|Capital of France|
|Other names : The city of light|
| Motto : « Fluctuat nec mergitur » |
(in Latin : «It is beaten by the waves, but not sunk»)
Location of Paris in France
|Entity||Capital of France|
|• Region||France's Island|
|Mayoress|| Anne Hidalgo ( PS ) [ 1 ] |
|• Foundation||52 a. C. by the Romans|
|• Name||" Paris »|
|• Total||105,4 km²|
|• Media||33 m s. n. m.|
|• Maximum||130 m s. n. m.|
|• Minimal||28 m s. n. m.|
|Population (2012)||1st place|
|• Total||2,240,621 hab. [ 2 ] · [ 3 ] · [ 4 ]|
|• Density||21,258 hab / km²|
|• Urbana||10 516 110 hab.|
|• Metropolitan||12 292 895 hab.|
|Demonym||Parisian or Parisian|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 y UTC+02:00|
|• in summer||HONOR|
|Postal Code||75116, 75001, 75002, 75003, 75004, 75005, 75006, 75007, 75008, 75009, 75010, 75011, 75012, 75013, 75014, 75015, 75016, 75017, 75018, 75019 and 75020|
|Twinned with|| |
|Official Web site|
|Member of: Eurocities and the Paris Metropolitan Area|
Paris (in French and officially: Paris; pronounced [paʁi] ( ? · i ) ) is the capital ofFranceand its most populous city. Capital of theregionofIle de France(or "Region Parisienne"), is the onlydepartment unicomunalof the country.
The city of Paris, within its narrow administrative limits, had a population of 2,273,305 inhabitants in 2015. [ 2 ] However, in the 20th century , the metropolitan area of Paris expanded beyond the limits of the municipality of Paris, and is today, with a population of 12,405,426 inhabitants in 2013, the second metropolitan area on the European continent (after London ) and the 28th in the world. [ 4 ]
The Paris region is, together with London , one of the most important economic centers in Europe. [ 6 ] With 607,000 million euros (845,000 million dollars ), it produced more than a quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP) of France in 2011. [ 7 ] La Défense is the main business district in Europe , [ 8 ] houses the headquarters of almost half of the large French companies, as well as the headquarters of twenty of the hundred largest in the world.
During the 19th century, together with the city of London, Paris was the center for the development of architectural projects within the framework of the Industrial Revolution and its famous exhibitions. Examples of this are: the Madeleine Market, in 1824; the Great Halles begun in 1853, the Galerie des Machines and the Eiffel Tower both made at the Paris exhibition in 1889.
Also known as the "City of Light" (la Ville lumière ), it is the most popular tourist destination in the world, with more than 42 million foreign visitors per year. [ 9 ] Among the city's monuments are the Eiffel Tower , Notre Dame Cathedral , Avenue des Champs-Elysées , the Arc de Triomphe , the Sacré Cœur basilica , the Palais des Invalides , the Pantheon , the Arch de la Defensa , the Opera Garnier and the Montmartre district , among others. Also museums like the Louvre, the Musée d'Orsay and the National Museum of Natural History of France , as well as an extensive system of higher education. Paris occupies an important place in the field of culture, gastronomy, fashion and luxury.
Its name comes from the Gallic people of the Parisians (in Latin, Parisii ). The word "Paris" derives from the Latin Civitas Parisiorium ('the city of the Parisis'), a designation that prevailed over Lutetia (whose full name was Lutetia Parisii). The origin of the name of the parisii is not known with certainty .
Paris has many nicknames, the most famous of which is "City of Light" (la Ville lumière ), a name that refers to its fame as a center of the arts and education, but also (and perhaps for the same reason) ) to its early adoption of urban lighting.
The name of the inhabitants of Paris is "Parisian" which in French is called parisien [paʁizjɛ̃]. French living outside of Paris sometimes refer to its inhabitants as parigots [paʁigo], but the once derogatory term has been adopted by Parisians and has lost that connotation.
