Oldenburgisches Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 19 - Oldenburgisches Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 19

Uniform of the Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19 around 1912
Dragoons of the regiment, 1899. The lance flag in the Oldenburg colors of blue-red. Drawing by Richard Knötel the Elder.

The Oldenburg Dragoons. 19 was a 1849 capped Oldenburg shear Cavalry Association , who from 1867 to 1919 as a contingent in the Prussian Army was set. It is not to be confused with the Grand Ducal Oldenburg Land Dragon Corps , of which a brigade (gendarmerie) was also stationed in Osternburg .

history

Former casino of the Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19, currently the Jochen Klepper House of the Oldenburg-Osternburg parish

On April 26, 1849 (foundation day of the regiment), Grand Duke Paul Friedrich August von Oldenburg issued the order to set up a cavalry regiment of four squadrons , which was named Grand Ducal Oldenburg Cavalry Regiment . In fact, the association only had three squadrons for cost reasons. The first 200 recruits were on 1/2. Discontinued May 1849. The regiment belonged as part of the Oldenburg contingent to III. Oldenburg and the Hanseatic Brigade of the 2nd Division of the Xth Army Corps of Armed Forces and was in Oldenburg stationed.

Easter castle KavKas

Since no suitable property was initially available, the regiment had to be housed in an infantry barracks . During this time, the horses were placed in private stables in front of the Heiligengeisttor in Oldenburg. The regiment was only able to move into the new cavalry barracks in Easter castle on May 1, 1859 . It was housed here until it was dissolved in 1919.

The accommodation, later known as the Dragoons barracks, continued to be used by the Reichswehr , the Wehrmacht (Artillery Regiment 58) and, from 1964, by the Bundeswehr and was demolished on June 23, 1980. In their place, a building for the Bundeswehr administration was erected by September 1986, which housed the District Armed Forces Replacement Office Oldenburg until 2012 . Currently (2014) the building houses the Bundeswehr catering office and the Bundeswehr service center in Oldenburg.

After the German War, the regiment was transferred to the Prussian Army as a result of the military convention of July 15, 1867, and from October 1, 1867 it was called the Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19 .

The regiment chief was the ruling Grand Duke of Oldenburg.

German war

During the German War , the regiment was assigned as part of the X. Army Corps of the Armed Forces of the Prussian Main Army under Lieutenant General Edwin von Manteuffel and performed reconnaissance and patrol services here. On July 24th it was at Werbach and Tauberbischofsheim as well as on July 27th 1866 at the bombardment of Würzburg .

The regiment returned on September 22, 1866 together with the other units of the Oldenburg contingent via Tweelbäke and Easter castle and to Oldenburg, where a crowd of several thousand received the contingent. At the beginning of the campaign, the officers were equipped with revolvers .

Franco-German War

The mobilization took place on July 20, 1870. A train was immediately transported by rail to Schillig near Wilhelmshaven , because a French landing was expected there from the seaside. After a few days the train was ordered back. On July 29th, the entire regiment left Oldenburg in three trains.

  • 0 August 6, 1870 - Reserve cavalry without combat deployment in the Battle of the Spichern Heights
  • August 16, 1870 - Attack in the cavalry battle near Mars la Tour
  • 18. August 1870 – Gravelotte–St. Privat
  • September 19 to October 1, 1870 - Paris encircled
  • October 10, 1870 - Cherisy
  • 11. November 1870 – Berchères (1. Eskadron)
  • December 17, 1870 - Droué (4th Squadron)

After the armistice, the regiment remained with the occupying army in France and returned to the peace garrison in Oldenburg on August 13, 1873.

The losses were:

  • Fallen: four officers, 26 men,
  • Wounded: five officers, 108 men,
  • Prisoners: 17 men.

First World War

At the beginning of the First World War , the regiment mobilized on August 2, 1914, marched west and took part in the advance to the Marne in the same month .

