europeans to the region. These groups were the Iroquois and the Algonquians , who were rivals to each other. The Iroquois were more socially organized than the Algonquins, and had a notable political and social hierarchy, in addition to being more advanced militarily.
The first European to explore the region where the state of New York is currently located was the Italian explorer and navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano , who explored on behalf of the French court, and named the region New Angoulême ( Nouvelle Angoulême , in French), in honor of King Francis I of France . It reached the Hudson River around 1524 .
In 1609, the Englishman Henry Hudson , exploring on behalf of the Netherlands , sailed up the Hudson River, officially annexing the region to the Dutch. That region would become known as the New Netherlands . The Dutch founded various trading posts in the region, and established trade relations with the indigenous Iroquois. In 1621 , a group of Dutch merchants created a company, the Netherlands West Indies Company . In 1624, the Dutch government gave the Dutch West Indies Company all rights to trade with the New Netherlands for 24 years. That same year, a first batch of settlers, about 30 families, was sent to the region, where they would found Fort Orange - which is the current capital of New York, Albany .
In 1625 , the Dutch founded a village, and began the construction of a fort, both on the island of Manhattan . Both were called New Amsterdam , the town being the capital of the colony. The town of New Amsterdam would develop into what is now New York City. In 1626 , the governor of the New Netherlands at the time, Peter Minuit , bought the entire island of Manhattan from the indigenous people who lived in the region by exchanging goods worth a total of about $ 24. During the following years, the Dutch founded various settlements and towns in the region of present-day New York State.
In 1629 , the Dutch West Indies Company accelerated the process of colonization of the New Netherlands. He implemented a latifundia system , by offering large tracts of land to the members of the Company, who would only continue to own their lands if they managed to colonize their plots with a certain number of settlers. Most failed to meet this goal, but one settler, Kiliaen van Rensselaer , achieved great success, colonizing the areas where Albany , Columbia, and Rensselaer counties are now located . [ 2 ]Thanks to Rensselaer's success, this system, in which few landowners controlled large estates, and rented smaller plots of land to farmers, who were obliged to cede a given percentage of their crops to landowners, persisted until the 1840s. , when a series of riots put an end to this system.
During the 1640s and 1650s , numerous English settlers from the English colony of Connecticut settled on Long Island , part of present-day New York State. At first, relations between the English and Dutch settlers were friendly. However, these were rapidly deteriorating in the late 1650s. King Charles II of England decided to conquer the New Netherlands, sending a naval fleet in 1664 , which dropped anchor in the capital of the Dutch colony, New Amsterdam. The then governor of the New Netherlands, Peter Stuyvesant , decided to surrender without resistance.
The "New Netherlands" were renamed "New York" by the English, in homage to the Duke of York . The name of the town of "New Amsterdam", meanwhile, would also be changed to "New York." The French settled in New France , which now comprises eastern Canada, began to take an interest in the northern part of the English colony of New York around 1680 . The French explorer René Robert Cavelier de La Salle would explore upstate New York in 1669 . In 1731 , the French built a fort at Crown Point on Lake Champlain, and claimed upstate New York. In 1689 , war broke out between England and France, and immediately New York became the scene of numerous confrontations between the English and the French. These battles, which would be known globally as the Franco-Indian Wars , took place between 1689 and 1763 . The English, clearly outnumbered, and with the support of the native Algonquians , finally defeated the French, and captured New France in 1763 .
British control of the North American colonies was a source of discontent among the population of New York State. In the 1730s , journalist John Peter Zenger harshly criticized the British government, and was imprisoned for it. However, the jury, in 1735 , found Zenger innocent, claiming freedom of the press , which was a great victory for the American press.
The inhabitants of the state also did not feel comfortable with the taxes imposed on products made in the colonies or with the authority of the English judges, and New York was one of the Thirteen British Colonies that rebelled against the United Kingdom in the War of Independence. of the United States . During that war, about 30,000 people loyal to England left the colony. New York was the scene of several important battles, such as the Battle of Saratoga , although the city of the same name was captured immediately, at the beginning of the war, by the British, who left the city only after the end of it.
The 9 of July of 1776 , the New York Provincial Congress met in White Plains , definitely approving the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America, adopted by the Continental Congress five days earlier, on July 4 . New York ratified the Articles of Confederation on February 6 , 1778 .