Jacques-Antoine Dulaure gave a possible explanation for the origin of the name of the parisii , associating it with the Egyptian goddess Isis , due to the discovery of a statue of the goddess found in the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés . [ 10 ] This statue was slim, tall, erect, black, almost naked, dressed in clothes adorned in folds around its extremities and was located on the wall on the north side, where the church's crucifix was located: it is called the idol of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. [ 11 ]
The writer François Maspero states that the cult of Isis was widespread in France, especially in the Paris basin. Temples of Isis existed everywhere according to Western terminology, but it would be more accurate to say of the "House of Isis" because these temples were called in Egyptian Per or Par, a word that in ancient Egyptian means exactly 'the enclosure that surrounds the house' . Paris would be the result of the juxtaposition of Per / Par-Isis , a word that designates the cities of Egypt. [ 12 ] [ 13 ]
The Parisii also gave their names to the towns of Villeparisis , Cormeilles-en-Parisis , Fontenay-en-Parisis and the Parisis region (also known as Plaine de France and which in turn, gave the name of France to all the country).
Paris is located in the north of France, in the center of the Parisian basin. The city is crossed by the river Seine . In the center of the city there are two islands that make up its oldest part, Île Saint-Louis and the Ile de la Cité . In general, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest altitude is 35 meters above sea level. Several hills stand out around the center of Paris, the highest being Montmartre at 130 meters.
The last major modification of the Paris area occurred in 1860. In addition to the annexation of peripheral suburbs and giving it its modern shape, in this modification twenty arrondissements (municipal districts) were created, arranged in a spiral shape and following the direction of the needles. of the clock. Of the 78 km² that covered Paris in 1860, the city expanded to 86.9 km² in the 1920s. In 1929 the forest parks Boulogne forest and Vincennes forest were officially annexed to the city, which formed its current area of 105.4 km².
The urban area extends well beyond the city limits, with stretches of urban growth along the Seine and Marne rivers to the southeast and east, as well as along the Seine and the Oise river to the northwest and north. . Beyond the main suburbs, population density drops sharply: a mix of forests and agricultural areas with a series of satellite cities scattered and relatively evenly distributed. This urban crown, when combined with the agglomeration of Paris, completes the urban area of Paris, which covers an oval of 14,518 km², an area about 138 times larger than that of Paris.
The climate of Paris is oceanic climatetemperate (Cfb) or (also called "transitional climate") when it is far from the coast. Rainfall is somewhat abundant but not excessive, averaging approximately 636 mm and is distributed throughout the year on a regular basis without having a significant rainfall minimum (that is, a dry season). Temperatures in summer can occasionally exceed 30 ° C, although they rarely exceed 35 ° C; maximum temperatures are usually between 25 ° C and 30 ° C and storms are frequent. Spring and the first month of autumn are mild, with abundant rainy days. During much of the fall and throughout the winter it is cold. In some months (especially in December, January and February) the cold is intense,
|Average climatic parameters of Paris-Montsouris (France)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||17.9||21.4||25.7||30.2||34.8||37.6||42.6||39.5||36.2||28.9||21.6||17.1||42.6|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||6.9||8.2||11.8||14.7||19||21.8||24.4||24.6||20.8||15.8||10.4||7.8||15.5|
|Temp. media (°C)||4.7||5.5||8.4||10.8||14.8||17.6||20.0||20.0||16.7||12.6||7.9||5.7||12.1|
|Temp. min media (° C)||2.5||2.8||5.1||6.8||10.5||13.3||15.5||15.4||12.5||9.2||5.3||3.6||8.6|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||-23.5||-21.2||-12.5||-3.5||-0.1||3.1||6.0||6.3||1.8||-3.8||-14.1||-23.9||-23.9|
|Total precipitation (mm)||53.7||48.0||48.5||54.8||65.0||56.5||63.2||43.0||56.6||59.7||53.7||58.7||661.4|
|Hours of sun||59.4||93.9||127.8||171.1||197.6||207.2||227.4||230.7||180.1||125.5||82.5||50.6||1724.6|
|Fuente: Weather forecast climate statistics "Clima de Paris-Montsouris" .|
The Parisians , a Gallic people from whom the name of Paris is derived, dominated the sector when Julius Caesar's troops besieged the place. It is believed that the Parisians founded the city between 250 BC. C. and 200 a. C., although the exact place of the location of the Gallic city is unknown; although, there are several indications that they were established in what is now the Ile de la Cité [ citation needed ] , above all for reasons of strategic defense as the settlement is protected by the arms of the Seine River that embrace said island.
In 52 a. When the Romans took the city, they renamed it Lutecia (Lutetia) and rebuilt it during the 1st century on the left bank of the Sécuana (Seine) river. In the 4th century Emperor Julian the Apostate established his headquarters for a winter on the Isle of France.