  • September 1914 - retreat beyond the Aisne , extension of the right wing of the front ( race to sea )
  • November 1914 - Relocation to the Eastern Front , partly infantry, partly cavalry use
  • November / December 1914 - fighting near Lodz , the Vistula and the Narew
  • September 1915 - fighting near Vilna
  • February to July 1916 - fighting on Lake Narocz and in Volhynia
  • April 1917 - Fighting on the Styr - Stochod
  • May 27, 1917 - The 4th Squadron becomes divisional cavalry in the 95th Division and remains in Ukraine after the end of the war until 1919 . She arrives back in Oldenburg on January 26, 1919.

The rest of the regiment was transferred to the western front and used here in the police and patrol service in the rear areas until the end of the war. The MG squadron had been handed over to the combat troops.

According to a note in the Oldenburgische Volkszeitung on October 2, 1919, the losses amounted to:

  • Officers: 6 (out of 54 = 11.0%)
  • Reserve officers: 8 (of 43 = 19.0%)
  • Teams: 101 (out of 1403 = 7.0%).

Whereabouts

After the armistice of Compiègne , the regiment vacated the occupied territory by November 14, 1918 and began the march back home. It arrived in Oldenburg on December 28, 1918.

To protect the city and state of Oldenburg in the event of unrest, the younger dragoons who had not yet been released were held back. The Freikorps Freiwilligen Verband Dragoon 19 was founded on March 6, 1919 from the remains of the regiment . It had the strength of a squadron and carried out patrol and security services in Emden , Braunschweig and the Ruhr area . The Freikorps was later attached to the Reichswehr Infantry Regiment 110 , but was transferred to the 10th Cavalry Regiment in Lüneburg on October 1, 1919 . The squadron remained stationed in Oldenburg.

Monument to the Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19

After the suppression of unrest in Westphalia , the Oldenburg riders were incorporated into the newly established 15th (Prussian) rider regiment in Paderborn . The tradition took over in the Reichswehr by decree of the Chief of the Army Command General of the Infantry Hans von Seeckt from August 24, 1921 the training squadron in Paderborn. In the summer of 1937, the 13th and 14th companies of Infantry Regiment 16 in Oldenburg were responsible for maintaining tradition . The regiment's traditional clubs had informal relationships with the 13th MW even beforehand-Company of Infantry Regiment 16, which was housed in the Dragoons barracks.

Commanders

Rank Name[1] date
Major August Nolbeck 0 May 2, 1849 to July 17, 1850
Major Julius von Egloffstein August 28 to November 19, 1850 (in charge of the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant Julius von Egloffstein November 20, 1850 to August 6, 1857
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Otto August Hermann Beseke August 20, 1857 to April 2, 1867
Major Hieronymus Schotten 0 April 3 to September 24, 1867
Major Ernst von Trotha September 25 to December 9, 1867 (entrusted with the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Ernst von Trotha December 10, 1867 to October 15, 1873
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Oswald Fedor Hugo von Grodzki October 16, 1873 to July 12, 1878
Major Karl Wilhelm Heinrich von Kleist July 13 to October 11, 1878 (entrusted with the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Karl Wilhelm Heinrich von Kleist October 11, 1878 to May 12, 1886
Major Alexander von Engel May 13 to June 11, 1886 (in charge of the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Alexander von Engel June 12, 1886 to November 17, 1890
Lieutenant colonel Leonhard von und zu Egloffstein November 18, 1890 to April 8, 1891
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Friedrich August von Oldenburg 0 April 9, 1891 to August 5, 1892
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Eric von Witzleben 0 August 6, 1892 to June 16, 1897
Major/Oberstleutnant Ludwig Edgar von Salis-Soglio August 18, 1897 to January 20, 1899
Major Friedrich Hugo von Loos February 16, 1899 (in charge of the tour)
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Otto von Hoffmann April 22, 1902 to October 1, 1906
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Kurt Koscielski from Ponoschau 0 October 1, 1906 to November 13, 1911
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Otto von Preinitzer November 13, 1911 to August 28, 1916
Lieutenant colonel Bernhard von Goßler August 28, 1916 until the end of the war

Uniform

As an Oldenburg regiment until 1867

The regiment's first uniform, which was heavily modified at the end of 1850, consisted of a metal-colored steel helmet with an octagonal brass star on which the Oldenburg state coat of arms was embossed in silver. The tunic was black or black-green (so-called Russian green) with a light blue collar and armpit flaps as well as white piping and buttons. He also had light blue lancet covers. The leather gear was white, the breeches gray with blue piping. The coat was also gray. A so-called service jacket, which was also black, was worn in small service. The piping of the tunic was changed from white to light blue in 1849.

The armament consisted of a saber based on the Dutch model and piston pistols .

At the end of 1850, the black tunic was replaced by a light blue one with a black collar and armpit flaps. He had Swedish premiums. The work jacket was replaced by a blue (presumably blue and white) striped drill jacket . The officers also received a light blue interim skirt with a black velvet collar and lancet lapels as well as black lacing. In fact, the skirt resembled a hussar attila. It was only allowed to be worn with a cap on small duty.

On July 9, 1864, as in the infantry regiment, the so-called Russian cap was introduced instead of the helmet. It was light blue and had a black leather umbrella and a white storm chain. The hats did not prove themselves, however, because they did not provide sufficient protection from the weather and cutting weapons. Nevertheless, they seem to have been part of the kit until the introduction of the Prussian dragoon uniform.

As a Prussian regiment from 1867

Until the introduction of the dragoon uniform, the old uniform parts were applied. This transition period was apparently at least two years.

The dragoons wore a cornflower blue tunic and anthracite trousers. The tunic was equipped with Swedish lapels. There was a red A with a crown on the white shoulder pieces of the men and officers, while these badges were made in tombak on the epaulettes .

The so-called badge color of the regiment was black. The cuffs , the stand-up collar, the epaulette fields and passers-by were of this color . The piping of the collar was ponceau red. The buttons and fittings were made of nickel silver. A white bandolier with a black cartridge ran from the left shoulder to the right hip . The helmet was decorated with the Prussian dragoon eagle, on which a guard star made of tombak with the Oldenburg coat of arms was placed. The national cockade was blue with a red cross, the lance flag of the teams was red and blue.

Already ordered by AKO on February 14, 1907 and gradually introduced from 1909/10, the colorful uniform was replaced for the first time by the field-gray field service uniform (M 1910) on the occasion of the imperial maneuver in 1913. The leather gear and the boots were natural brown, the helmet was covered by a fabric cover called reed-colored. The bandolier and the cartridge were no longer attached to this uniform.

Culture of remembrance

Memorial of the regiment for the fallen of the Franco-Prussian War, at the same time for the fallen of the community of Osternburg and the farming community of Tweelbäke Wunderburgstrasse
Sculpture by Richard Hess "Fragment of an equestrian monument", 1990, on the site of the former Dragoon barracks in OL-Osternburg, Bremer Str. [2]

There are two memorials for the fallen of the regiment. The memorial to commemorate the Franco-Prussian War, created around 1875, was located on Bremer Straße / confluence with Ulmenstraße until 1960 and was then moved to its current location in Wunderburg Park.

The memorial to those who fell in World War I was inaugurated in 1921. It is located on a plot of land belonging to the Evangelical Church Community of Osternburg on Cloppenburger Strasse / Bremer Strasse.

In 1990 the sculpture "Fragment of an equestrian monument" by Richard Hess was erected on the site , presumably to commemorate the former dragoon regiment. There is no reference to the sculpture's name, date of installation or the artist. It is made of bronze and stands on a concrete base with Bockhorn clinker bricks.

literature

  • Ludwig von Weltzien : Military studies from Oldenburg's prehistory and history of the Oldenburg contingent. Oldenburg 1858.
  • Georg Friedrich Max Gottlieb Eduard Schweppe: History of the Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment Number 19, former Grand Ducal Oldenburg Cavalry Regiment. Berlin 1878.
  • Georg Friedrich Max Gottlieb Eduard Schweppe (until 1878), Freiherr von und zu Egloffstein (continued): History of Oldenburg. Dragoon Regiment No. 19 former Grand Ducal Oldenburg Cavalry Regiment . Stalling, Oldenburg 1899, urn : nbn: de: gbv: 45: 1-4590 .
  • August Tecklenburg: The Hanoverians, Brunswick and Oldenburg in the war against France 1870-71. A war and honor book of the X Army Corps and a people's book for Lower Saxony and East Frisia. Hanover 1908.
  • War losses of the Oldenburg regiments. in: Oldenburgische Volkszeitung. of October 2, 1919, p. 3.
  • Hugo FW Schulz: The Prussian Cavalry Regiments 1913/1914. Weltbild Verlag 1992.
  • Jürgen Kraus : The German Army in the First World War. Uniforms and equipment. Militaria Publishing House, Vienna 2004.
  • Udo Elerd (ed.): From the vigilante to the armed forces . On the history of the garrison and the military in the city of Oldenburg. With contributions by Cord Eberspächer, Udo Elerd, Herbert Hedderich, Jürgen Steenken, Joachim Tautz, Gerhard Wiechmann, Oldenburg 2006.
  • Franz Döring von Gottberg: The Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19 in the World War. With an appendix The Reserve Dragoon Regiment No. 6. Stalling, Oldenburg 1937. (Revised and expanded on the basis of the history of the regiment published in 1922 by Rittmeister a. D. von der Wense). Digital full text from the Württemberg State Library
  • Adolf von der Wense: The Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19 in the Great War 1914-1918 . Stalling, Oldenburg 1922. (Volume 57 of the series “Former Prussian Troop Units ” in the memorial sheets of German regiments , available digitally: urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-201304288286 )
  • Frank Langer: The uniforms and equipment of the Oldenburg troop corps 1813-1867. Schortens 2009.
  • Robert Thoms, Stefan Pochanke: Handbook on the history of the German free corps . o. O. (Bad Soden-Salmünster, MTV-Verlag GmbH) 2001, ISBN 3-934507-03-4 , p. 118.
  • N / A : 90th anniversary of the founding of the former Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19 1849-1939. Verlag Gerhard Stalling , Oldenburg without year (1939).
  • Matthias Schachtschneider: Easter Castle. A place with many faces. 2nd edition Oldenburg (Isensee) 2001. ISBN 3-89598-655-0 .
  • City of Oldenburg (ed.): Oldenburg 1914-1918. A source volume on the everyday, social, military and mental history of the city of Oldenburg during the First World War. (Publications of the Oldenburg City Archives, Vol. 7), Oldenburg (Isensee) 2014. ISBN 978-3-7308-1080-4 .
  • Burkhard Koop: The activities of the brigades, regiments, battalions, batteries, departments and ammunition columns set up in Oldenburg in the World War 1914-1918. Oldenburg (self-published) 2014.
  • Heinz Arndt: Riders had their home here. 35 years ago, 120-year-old barracks were demolished. in: Nordwest-Zeitung . of January 29, 2015, p. 39.

The archival records are in the Lower Saxony State Archives in Oldenburg , holdings exp 150 (old holdings 276-3).

See also

Weblinks

Individual evidence

  1. Adolf vd Wense: . The Oldenburg Dragoons 19 in the Great War 1914-1918. Verlag Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1922, p. 155.
  2. ^ Meinhard Tebben: Sculptures and sculptures in Oldenburg . BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg 2001, ISBN 3-8142-0771-8 . Pp. 88–89 ( online )