The end of the Revolutionary War made it possible to develop the lands that now make up western New York State, which until then were not part of any of the former Thirteen Colonies . New York and Massachusetts claimed the region. By the Treaty of Hartford , in 1786 , New York would be entitled to sovereignty over the land, while Massachusetts would have the right to acquire land in the region of Native Americans. Various groups tried to skip the treaty, without success. A 999-year lease, signed in 1787 , was quickly annulled by the New York and Massachusetts legislatures.
The 1 of April of 1788 , the region was sold to Nathaniel Gorham and Oliver Phelps , Massachusetts, for a million dollars, to be paid in three annual tranches. Gorham and Phelps, however, only acquired the property rights after purchasing these lands from the Native Americans who inhabited the region, and immediately opened negotiations with the Native Americans in the region, thus having acquired the lands east of the Genessee River from natives through the Buffalo Creek Treaty, on July 8 of that same year. Gorham and Phelps however, quickly ran into financial difficulties, agreeing to cede the lands west of the Genessee River to Massachusetts in 1790 . The December as March as 1791 , Massachusetts sold all these lands to Robert Morris , who, in turn, immediately sold to the Holland Land Company . By the Treaty of Big Tree , signed in September 1797 , Morris purchased the lands west of Genessee from Native Americans. In 1802 , the Holland Land Company opened a sales office in Batavia, and began the sale of the lands of the region to third parties. The office still exists today, converted into a museum .
Meanwhile, during the planning process of the federal government system, New York opposed the installation of a centralized government. After intense discussions between New York and other US states (or future states) on issues related to the US government, New York agreed to ratify the Constitution of the United States of America on July 26 , 1788 , becoming the 11th. State to join the Union. New York City was temporarily the capital of the country, from 1785 to 1790 , which was when the national capital was permanently changed to Washington, D.C. In New York City,George Washington was sworn in as the first president of the United States .
New York grew rapidly after independence from the United States, and by 1810 , it was the most populous state in the country, with a population of 959,000. However, the War of 1812 temporarily interrupted this growing season. British troops invaded the United States, departing from Canada , and some minor battles took place in the state. However, New York continued to prosper economically after the war. Many people came from other regions of the country, as well as immigrants from Canada, and many of them settled in the interior of the state. Thus, around 1820, New York already had 1,380,000 residents, of which about 500,000 lived in the far west of the state, a previously unpopulated border region. After the end of the war, many people from other parts of the state or the country moved to the border regions, which were still depopulated or sparsely inhabited.
The construction of the Erie Canal made the State a great transportation hub, making New York City the largest port hub in America, surpassing Boston and Montreal . Not only did the canal provide access to the interior of the state, it also provided a shortcut between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes , connecting Lake Erie with New York Bay . Around 1850 , New York was firmly known in the country as the Empire State Building , and it was the largest commercial, industrial, and population center in the United States.
In 1839 , a great popular movement began against the latifundia and land rental system. This system caused the indebtedness of many peasants who cultivated the lands of the latifundistas, since the percentages of the harvest that the former had to deliver to the latter were very high - around 60-70%. During the 1840s , numerous protesters, disguised as Native Americans, attacked these large estates. This movement, in its beginnings, was only a popular manifestation, then it became a great political force in the state, and during the 1840s and 1850s , these large estates began to be fragmented into farms. smaller independent.
In 1861 , the American Civil War broke out . The majority of the state's population was against slavery . Many people, however, were against forced military enlistment, imposed by the American government in 1863 . In July of that same year, there were popular riots for four days in New York City (known as Draft Riots ), causing nearly 500 deaths and more than $ 1.5 million in damage. The mutiny ended with the arrival of American troops, who imposed order in the city.
From the 1860s onward, European immigrants — especially Italians , Germans , Irish, and Poles — began to settle en masse in the state, especially in New York City. Currently, the descendants of Italians are the majority ethnic group in the state.
The 6 of September of 1901 , President William McKinley was assassinated at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo . Theodore Roosevelt , who had already served as governor of New York State in 1899 and 1900 , was the Vice President of McKinley and assumed the presidency of the country.
New York prospered economically with after World War . The factories producing armaments and other military equipment, and the port of New York became an important center for sending US troops to Europe.
New York State was hit hardest by the Great Depression in the 1930s — especially in New York City. The unemployment rate in the cities grew dramatically (30% or more), wages fell, and there was immense price deflation — not counting secondary effects, such as homelessness , resulting from non-payment of rents, for example. In the field, the situation was no better. The farmers had no money and debts were piling up.