Middle and Modern Ages
Paris takes its current name in the 4th century and Clovis , king of the Franks, makes it his capital in 508, after his victory over the Romans. During the 9th century , protective walls were built on the right bank, while the left bank was destroyed by the Normans in 885.
When the Capetians obtained the throne of France in 987, Paris was one of the two great cities of their personal dominion. With Philip Augustus (1190-1220), Paris definitively became the capital of the kingdom. A new wall is built protecting a larger sector. In the 14th century , Carlos V (1371-1380) created a wall even larger than the one mentioned above.
Between the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th , Henry IV built the first modern architectural ensembles such as the Place des Vosges . His successor Luis XIII extends the wall of Carlos V on the right bank. Louis XIV destroys that wall and orders the first great boulevards to be built in its place.
At the beginning of this period, the city was the center of important socio-cultural transformations. In 1527 Francis I moved the court back to Paris, specifically to the Louvre castle, which was rebuilt. Central characters of this stage are Henry IV and Catherine de Medici , who ordered the construction of the Tuileries Palace . The city would be an important Gothic and Renaissance center and its population in 1500 was 185,000, the second in Europe after Constantinople.. During this stage a lot of urban work is done; the highlight is the creation of "real squares" with different shapes. These squares are surrounded by houses, with the statue of a king in the center and were intended to reactivate different parts of the city or articulate streets. Some examples are Place Dauphine and Place des Vosges. It also began very timidly with the organization of the city through the layout of some boulevards ; work that will be continued by Baron Haussmann in the 19th century with a global planning of the city.
On August 24, 1572, the night massacre of Saint Bartholomew broke out in this city, a capital episode in the so-called Wars of Religion .
As the most important city in France and the center of power, Paris welcomed several of the most important personalities in history in this period, thinkers like Voltaire , rulers like Louis XIV and statesmen like Richelieu , Colbert and Mazarin . Also the city and especially the nearby town of Versailles, became an example of what the architecture of a capital should be. In 1786, the transfer of human bones from the Les Halles cemetery began to the quarries excavated in Gallo-Roman times at a depth of 20 meters at the bases of Montparnasse, Montrouge and Montsorius, thus forming the famous catacombs of Paris .
At the end of the 18th century , the taking of the Bastille fortress , which was located in the east of the city, became the symbolic start of the French Revolution , a process of profound transformation of the country that had begun in Paris shortly. earlier, during the Estates General of 1789 .
After proclaiming himself emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte decided on Paris as the capital of his Empire, after having contemplated Lyon for such a privilege. Under the reign of Luis Felipe , the city accelerated its growth rate. At this time, Pierre Daunou drew up the Constitution of the Year VIII.
The transformation of Paris during the Second Empire of Napoleon III (1852-1870) gave the city its present appearance. [ 15 ] The emperor commissioned Baron Haussmann to carry out the changes necessary to make Paris the most modern city in the world in its time. Much of the ancient and medieval city was demolished, giving way to grand boulevards and modern buildings, the most prominent of which was the Opera Garnier . Water pipes and other important advances in public works were built. This period came to an end after the fall of the emperor as a result of the defeat suffered by his army in theFranco-Prussian war , moment after which, the city witnessed the formation of the Paris Commune , in which the citizens of the city sought to found a government managed by the people, this movement was bloody dissolved, after a heroic popular resistance. In the eighties and nineties of the nineteenth century they continued to give the city its best-known appearance.
See: Paris Commune
During the second half of the 19th century, Paris hosted several world exhibitions . The most outstanding took place in 1889 on the occasion of the commemoration of the first centenary of the revolution. The Eiffel Tower was built for this event and , although it had to be dismantled once the exhibition was over, it is still in its original location today. [ 16 ]
The twentieth century began with the inauguration of the first line of the Paris Metro , whose works had begun in 1898. In 1900 another Universal Exhibition was developed, the most notable in Paris, for which notable works of architecture were built that still remain. standing, such as the Grand Palais , the Petit Palais , the station and now the Musée d'Orsay , the Alexander III bridge and the Gare de Lyon . In 1919 the demolition of the fortifications surrounding Paris began .
In 1940, within the framework of World War II , the city was occupied by the Wehrmacht as a result of the armistice signed with Nazi Germany . Paris was administered by the occupying forces, who abandoned it after four years without causing considerable damage, compared to the damage suffered in other European cities in that war. For the Allies, Paris was not a place of strategic importance and for this reason they preferred to avoid the liberation of Paris since their objective was to cross the Rhine soon. However, General de Gaulle managed to convince them of the need to liberate Paris in fear of that a communist regime should be established in the republic if the resistance defeated the Germans.[ 17 ] After liberation, Parisian women suspected of collaborating with the Germans were humiliated and shaved. [ 18 ]
During the terms of General de Gaulle from 1958 to 1969, several political events took place in the capital. In 1961, a demonstration in favor of the independence of Algeria was violently repressed . In 1968, a student movement started at the University of Nanterre unleashed more than a month of protests and strikes by joining with a broad social movement of demands: the French May . On May 13, hundreds of thousands of people were protesting against police violence. After two months of turmoil and unrest, the French voted in favor of General de Gaulle in the June legislative elections and the calm returned partially.
Under the administration of President François Mitterrand , in the 1980s and early 1990s, the city received a renewed boost in its urban planning and infrastructure. Depressed sectors of the city were renovated, [ citation needed ] particularly in neighborhoods on the left bank [ which one? ] . In the La Villette neighborhood, a large park with cultural facilities was created. New emblematic buildings such as the new national library , the Arche de la Défense, were erected and the Orsay railway station was transformed into a museum, following an initiative of the former President of the Republic Valéry Giscard d'Estaing . The entrances to the Louvre Museum were renewed creating a glass pyramid in its main courtyard.
On November 13, 2015, several attacks killed 131 people next to the Stade de France , in the neighboring town of Saint-Denis , and in the capital, in different bars and terraces in the city center, as well as in the Bataclan concert hall .
On the afternoon of April 15, 2019, the Notre Dame Cathedral suffered an accidental fire during the renovations , of great proportions, which caused considerable damage, the roof collapsed, including the spire, and both the interior space and many personal property were damaged. seriously. [ 19 ]
|1150||50 000||1881||2 269 023|
|1250||100 000||1886||2 344 550|
|1365||275 000||1891||2 447 957|
|1422||100 000||1896||2 536 834|
|1500||150 000||1901||2 714 068|
|1600||300 000||1906||2 763 393|
|1680||515 000||1911||2 888 110|
|1789||650 000||1921||2 906 472|
|1801||546 000||1926||2 871 429|
|1811||622 636||1931||2 891 020|
|1817||713 966||1936||2 829 753|
|1831||785 862||1946||2 725 374|
|1841||936 261||1954||2 850 189|
|1846||1 053 897||1962||2 790 091|
|1851||1 053 262||1968||2 590 771|
|1856||1 174 346||1975||2 299 830|
|1861||1 696 141||1982||2 176 243|
|1866||1 825 274||1990||2 152 423|
|1872||1 851 792||1999||2 125 246|
|1876||1 988 806||2011||2 249 975|
Paris is the center of a metropolitan area with 12,292,895 inhabitants (2011), [ 4 ] the first in the European Union . The central municipality has a total of 2,249,975 inhabitants (2011), [ 2 ] a population less than its maximum demographic, which was in 1921. However, in recent years it has grown again, as has happened in other large metropolises. . Half of the inhabitants under 15 years of age are of foreign descent, [ citation needed ] in particular of Maghreb origin and other former French colonies in sub-Saharan Africa. [ citation required ]
The population of Paris was 25,000 in 59 BC. C., a number that increased to 80,000 in 150. After the Frankish invasions the city lost population with 50,000 inhabitants in 510 and reaching the minimum in 1000, after the Viking invasions, it came to have a total approximately 20,000 inhabitants.
Starting in the 1950s, the population of the municipality of Paris suffered a significant decline, despite an increase in housing, but since 1999 the decline has stopped. [ 21 ]The latest census shows a growth of + 2.5% between 1999 and 2006. The average size of households has decreased in Paris: the decline in the coexistence of adult generations and fewer children per couple has been during long the main explanation. However, the decrease in household size is mainly due to the attraction that young adults without children have, since they can enjoy leisure and employment in the capital and defray the expenses of small-scale real estate. In contrast, couples with children tend to migrate to the suburbs, where houses are more suitable and cheaper. [ 22 ] [ 23 ]This dynamic of commuter Paris and the rest of its region explains why 58% of households have one or two rooms. [ 24 ]
Criminality and delinquency
The Parisian capital also explains why the city is sometimes the victim of attacks. Both under Napoleon I [ citation needed ] and, closer to us, during the RER B attack in Saint-Michel in July 1995 or during those of November 13, 2015, Parisian history is marked by these high-value events symbolic, which is not without consequences for the daily life of the city, particularly with the implementation of the " plan vigipirate03) but is within the average of the large cities of France (Lyon: 109.22, Lille: 118.93, Nice: 119.52, Marseille: 120.62). The proportion of accused women is less than 15% (slightly lower than the national average) and the proportion of minors is 11.02%, that is, seven points less than the French average of 18.33%. The first months of 2019 show, after an increase in 2018, an increase in almost all the statistical indicators of delinquency. In October 2019, intentional attacks on physical integrity increased by 9% inside Paris (more than 35,000 attacks since the beginning of this year). seven points less than the French average of 18.33%. The first months of 2019 show, after an increase in 2018, an increase in almost all the statistical indicators of delinquency. In October 2019, intentional attacks on physical integrity increased by 9% inside Paris (more than 35,000 attacks since the beginning of this year). seven points less than the French average of 18.33%. The first months of 2019 show, after an increase in 2018, an increase in almost all the statistical indicators of delinquency. In October 2019, intentional attacks on physical integrity increased by 9% inside Paris (more than 35,000 attacks since the beginning of this year).
Administration and politics
As the main city in the country, Paris is the seat of the central government and the French administration, and hosts the main foreign diplomatic representations, being at the same time one of the most prominent cities in the political sphere of the European Union (EU) .
The executive power, represented by the President of the Republic, has its headquarters in the Elysee Palace . For his part, the Prime Minister has his office at the Hotel Matignon . The legislative and judicial powers of France are also based in Paris.
The legislative power is represented by the Council of Paris composed of councilors. There are 163 councilors in Paris and they are elected for six years. The council elects the mayor for six years.
Since the law of July 10, 1964, [ 25 ] that administratively reorganized the Paris region, came into full force on January 1, 1968, the city of Paris is both a department and a commune . Previously, Paris had been, since 1790, the prefecture of the department of the Seine . [ 26 ]
Unlike other French metropolises, there is no intercommunal structure with its own taxation that links the city with its suburbs. It also differs in that, contrary to other large international metropolises, the city only comprises the very center of the conurbation.
The department of Paris has no other subdivision than the only commune that composes it. This is divided in turn into 20 municipal districts ( arrondissements municipaux ), created as a result of the territorial expansion of 1860, which replace the 12 districts that previously existed since October 11, 1795, and 21 electoral districts.
Finances and budgets
In 2009 the budgets of the Paris city council and department reached 7,300 million euros, of which 5,700 million were current expenses and 1,600 million were investments. [ 27 ] Likewise, the Paris City Council and department have debts of 26.6 billion euros. [ 28 ] Taxes generate 55% of income, state 24% and real estate management 15%, the balance corresponds to indebtedness. The Paris City Council has a triple A rating (rating given by risk rating agencies ). The City Council employs 49,000 people.
Paris is one of the engines of the world economy . [ citation needed ] In 2011, the GDP of the Paris Region was estimated by INSEE at 607 billion euros (845 billion dollars). [ 7 ] If it were a country, this region would be the seventeenth largest economy in the world, with a GDP larger than that of the Netherlands and Turkey , and almost as large as that of Indonesia .
Although in terms of population , the urban area of Paris represents less than 20% of the urban area of France, the GDP reaches 28.4% of the total. In terms of urban areas, according to the United Nations, its GDP is the fourth largest in the world after Tokyo , New York , London and ahead of Los Angeles , and the first in Europe. [ 29 ] Its GDP is comparable to that of small first world countries.
Paris's economy is extremely diverse and has not yet adopted a specialization within the global economy (similar to Los Angeles with the entertainment industry, or London and New York with financial services). Paris is essentially a service economy: 45% of the Paris region's GDP is made up of financial services , real estate, and business solutions.
Almost half of the GDP of the Paris Region is generated by the business sector and financial services. The country's financial sector is concentrated in this city. The Paris region remains one of Europe's manufacturing powerhouses, due to the large size of its economy, with a shift from traditional to high-tech industry. Its economy is based mainly on the manufacture of machinery of all kinds. Also noteworthy is the production of luxury items, such as haute couture, jewelry and perfumes. In its port on the Atlantic in the city of Le Havre , it moves the fourth largest volume of tonnage in Europe. The French agricultural sector operates mainly in this city, which has the largest warehouse of agricultural goods in the world.
Within the Paris region, economic activity is most intense in the central portion of the Hautes-de-Seine department and in the triangle between the Opera , La Défense and Val de Seine . The Hautes-de-Seine has become a kind of extension of central Paris, with 873,775 workers at the end of 2005, more than half the number in the city of Paris proper (1,653,551 employees at the end of 2005).
A study by the Institut d'aménagement et d'urbanisme (IAU) published in 2019 highlights that housing prices push modest people to leave Paris to settle in neighboring apartments such as Seine-Saint-Denis , which tends to provoke a "gentrification" of the capital and a pauperization of neighboring departments. [ 30 ]
Trade and finance
The avenue des Champs-Élysées, which has been called "the most beautiful avenue in the world," [ 31 ] is one of the main shopping streets in Paris. Originally it was a garden and it has become a great avenue-promenade that connects the Arc de Triomphe with the Place de la Concorde . In this square, on both sides of Rue Royale, there are two stone buildings: the eastern one houses the Hotel de la Marina, to the west the luxurious Hotel de Crillon .
Nearby, Avenue Montaigne , is home to luxury brands such as Chanel , Dior , Louis Vuitton , Chloé , Lacoste and Givenchy (Paris is now also called the fashion capital of the world). [ 32 ] The Place Vendôme is also famous for its luxury and fashionable hotels ( Hotel Ritz and Place Vendôme ) and its jewelers. Within the same sector is the Triangle d'Or which is an elite area of Paris between avenues Montaigne, Georges V and a stretch of the Champs Elysees, which stands out for high fashion, and is home to major brands, such asHermès and Christian Lacroix , or their cosmetic brands such as Sephora or L'Oréal .
Another prominent area in commerce is Les Halles, which was formerly the central market for meat and other products of the Paris market. [ 33 ] The Les Halles market was destroyed in 1971 and replaced by the Forum des Halles around a major metro connection station (the largest in Europe). The central market of Paris, the largest wholesale food market in the world, was moved to Rungis , in the southern suburbs. To the west of Les Halles is Le Marais , a neighborhood with businesses and companies in the legal and banking sector.
The area around the Opera Garnier is the area of the capital with the highest concentration of department stores and offices. Some examples are the Printemps and the Galeries Lafayette Haussmann department store . It is also the headquarters of financial giants such as BNP Paribas and Société Générale.
Outside the commune of Paris, La Défense (it extends over part of the communes of Courbevoie, Puteaux, and Nanterre, 1.5 kilometers west of the city of Paris) is a key element of the suburbs (periphery) of Paris. La Défense is one of the main business and financial centers in the world and the largest in Europe. [ 8 ]Built at the western end of the westward extension of the historic Champs-Élysées axis, La Défense contains some of the buildings (all tower-shaped) belonging to the world's largest companies. Started by the French Government in 1958, the district houses 3.5 million m² of offices, making this complex the largest in Europe in a district developed specifically for companies. The Grande Arche (Great Arch), of La Défense, houses a part of the French Ministry of Transport and is the central area of the esplanade around which the district is organized.
Paris's transport system is outstandingly efficient for a megalopolis of this magnitude. Its roads are kept in good condition and the only problem for vehicles is their excess. An efficient system connects commuter trains with the metro system , which in turn is linked to a dense network of bus routes.
Paris is connected with the rest of Europe thanks to a modern network of motorways and the complete railway system that has the TGV to connect with the different points of Europe with London , Strasbourg and Stuttgart .
The TGV line between Paris and Lyon is one of the busiest in France. Although there was a quad track for one third of the journey and a double track for the remainder of the journey, the railroad could no longer provide adequate service during peak periods. After considering the progress that had been made in other cities — especially the successful bullet train on the Tōkaidō line — they decided to build an entirely new track.
From the beginning, the decision was made that the new line from Paris to Lyon would serve exclusively for passenger traffic, and that rolling equipment designed to go at high speed would be used. The most surprising thing about this line is that it does not have tunnels.
|Airport||IATA code||ICAO code|
|Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport||CDG||LFPG|
Since July 2007, Paris has also had a public bicycle rental system , called Vélib ', with 1,230 stations spread throughout the city and more than 14,000 bicycles. Bicycles can be rented for the first 30 minutes for free (45 minutes with the Vélib 'subscription) and deposited at any other station. [ 36 ]
During the 2005-2006 school year, 263,812 students were enrolled in the public sector, of which 135,570 were in the primary cycle and 128,242 in the secondary, as well as 138,527 in the private sector. Paris has establishments in the priority education zone (ZEP) or in the priority education network (REP): 214 primary schools and 32 secondary schools . [ 37 ]
In 2007, the city totaled 881 public establishments of which 323 nursery schools, 334 primary, six specialized facilities (schools , hospitals), 110 secondary schools, 72 high schools and its technological, 34 vocational schools and two public experimental schools. 256 private establishments are added under contract: 110 nurseries and primary schools, a specialized school, 67 colleges, 73 general and technological high schools.
There is a certain desire for decentralization that led in the 1990s to the transfer of two Great Schools to other cities: the National School of Administration (ENA) in Strasbourg and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Lyon . However, most of the prestigious top establishments are still found in the Paris region.
Paris has been a relevant cultural and artistic center in Western history. In it, French figures such as René Descartes , Molière , Voltaire , Victor Hugo , Émile Zola , Alexandre Dumas, Jr. , Edgar Degas and Claude Monet, among others , were born, trained or developed their careers . From the beginning of the 19th century until the end of the 1960s, Paris was the world center of art. [ 39 ] This period received its brilliance from emblematic representatives of French art such as Braque , Duchampor Matisse and various foreign artists such as Beckett , Brancusi , Bertolt Brecht Buñuel , Hemingway , Joyce , Kandinsky , Mondrian , Picasso and Stravinski . [ 39 ] At this time there was a progressive displacement of creative centers through different neighborhoods of the city: from Montmartre , the cradle of Cubism , to Montparnasse , the scene of interwar Bohemia and Surrealism , toSaint-Germain-des-Prés , center of the existentialist movement associated with Jean-Paul Sartre , and finally the Latin Quarter , scene of the French May . [ 39 ] All these nuclei retain their preeminence within the cultural life of the city.
Many are the authors who have developed their stories with the French capital as the setting. Such is the case of Tropic of Cancer (1934) by Henry Miller , Hopscotch (1963) by Julio Cortázar and Paris was a party (1964) by Ernest Hemingway. In addition, the city has the largest content of works of art, distributed in its many museums and private collections.
Architecture and urbanism
Perhaps the Parisian architectural heritage is only comparable to that of Rome, [ citation needed ] which contributes to the fact that since 1991 the Banks of the Seine in Paris are considered by Unesco as a World Heritage Site .
Gothic architecture had its origin in the Paris region, being the royal basilica of Saint-Denis the first to be erected in this style [ citation needed ] , from where it was first spread to the entire kingdom of France and later to the rest of Europe .
"Modern" Paris is the result of a vast urban redevelopment plan that emerged in the mid-19th century . [ 15 ] For centuries, the heart of the city had been a maze of narrow streets and medieval houses, but beginning in 1852, Baron Haussmann made a grand urban plan, demolishing much of it to form wide avenues lined with neoclassical stone buildings intended to the new bourgeoisie; most of this "new" Paris is what we see today. These Second Empire plansIn many cases, they are still in force, since the city of Paris imposes since then the so-called «alignement» (law that defines the position of the building leaving a certain width of the street) on many of the new constructions. The height of a building is also determined by the width of the street, and the Paris building code has seen little change since the mid-19th century to allow for larger construction.
The effort to preserve Paris's storied past and current laws make it difficult to create within the city limits large buildings and public services necessary for a growing population. Many of the institutions and economic infrastructure are already on the periphery or in the process of doing so. Financial companies ( La Défense ), business district, the main food wholesale market ( Rungis ), the main renowned schools ( École Polytechnique , ENSAM , HEC , ESSEC , INSEAD , etc.), world-famous research laboratories (on Saclay or Avenue), the largest sports stadium (Stade de France ), and even some ministries (such as Transport) are outside the city of Paris. The National Archives of France are being transferred to the northern suburbs, a process that should conclude by the end of 2010. However, the severe immutable limits, strict building codes and the lack of developable land have not created in Paris the phenomenon called "museification" known to other European cities. [ 40 ]
Three of the most popular and oldest parks in Paris are: the Jardin des Tuileries , created in the 16th century for the palace of the same name (now defunct) and located on the right bank of the Seine, near the Louvre; the Luxembourg Garden ; and the Jardin des Plantes , created by Guy de la Brosse , Louis XIII's physician . Most of the other parks in Paris are creations of the Second Empire: The parks of Montsouris , Buttes-Chaumont and the Monceau park are the work of Jean-Charles Alphand, engineer of Napoleon III. Another project executed in this period was the Boulogne forest , west of Paris. The Vincennes forest , on its eastern side, received similar treatment during the following years. These forests offer the city 2,000 hectares of nature, [ 41 ] to which are added other recently created spaces such as Parc de la Villette and Parc de Bercy . Theme and amusement parks such as Disneyland Resort Paris and Parc Astérix are on the outskirts, quite far from the city.
In addition to the Louvre Museum , Paris has a wide range of museums.
On December 28, 1895 in Paris, the Lumière brothers (Auguste and Louis) gave the first screening of a motion picture . On February 2, 2000 in Paris, Philippe Binant [ 42 ] carried out the first public digital cinema projection in Europe, founded on the application of a MEMS (DLP CINEMA) developed by Texas Instruments . [ 43 ]
The city has 360 sports facilities: 182 tennis courts, 131 municipal gymnasiums, 36 swimming pools (hosting 3.4 million tickets in 2006) and 10 school basins, 32 municipal stadiums, two for water sports, not to mention that the six parks interdepartmental are divided into three departments with respect to Paris and easily accessible. [ 44 ]
|Paris Saint-Germain Football Club||Football||League 1||Princes Park||1970|
|Paris Football Club||Football||League 2||Charléty Stadium||1969|
|Racing Metro 92||Rugby||Top 14||Yves-du-Manoir Olympic Stadium||1890|
|Stade Français Paris||Rugby||Top 14||Charléty Stadium||1883|
|Paris-Levallois Basket||Basketball||LNB Pro A||Pierre-de-Coubertin Stadium||2007|
|Paris Saint-Germain Handball||Handball||NHL Division 1||Pierre-de-Coubertin Stadium||2007|
The Tour de France , the world's leading road cycling race, traditionally ends in Paris: the Parc des Princes from 1930 to 1967, the Vincennes Velodrome from 1968 to 1974, and the Avenue des Champs-Elysées from 1975.
In Paris, the matches that the French rugby team participates in the Six Nations Tournament are traditionally held .
Meanwhile, the Parc des Princes hosted the final of the Eurocup in 1960 and 1984, and the final of the European Champions Cup in 1956, 1975 and 1981.
The Stade de France has hosted the 1998 Soccer World Cup final , the 2016 Euro Cup , the 2000 and 2006 UEFA Champions League final, the 2007 Rugby World Cup final , and the 2003 World Athletics Championships .
The gastronomy of Paris is rich and varied. All meats are enjoyed by Parisians in many typical dishes: côte rôtie , entrecôte Bercy , saucisson à l'ail , bœuf-miroton ... and the Houdan hen , a species almost disappeared and appreciated until a century ago. [ 45 ] As for vegetables, of all the fruits and vegetables one can find one in Paris. The Montmorency cherry has a lot of tradition, as well as the champignons from Paris that gave the mushroom its name in Spain.; also they had Croissy carrots and asparagus from Argenteuil, now disappeared ... [ 46 ] [ 47 ] In addition to many cheeses, such as brie or coulommiers .
This without forgetting the important pastry tradition of the capital ( Bourdaloue cake , Saint-Honoré , brioche and viennoiseries , financier , millefeuille , Paris-Brest ...) and some of its anthological specialties such as puff pastry croissant , baguette , croque- monsieur and onion soup .
Paris emerged in the century XIX the haute cuisine , a style of cooking today served in luxury hotels and restaurants. Some of the great Parisian gourmet restaurants are, for example, Maxim's (opened in 1893), Le Grand Véfour (1784), L'Archestrate (1968-1985), and La Tour d'Argent (1582)
Twin cities and friendship agreements
Since 1956 Paris has been twinned exclusively and reciprocally with Rome ("Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."; "Seule Paris est worthy of Rome; seule Rome is worthy of Paris" in French and "Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; only Rome è degna di Parigi »in Italian). [ 48 ]
- 1956: Rome (Italy)
- 1958: Kyoto (Japan)
- 1982: Tokyo (Japan)
- 1985: Cairo (Egypt)
- 1987: Amman (Jordan), Sanaa (Yemen), Berlin (Germany)
- 1991: Caracas (Venezuela), