Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91 - Oldenburgisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 91
Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91
|active||December 24, 1813  to June 1919|
|State|| Grand Duchy of Oldenburg / |
|Armed forces||Prussian Army|
|Branch of service||Infantry|
The Oldenburg Infantry Regiment. 91 of the Prussian army was the infantry joined the troops of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg in the German army . It emerged from the Grand Ducal Oldenburg Infantry Regiment in 1867 as a result of a military convention with Prussia .
Because it was part of Denmark, Oldenburg had no military of its own for a long time. After the change of rule, there was only a small ducal " infantry corps" with purely representative tasks from 1775 . Late 18th century was it named after its commander Captain of Knobel Knobel Guard for only about 50 men. When Oldenburg joined the Rheinbund in 1808, it had to set up a "Rheinbund contingent force", which essentially consisted of mercenaries recruited from abroad. After the annexation of Oldenburg by the French Empire , this troop was incorporated into the Imperial French 129th Line Infantry Regiment and in theRussian campaign worn out.
After the liberation from Napoleonic rule, the duchy was reconstituted. The returned Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig introduced general conscription on Christmas Day 1813 and set up an infantry corps of two battalions of four companies each .
Both the equipment and the training of the "Oldenburg Infantry" was slow at first. In August 1814, the troops were placed under the command of Colonel Wilhelm Gustav Friedrich Wardenburg from Oldenburg, who had gained military experience in the Russian-German Legion during the Wars of Liberation . The troops, now called regiments, were initially equipped with the outdated English India Pattern rifle. From the fighting in France in 1815, the regiment brought four booty guns back to Oldenburg. After their return, the first battalion received its garrison in Oldenburg. The companiesof the second battalion were distributed to the cities of Delmenhorst , Jever , Varel and Vechta .
In 1821 the regiment became a contingent force of the German Confederation , to which Oldenburg, which had been elevated to the status of a Grand Duchy, now belonged. Together with the Oldenburg Artillery , founded in 1820 , the regiment formed the Oldenburg Half-Brigade within the X. Army Corps of the Federal Army , which was formed from the contingents of the northern German states . The other half-brigade was the Hanseatic Half-Brigade from the contingents of the imperial cities of Bremen , Hamburg and Lübeck .
In 1829/30 the regiment with its 4 battalions was reclassified into two regiments with two battalions each. Furthermore, in 1830 the regiment were new flintlock guns in Württembergischen gun factory procured. In 1840 the regiment introduced the so-called “Virchow baggage”, a modern march and storm baggage, and was thus ahead of the Prussian army.  By purchasing 4400 new percussion rifles from Crause in Hamburg, the armament was modernized again in 1841.
After the war for Schleswig-Holstein in 1848/49, the two Oldenburg regiments were reunited in 1850 to form one Oldenburg infantry regiment , which now comprised three battalions with four companies each.
Under the 1860 appointed to the commander ends and before Prussian from the service adopted Maj of Fransecky the regiment in a short time has been upgraded technically arms 1861 with the needle gun M / 41 and 1864 with the Füsiliergewehr M / 62nd
In the course of Oldenburg's accession to the North German Confederation, a military convention of July 15, 1867 regulated the takeover of the Oldenburg armed forces into the Prussian army .  On October 1, 1867, the regiment, reshaped and equipped according to the Prussian model and again equipped with the M / 41 needle rifle, was named Oldenburg Infantry Regiment 91 .  The correspondingly redesigned cavalry was called the Oldenburg Dragoon Regiment No. 19 . The capital Oldenburg in Oldenburg remained their garrison and their regiment chief was always the Grand Duke. The regiments formed parts of the19th Division in the X Army Corps .
In 1883, as part of a Prussian army reform, an IV (half) battalion was set up, but it was surrendered again in 1887 to set up Infantry Regiment No. 164 in Hameln.
The equipment with weapons changed several times until 1905 the carbine 98k was introduced.
Wars of Liberation
The regiment was no longer ready in time for the liberation struggles of 1814.
After Napoleon's return from exile, the Oldenburg Regiment marched to Trier in 1815 and joined the North German Army Corps under General Friedrich von Kleist . The first combat mission took place in the enclosure of Mézières near Sedan and Montmédy . Two guns were captured.
War for Schleswig-Holstein
In the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1848/49, the 1st regiment and the 2nd battalion of the 2nd regiment took part in the battles of Sundewitt , Rübel and Stenderup.
During the German War in 1866 the regiment fought within the Oldenburg-Hanseatic Brigade as part of the Main Army near Hochhausen and Werbach, among others against the 1st Baden Leib Grenadier Regiment .
In the war of 1870/71 the regiment belonged to the 19th Division of the 3rd Army under Prince Friedrich Karl . In the so-called battle in the Tronville bushes near Vionville , the regiment suffered considerable losses and had to withdraw.
During the siege of Metz it was used again and then took part in several skirmishes. The regiment remained in France as an occupying force until 1873.
First World War
At the beginning of the First World War , the regiment mobilized on August 2, 1914 and was deployed on both the Western and Eastern Fronts during the war . The association fought in conjunction with the 37th Infantry Brigade until the beginning of July 1916, then joined the 38th Infantry Brigade by the end of the month and then returned to the 37th Infantry Brigade of the 19th Infantry Division .
|Officers:||NCOs and men:|
|Until:||107 (128)||3767 (4236)|
According to a report by the Oldenburgische Volkszeitung , 20,989 men and officers (20,576 men, 309 reserve officers and 104 officers) served in the regiment during the war.
After the armistice at Compiègne, the regiment returned to Oldenburg via Easter Castle on December 28, 1918 , and was demobilized there . Most of the members of the left bank of the Rhine were released on November 30th while crossing the Rhine , those born between 1896 and 1899 on December 19th.
Presumably in March 1919, the "Freikorps Oldenburg" was formed from the remnants of the regiment and the remaining personnel of IR 78 in Osnabrück . Nothing is known about the volunteer corps operations , not even when it was disbanded.  The 91er regiment was disbanded on September 30, 1919. Major Oskar Wantke (1872–1940) was the head of the resolution commission .
From the resolution commission of the 91er on October 14, 1919, under Wantke's leadership, the security police of the Free State of Oldenburg were set up, which were renamed the Oldenburg Order Police as early as 1920 . The vast majority of Orpo officers such as Moritz von Drebber came from the 91st regiment. The Orpo also resided in the former 91 barracks on the horse market , later the police office, today the Oldenburg State Library .
The tradition took over in the Reichswehr by decree of the Chief of the Army Command, General of the Infantry Hans von Seeckt , of August 24, 1921, the 10th Company of the 16th Infantry Regiment in Oldenburg. In the Wehrmacht , the 16th Infantry Regiment continued the tradition.
King Wilhelm I appointed Grand Duke Peter II as head of the regiment on October 1, 1867 . After his death, Kaiser Wilhelm II transferred this dignity to Grand Duke Friedrich August on June 23, 1900 . 
|Oberst||Peter Lehmann||September 25, 1867 to July 17, 1870|
|Oberst||Alexander von Kameke||July 18 to August 16, 1870|
|Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel||Wolfgang von Hagen||August 23, 1870 to July 5, 1875|
|Lieutenant colonel||Wilhelm von Lüderitz||July 6, 1875 to January 3, 1876 (in charge of the tour)|
|Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel||Wilhelm von Lüderitz||January 4, 1876 to February 10, 1879|
|Oberst||Ludwig von Sobbe||February 11, 1879 to January 23, 1882|
|Oberst||Rudolf Kurt von Hertzberg||January 24, 1882 to July 13, 1885|
|Lieutenant colonel||Eugen von Vahlkampf||July 14th to December 2nd, 1885 (in charge of the tour)|
|Oberst||Eugen von Vahlkampf||December 3, 1885 to February 15, 1889|
|Oberst||Oskar von Lettow-Vorbeck||February 16, 1889 to March 23, 1890|
|Oberst||Arthur von Wangenheim||March 24, 1890 to June 16, 1893|
|Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel||Paul von Hindenburg||June 17, 1893 to August 13, 1896|
|Oberst||Max von Kleist||August 14, 1896 to June 15, 1899|
|Oberst||Hermann von Stenglin||June 16, 1899 to April 21, 1902|
|Oberst||Hans von Eckenbrecher||April 22, 1902 to April 9, 1906|
|Oberst||Wilhelm von der Lippe||April 10, 1906 to August 30, 1909|
|Oberst||Karl von Beck||August 31, 1909 to March 21, 1913|
|Oberst||Ferdinand von Stockhausen||March 22, 1913 to September 23, 1914|
|Lieutenant colonel||Paul Grautoff||September 24, 1914 to January 25, 1915|
|Oberst||Georg von Rode||January 26 to February 25, 1915|
|Major/Oberstleutnant||Ernst von Hohnhorst||February 26, 1915 to January 17, 1919|
|Oberst||Leopold von Ledebur||January 26 to May 21, 1919|
Culture of remembrance
In 1921 Hugo Lederer created the 91 memorial based on the model of the lion of Chaironeia . It was inaugurated on September 18, 1921 in the presence of General Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg in front of the castle guard on Schlossplatz in Oldenburg for those who died in the First World War. In 1960 it was moved to its current location on Theodor-Tantzen-Platz.
Today 91er Straße in Oldenburg is named after the regiment.
- East Frisian Field Artillery Regiment No. 62
- Oldenburgisches Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 19
- 16th Infantry Regiment (Reichswehr)
- Otto von Rohr, Günther von Puttkamer: History of the Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91 edited for the crews of the regiment, completed up to modern times by v. Puttkamer. Oldenburg 1899.
- Heinrich Eulen: Where did the Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91 fight in the World War 1914–1918? A graphic representation of the regiment's entire marching routes and combat ports. Oldenburg 1921.
- Untitled: Memories of the Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91 from World War 1914/18, along with a brief history of the regiment from 1813–1914. In the appendix an overview of the battles, losses and the subordination of the OIR 91. Oldenburg i. O. 1921.
- Heinrich Harms: The history of the Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91. Oldenburg i. O./Berlin 1930. Digital full text from the Württemberg State Library
- 125 years of the Oldenburg Infantry. 1813-1938. Edited by the Regimentsbund former 91er and the IR 16, Oldenburg 1938.
- Georg Tessin : German associations and troops 1918-1939. Old army, volunteer associations, Reichswehr, army, air force, state police. Edited on the basis of the documents of the Federal Archives-Military Archives. Edited with the support of the Federal Archives and the Working Group for Defense Research, Osnabrück (Biblio-Verlag) 1974. ISBN 3-7648-1000-9
- Wilhelm Gilly de Montaut: Fortress and garrison Oldenburg. Oldenburg 1981. ISBN 3-87358-132-9 .
- N / A : 175 years of the Oldenburg Infantry 1813–1988. Oldenburg 1988.
- Gerhard Wiechmann (Ed.): "You can say that war is a life-threatening sport". Oldenburg teachers and seminarians experience the World War 1914–1918. Documentation, created on the basis of the collection of the director of the Oldenburg teachers' seminar, Dr. Emil Künoldt (1850–1920) , Oldenburg 2002 , ISBN 3-8142-0815-3 online version
- Joachim Tautz: From the “Knobel Guard” to the First World War. Insights into the garrison history of the city of Oldenburg 1775–1918. in: Udo Elerd (Ed.): From the vigilante to the armed forces . On the history of the garrison and the military in the city of Oldenburg. Oldenburg 2006. pp. 27-42. ISBN 3-89995-353-3 .
- Gerhard Wiechmann: War, crises, revolutions: military, police and resident services in Oldenburg 1914 to 1935. An overview. in: Udo Elerd: Bürgerwehr. Pp. 65-92.
- Frank Langer: The uniforms and equipment of the Oldenburg troop corps 1813-1867. Schortens 2009.
- City of Oldenburg (ed.): Oldenburg 1914–1918. A source volume on the everyday, social, military and mental history of the city of Oldenburg during the First World War. (Publications of the Oldenburg City Archives, Vol. 7), Oldenburg (Isensee) 2014. ISBN 978-3-7308-1080-4 .
- War losses of the Oldenburg regiments. In: Oldenburgische Volkszeitung. Edition of October 2, 1919, p. 3.
- Burkhard Koop: The activities of the brigades, regiments, battalions, batteries, departments and ammunition columns set up in Oldenburg in the World War 1914–1918. Oldenburg (self-published) 2014.
- Report from the City of Oldenburg on the handover of the 91st flag on September 30, 2014 by Luftlandebrigade 31 to the City Museum Oldenburg
- (Eduard) von Finckh: History of the Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91, formerly the Grand Ducal Oldenburg Infantry Regiment from its establishment to the present (1813-1880). Mittler, Berlin 1881, p. 12; Digitalisat the State Library Oldenburg , 2013
- Andreas Lombard: House and Land. The Duchy and Grand Duchy of Oldenburg from 1773 to 1918. In: History of the Oldenburger Land. Duchy, Grand Duchy of Free State. Edited by Jörg Michael Henneberg and Horst-Günther Lucke, Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 2014, ISBN 978-3-402-12942-5 , p. 94.
- (Eduard) von Finckh: History of the Oldenburg Infantry Regiment No. 91, formerly the Grand Ducal Oldenburg Infantry Regiment from its establishment to the present (1813-1880). Mittler, Berlin 1881, p. 108 ff .; Digitalisat the State Library Oldenburg ,, 2013.
- The AKO for numbering the regiments of the North German Confederation was issued on August 22, 1867, as well as Curt Jany : History of the Prussian Army from the 15th Century to 1914. Volume 4: The Royal Prussian Army and the German Reichsheer 1807 to 1914. Biblio, Osnabrück 1967, p. 247 ff.
- different information in Harms, p. 431 u. 483.
- Tessin, S. 72.
- Günter Wegmann (ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The staffing of the active infantry regiments, as well as jäger and MG battalions, military district commands and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , p. 235.
- Günter Wegmann (ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The occupation of the active infantry regiments as well as Jäger and MG battalions, military district commands and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , pp. 236-237 .