The beginning of American participation in World War II ended the negative effects of the Great Depression once and for all, and the state immediately returned to prosper economically. After the end of World War II, the headquarters of the United Nations Organization was built in New York City, and it achieved the status of capital of the world economy , since it previously corresponded to the English city of London . With the end of the war, and the beginning of the Korean War in 1950 , New York became one of the largest producers of war material in the country.
During the late 1950s , New York, in a joint program with the Canadian province of Ontario , began the construction of numerous dams on the St. Lawrence River and the Niagara River . In 1959 , the San Lorenzo Canal was inaugurated , which allowed the safe traffic of ships between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes . During the 1960s , New York's highway system underwent a major expansion, and two new major interstate highways were opened , one linking Pennsylvaniawith Canada , and the other linking Albany with the Canadian province of Quebec .
Around the 1970s , many factories in the state closed, moving to other states like California or Texas , or even other countries where labor was cheaper. This caused a drop in the state's population. Although, on the other hand, new factories, usually high- tech , were installed in New York State in the 1980s , and the state's population grew again, in part thanks to the large immigration of Hispanics and Asians , immigration that continues today.
New York State is bordered to the west by Lake Erie , to the north by Lake Ontario , as well as by the Niagara River and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec , to the east by the US states of Vermont , Massachusetts and Connecticut , to the southeast with the Atlantic Ocean and to the south with New Jersey and Pennsylvania . In addition, it also borders the state of Rhode Island , although only through a water border.
The southern region of New York State - made up of New York City and its suburbs including Long Island and the southern part of the Hudson River Valley - can be considered the central nucleus of a megalopolis , a supercity that extends from Boston to Washington DC , often called BosWash . The state of New York is closely associated with the city of the same name, although this is not its only aspect. The rest of New York State is dominated by farms , forests , rivers , mountains, and lakes.. One of the best known tourist attractions in New York - as well as in the United States - is Niagara Falls , located in the northwest of the state, next to the Canadian border.
To the east of New York City lies an island - appropriately called Long Island ("Long Island") as it is approximately 190 kilometers long - occupied by Nassau and Suffolk counties . The trees have a great importance throughout the history of the state and city of New York, and contributed in a major way to the economy of the state. Today, tall trees can be seen even in the New York metropolitan area. One of them, the Queens Giant , is the tallest and oldest tree in the region.
The New York coastline is about 204 kilometers long. Counting all the regions washed by the sea - bays , estuaries and oceanic islands - this number increases to 2977 kilometers. New York has about 2,000 lakes and ponds , and its forests cover about half the state.
The Hudson River flows south through the eastern part of the state
We can divide New York into eight different geographic regions:
- The Atlantic Coastal Plains are located in the extreme south of the state, on Long Island and on Staten Island . They are located practically at sea level , and are characterized by their flat and not very rugged terrain. The Coastal Plains are the most populated regions of the state. In this region, fishing and agriculture are very important.
- The Hudson-Mohawk Plains are valleys that comprise most of the Hudson River . They are 16 to 50 kilometers wide, providing the only viable means of hydrographic transportation between Appalachians .
- The New England Plateau is a region of ranges and low mountains that stretches across the southeastern part of the state, cut by the final stretch of the Hudson River. New York City is located in this region .
- The Adirondack Mountains are located in the north of the state. Its format is circular, with a diameter of approximately 160 kilometers. They are characterized by their extremely old and erosion resistant soil . Here the highest point of the state is located, Mount Marcy , with its 1629 meters of altitude . Another 40 peaks in the region exceed the 1,200-meter mark.
- The Sierras Tug are an isolated area in the state, a plateau whose terrain is relatively uneven, with an average altitude of 120 to 200 meters above sea level. They are located south of the Adirondack Mountains.
- The Great Lakes Plains are located in the northwest of the state, next to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The famous Niagara Falls are located here . They are characterized by their fertile soil, by their very little uneven terrain and by their low altitudes.
- The Plains of San Lorenzo are located in the north and in the extreme northeast of the state, along the San Lorenzo River . Its valley is about 28 kilometers wide. They are characterized by their very fertile soil, their very uneven terrain and their low altitudes.
- The Appalachian Plateau covers the entire southwestern portion of New York, and is the largest geographic region in the state. Its altitude is medium, and varies between 240 and 650 meters in height. It is characterized by its rocky and rugged terrain. It is the least populated region of the state.
The climate of New York is temperate , although the rigors of the climate vary widely, depending on the region. The average temperature in winter is -10 ° C in the Adirondacks , and 0 ° C in New York City . In summer , the average temperature in the Adirondacks is 19 ° C, and 23 ° C in New York City.
The highest temperature recorded in the state was 42 ° C, in the city of Troy , on July 22 , 1926 . [ 3 ] The lowest recorded temperature, excluding the wind factor , was -52 ° C, at Old Forge , on February 18 , 1979 . [ 3 ]
The hail and frost are common in the state. For about 250 days a year, the Adirondacks are susceptible to frost, while Long Island , for only 100. The state's average annual rainfall rate is 1,470 millimeters.
|New York City|
|Average maximum temperature ( ° C )||4||7||10||15||22||27||30||29||24||18||12||6|| |
|Average minimum temperature ( ° C )||-3||-1||2||7||12||17||20||19||16||10||5||-1|| |
|Precipitation ( mm )||86||84||99||102||112||95||112||104||99||91||127||99|| |
According to the 2010 census data , New York had a population of 19,378,102, making it the fourth largest population of the 50 United States, behind only California , Texas and Florida . [ 4 ] Its population increased by 401,645 (2.1%) compared to the year 2000 .
The demographic increase since 2000 is due to a natural growth of 527,876 people (1,345,482 births minus 817,606 deaths) and a net migration of 334,093 people in the state. The migration external have resulted in a net increase of 667,007 people, whereas the internal migrations produced a net loss of 502 155 people.
New York State is home to one of the most diverse populations in the United States, especially New York City , arguably the most multicultural city in the world. In 2004, 20.4% of New York residents were not born in the United States.
New York is currently experiencing low rates of natural growth. This is mainly due to the large migration of residents of the state to the south and west of the United States, the continued loss of jobs, and the high cost of living in the state. New York recently lost the third most populous state in the country to Florida in the late 2010s .
Most of the population of New York lives within two hours of New York City. According to data from the Bureau of the Census of the 1 of July of 2004 , the city of New York and its six satellites counties belonging to the State of New York ( Suffolk , Nassau , Westchester , Rockland , Putnam and Orange ) have total with a population of 12,626,200 inhabitants, 65.67% of the state's population.
|Graph of demographic evolution of New York between 1790 and|
Races and ethnicities
- Whites: 65.7%.
- Blacks or African Americans: 15.9%.
- Asian: 7.3%
- Native Americans: 0.6%.
- Other races: 7.4%.
- Two or more races: 3.0%.
The population of Latino or Hispanic origin represented in 2010 17.6% of the total population of the state. [ 4 ] This population is the fastest growing, due to the high fertility rate of Latina women residing in the United States, and also due to legal and illegal immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean. [ citation required ]
The four largest ethnic groups in New York are Whites (60.2%), Latinos (16.3%), Blacks (15.5%), and Asians (6.9%).
New York is home to the largest Dominican (concentrated in Upper Manhattan) and Puerto Rican (concentrated in the Bronx ) populations in the country. Brooklyn and the Bronx comprise a large population of African Americans . For its part, Queens has a large population of Latin American origin (with the Ecuadorian community standing out ), as well as the largest Asian-American population in the state.
The 2000 Census provides data such as which ethnic groups are most present in a given county. The Italian - American majority in Long Island and Staten Island , followed by citizens of Irish descent. The latter make up the largest ethnic group in Manhattan , followed by those of Italian descent. Both groups have a large presence in Albany and south-central New York. In contrast, in Buffalo and western New York, the largest group are German-Americans. Finally, the northern tip of the state is dominated by French Canadians. New York State has more Italian-Americans than any other state.
Pyramid of ages
The distribution of population by age in 2000 was: [ 5 ]
- Less than 5 years: 6.5%
- Less than 18 years: 24.7%
- Over 65 years: 12.9%
- Between 19 and 64 years old: 55.9%
Female people make up about 51.8% of New York's population.
|Religion in New York (2019)|
|Catholicism 31% Irreligion 27% Protestantism 26% Judaism 7% Other 7% Islam 2%|
|Catholics||7 268 880|
|Protestants||7 816 000|
|Orthodox Christians||195 400|
|Without religion||3 517 200|
|Other Religions||742 520|
|Protestants (main line)||14,4%||13,4%||-7%|
|Other Protestant affiliations||1,7%||1,6%||-6%|
|Buddhists , Hindus , Sikhs||0,8%||1,7%||+116%|
|NS / NC||2,9%||5,5%||+89%|
New York State is highly urbanized . Of the total population in the 2010 census, 87.87% of the state's population lived in urban areas and 12.13% in rural areas . [ 6 ] 92% of the state's population lives in one of New York's thirteen metropolitan areas . Of these 13 metropolitan areas, three of them have more than a million inhabitants: New York - which is also the largest city in the United States and comprises about two-fifths of the state's population - Buffalo and Rochester. Five cities in the state have more than 100,000 residents: New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse .
The most populated cities in the state are: [ 7 ]
|1||New York||8 175 133|
|7||New Rochelle||77 062|
|8||Mount Vernon||67 292|
|11||White Plains||56 853|
|12||Niagara Falls||50 193|
The New York City dominates the economy of the state. It is the main banking, financial and telecommunications center in the United States, and is also the headquarters of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on Wall Street , Manhattan . The Bureau of Economic Analysis ( Bureau of Economic Analysis , BEA) of the US government estimates the gross domestic product of the state in 2004 to 1,115,783 million dollars . [ 8 ] This places it in third place in the US, behind California and Texas.. If New York were a nation, it would rank as the 13th largest economy in the world, behind South Korea . The state economy increased that same year by 7.3%, slightly faster than the US growth rate (4.5%). In 2005 , it ranked 11th in the US in terms of rapid economic growth. Also in that year, its per capita income was $ 51,507, an 8.9% increase over last year's data, which placed it 5th in the nation (behind Maryland ). , and 8th in the world (behind Ireland ). The main products of New York are milk and its derivatives, cattle(especially beef ), vegetables , nursery products, and apples . On the other hand, among the main industrial activities and products are the press , scientific instruments, electrical equipment, machinery and chemical products .
Many of the world's leading corporations are based in Manhattan or nearby Westchester County . The state also has a thriving industrial sector , where we can cite activities such as the manufacture of garments , furs , rolling parts of the railways and the assembly of buses . Certain industries are also concentrated in the north of the state, such as ceramics , microchips and nanotechnology ( Albany ), and photographic equipment (Rochester).
There is some commercial fishing activity , not too large, that is located along the Atlantic coast of Long Island . The top catches by value are clams , lobsters , squid and flounder . Oysters used to be fished in New York waters as well, although today they only comprise a small part of the total value of all shellfish caught. Perhaps the best known aspect of the fishing industry is the famous Fulton Fish Market in New York City, which distributes not only New York fish, but all kinds of imported seafood from all over the world.
The New York mining sector is concentrated in three areas. The first is located near New York City, specializing in materials of construction for the works of the city, but also includes the mining of emery of Westchester County, one of two places of EE. UU. Where it is extracted this mineral . The second area is located in the Adirondack Mountains, and specializes in talc , industrial garnets, and zinc . It should be noted that these mountains are not part of the Appalachian systemdespite their position, they structurally belong to the mineral-rich Canadian Shield . In the inner southwestern part of the state, in the Allegheny Pleateau , you will find a region of wells . The main and almost the only liquid that is extracted is salt in the form of brine , although there are also small oil reserves .
New York exports a wide variety of goods, such as food products, mineral products, manufactured products, cutting diamonds , and automotive parts . In 2004 , the top 5 markets export of New York were Canada (30,200 million dollars ), the UK (3.3 billion), Japan (2.6 billion), Israel (2400 million) and Switzerland (1800 million). New York's main imports are oil , gold , aluminum, natural gas , electricity , rough diamonds and wood .
Canada has always been an important economic partner for New York. According to 2004 data, 23% of the state's total exports went to Canada. Northern tourism comprises an important part of the state's economy. It is estimated that Canadians spent a total of $ 487 million on their visits to the state in 2004. This figure is expected to rise due to the strength of the Canadian dollar .
New York State is an agricultural leader , ranking in the top five states in the US when it comes to producing agricultural products. These include milk , apples , cherries , cabbages (the state is the largest producer of cabbages in the US), potatoes , onions , maple syrup, and many others. About a quarter of the state is covered by farms , and it produced $ 3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001 . The southern shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix ofsoils and a special microclimate to many crops of apples, cherries, plums , pears and peaches . Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain . The southern shore of Lake Erie and the southern slopes of the Finger Lakes are home to many vineyards . New York is the third largest grape producer in the nation, behind California , and the second largest wine producerby volume. In 2004, the New York wine industry contributed $ 6 billion to the state economy. The state has 120 km² of vineyards and 212 wineries, and produced 200 million bottles of wine in 2004.
New York suffered greatly from the effects of the ice ages that occurred during the Ice Age , resulting in deep, fertile and somewhat rocky soil . The main row crops grown are hay , corn , wheat , oats , barley , and soybeans . Especially in the western part of the state, sweet corn, peas , carrots , zucchini , cucumbers, and other vegetables are grown . The Hudson and Mohawk valleys are known for theirpumpkins and their blueberries . The glaciers also left numerous swampy areas , which have been drained to obtain humus- rich lands that are used to grow onions , potatoes , celery, and other vegetables. Dairy farms are ubiquitous in much of the state. The cheese is a very important product, which often produce the cheese factories of Amish or Mennonites . A wide variety of nectar plants are grown in New York , and it is a major honey- producing state . the beesHoney plants, apart from producing honey, are also used for the pollination of fruits and vegetables. Most commercial beekeepers are transhumant, bringing their hives to the southern states during the winter . Most cities have farmers markets that are stocked by the local farmers themselves.
government and politics
The chief executive officer of New York is the governor . This is chosen by the voters of the state for a term of up to four years, and can stand for reelection as many times as he wants. Three other officers (including the lieutenant governor ) are also elected by the population for a four-year term, and they can also stand for election as many times as they want. The governor is responsible for electing various executive officers, including the Secretary of State and ministers from each of the 20 New York Executive departments.
The Legislative Power of the state is made up of the Senate and the Assembly . The Senate has a total of 63 members, and the Assembly 150. New York is divided into 63 Senate districts and 150 Assembly districts. The electors of each district elect a senator and a member of the Assembly, who will represent that district in the Senate and in the Assembly, respectively. The mandate of the senators and the members of the Assembly is two years. [ 9 ]
In 2002 , nearly 16,892 laws were introduced and discussed in the New York State Legislative system. Of these, only 693 were approved, which represents a percentage of only 4%, the lowest in the country. New York's legal system has the largest number of salaried workers, 3,428, more than any other state in the United States.
The highest court of the New York Judiciary is the Court of Appeals of New York , while the second largest is the Supreme Court of New York. The state is divided into 12 judicial districts. The electoral population of each of these districts elects a number of judges (which varies according to the population of the district in question). These justices are elected to serve on the New York Supreme Court. In total, there are about 315 judges, each elected by the population of their respective districts for a term of up to 14 years. In addition to that, the state has four judicial departments, which are subdivisions of the Supreme Court. Each county also has a regional court.
About 60% of New York government budgets are generated by provincial taxes, with the remainder coming from federally supplied budgets and loans . In 2002 , the government of the state spent 119,199 million dollars , having generated other 104,534 million. The public debt of the state is 89,856 million dollars, the highest in the country. Debt per capita is $ 4,696, provincial taxes per capita is $ 2,261, and government spending per capita is $ 6,230.
The current New York Constitution was adopted in 1864 , while its first constitution was approved and ratified in 1777 . The New York Legislative Branch can propose amendments to the Constitution, and to be approved, they need to obtain 67% of the votes of both houses of the Legislature and then be ratified by at least 51% of the electoral population, in a referendum . Amendments can also be proposed and introduced by constitutional conventions , which need to receive the approval of at least 51% of the votes of both houses of the Legislative Branch and another 51% of the state's electors in a referendum.
Since the approval of the last state constitution, in 1894 , more than 194 amendments have been made to the constitution.
|New York counties|
New York is divided into 62 counties , which include the five counties that make up New York City . With the exception of the latter, all counties in the state are administered through supervisory councils elected by the population of their respective counties. The term of office of these officers varies from county to county. The responsibility of these counties is to administer the regional judicial courts, perform road and highway maintenance , administer state government budgets for social and economic assistance programs, and administer, in smaller cities, infrastructure such asparks , colleges , school districts and basic sanitation systems . These responsibilities do not exist in the five boroughs of New York City.
In contrast to most US states, a town in New York is not a secondary city, but a municipality , which is in turn subdivided into towns ( villages ) and areas not incorporated ( Hamlets ), the latter managed directly by the municipality . New York cities are incorporated areas with a high degree of autonomy and are not part of municipalities ( towns ). There are 62 cities in the state. Most New York cities are run by a mayorand a municipal council, although some employ only an administrator, rather than a mayor. All villas are managed by a mayor and a council of trustees in accordance with the Villa Law, which is uniformly enforced throughout the state. On the other hand, all municipalities are administered by a supervisor and by a Municipality Council. The New York City government has greater powers, due to the city's large population.
New York State has strongly backed Democratic candidates in the presidential elections . Presidential candidate John Kerry won New York State by 18 percentage points in 2004, while Al Gore had an even greater margin of victory in the 2000 election. New York City is one of the leading Democratic centers. (more than 80% of its population is Democrat), with a liberal policy . Many of the state's other urban areas, including Albany , Ithaca , Buffalo , Rochester, and SyracuseThey are also Democrats. However, upstate New York, and especially in rural areas, is generally more conservative than cities and tends to vote Republicans . Areas suburban densely populated, such as Westchester County and Long Island , usually are the ones who decide the outcome of the elections in the state and tend to support statewide Republicans and Democrats at the federal level. This trend appears to be changing in recent elections, as Democrats are gaining more weight at both levels.
All educational institutions in the state of New York must follow the rules and patterns imposed by two institutions: the New York Department of Education and the State University of New York, the latter created by the State Legislature in 1784 . Despite its name, the State University of New York is not an institution of higher education , but a Council composed of 16 regents, professionals chosen by the New York Legislature for a term of up to 5 years, without receiving any type of of wages and economic benefits they have been chosen. This Council exercises great power over any educational institution in the state, as well as the responsibility of distributing thebudgets for the different educational establishments and to administer in a decentralized way diverse faculties and universities . For its part, the powers and responsibilities of this Council are regulated by the New York Department of Education.
In New York, every major city ( city ) and every county has at least one school district. In cities, the responsibility for managing schools rests with the municipal school district, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility falls to the school districts operating in the county. New York allows "charter schools" - independent public schools, which are not run by school districts, but which depend on public budgets for their support. Schooling is compulsory for all children and adolescents over six years of age, until the conclusion of secondary education or up to fifteen years of age.
In 1999 , the state's public schools served about 2,888,000 students , employing approximately 202,100 teachers . For their part, private schools served about 475,900 students, employing approximately 37,200 teachers. The public school system in the state used about 26 885 million dollars , and spending of public schools was approximately $ 10 500 per student. About 84.2% of the state's inhabitants over the age of 25 have a high school diploma to their credit.
The first public library in New York was founded in 1754 in the city of the same name. Currently, no US state has more public libraries than New York. The thousands of libraries in the state are administered by 750 different public library systems, and annually move an average of 7.2 books per inhabitant. Every city, municipality, and county has at least one public library.
New York is one of the main rail and port centers in the United States. Located in the center of the most densely populated region in the nation, New York State is one of the main gateways for the United States to enter and exit other countries.
The Erie Canal was opened in 1825 . It connects the Great Lakes region directly with the Atlantic Ocean , in addition to facilitating access between New York City and the interior of the state, and, thanks to it, the port of New York became the most important on the continent. If it had not been built, probably Montreal ( Quebec , Canada ), then one of the main port centers on the continent, would have become the largest port center on the Atlantic coast of North America. Today, the Erie Canal does not have the same importance as it once was, as it has been overtaken by roadsand railways , although it continues to be a popular shortcut for vessels moving between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes.
New York is one of the largest airport hubs in the country. The John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport serve millions of passengers each year. The Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Buffalo, is another very dynamic international airport. Other major international airports are Albany , Rochester, and Syracuse .
The cities of New York, Albany, Buffalo, and Rochester are major rail and highway hubs. About 40 different rail companies provide freight transportation services, and Amtrak offers rail passenger transportation services between major cities in the state. New York has many bridges, including the Verrazano Narrows Bridge , the longest suspension bridge in the country, with a 1298-meter-long main span, connecting Staten Island with Brooklyn . New York, in 2002 , comprised 5947 kilometers of railroad tracks. In 2003, the state had 182,055 kilometers of roads and highways, of which 2,694 kilometers were part of the federal interstate highway system. New York is the only US state that spends more on public transportation than on public roads ( streets , highways, and highways ).
New York City
The city of New York has the network of transport more complex and extensive in the United States, with a fleet of 12,000 taxis yellow, [ 10 ] a traffic of 120,000 cyclists day, [ 11 ] a very extensive network metro , bus and rail, huge airports, iconic bridges and tunnels, ferry service and even a cable car . About one in three public transportation users in the United States and two-thirds of rail users live in New York and its suburbs.
The first newspaper in the state, the New York Gazette , was first printed in 1775 , by William Bradford . Today, New York is the national leader in the newspaper industry . More than 830 newspapers are published in the state, of which about 75 are daily. Several of the best-known newspapers in the country, and even the world, are printed in New York City. Among them are the New York Times , the New York Post and the Wall Street Journal , which has the largest daily circulation in the country. About 2300 magazines are also published in the state. Among them are the world famous Newsweek , Time Magazine and Reader's Digest . The Associated Press is also based in New York City.
The first radio station in New York State was launched in 1922 , and the first television station, in 1941 , both in New York City. The first transcontinental radio transmission system was established in 1926 , by NBC , in New York City. This city is home to the headquarters of numerous broadcasting companies, such as NBC , ABC , CBS and Fox . Currently, New York has about 381 radio stations, of which 134 are AM and 247 are FM , and 50 are television.
At least five ships of the United States Navy have been named after the state of New York. The October from September of 2004 the construction began of the USS New York (LPD-21) , the sixth ship to be christened in honor of the state. One part of the ship is from the rubble of the World Trade Center .
- Apodo: Empire State
- Tree: sugar maple ( acer saccharum )
- Drink: milk
- Flower: rose
- Fruit: apple
- Insect: ladybug
- Motto: Excelsior (from Latin : «the highest»)
- Mammal: beaver ( beaver canadensis )
- Music: I Love New York ("I Love New York")
- Bird: Sialia sialis
- Fish: brook trout ( salvelinus fontinalis )
- Gemstone: garnet
- Slogan: " I Love New York " ("I love New York")
New York City has numerous professional major league sports teams. The New York Yankees and New York Mets currently play in Major League Baseball , while the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers moved to California in 1958.
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Jets and New York Giants , although both teams play at home at MetLife Stadium , located in New Jersey . The Buffalo Bills do play within New York State.
In soccer, New York City FC and the New York Red Bulls are the teams that represent the city in Major League Soccer . In addition, New York had other legendary soccer teams, now defunct, such as the MetroStars and the New York Cosmos .
In Motorsports, races such as the Watkins Glen 6 Hours endurance race are highlighted as one of the important races in the United States. In NASCAR , on a weekend there are also races at the Watkins Glen circuit , a 200-mile race in the second division, and a 220-mile race in NASCAR's most important category. Both races take place between July and August.
On the other hand, in New York the United States Open , one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments , and the New York Marathon are held . The Barclays is a golf tournament that has been played since 1967, although some editions have been held in New Jersey. The Madison Square Garden has hosted numerous boxing matches, including the first match between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier . The Meadowlands Grand Prix , a CART motorsport race, was held in the 1980s and 1990s .
- United States Census Bureau . "Population distribution results of the 2020 census" . census.gov . Archived from the original on April 26, 2021 . Retrieved April 28, 2021 .
- "Freedoms, granted by the Council of Nineteen of the reputable West India Company to all those who want to establish a colony in New Holland" . World Digital Library . 1630 . Retrieved July 28, 2013 .
- New York Extreme Temperature list - National Climatic Data Center
- United States Census Bureau . "2010 Census Data" (in English) . Retrieved November 4, 2016 .
- New York QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau Archived May 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine .
- United States Census Bureau (February 9, 2015). "Lists of Population, Land Area, and Urban and Rural Percent in 2010 and Changes from 2000 to 2010" (in English) . Retrieved November 5, 2016 .
- United States Census Bureau (June 2012). "New York: 2010 Population and Housing Unit Counts - 2010 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF ) . Retrieved November 5, 2016 .
- "Gross State Product (GSP) - Bureau of Economic Analysis" . Archived from the original on May 13, 2008 . Retrieved September 26, 2006 .
- New York State Senate. "About The New York State Senate" (in English) . Retrieved November 6, 2016 .
- About TLC. New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.
- Schaller, Bruce (2006-06). Biking It. Gotham Gazette.
- New York State Information
- New York State Department of Environmental Conservation: Symbols of New York State
- Klein, Milton M. The Empire State: A History of New York. Cornell University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8014-3866-7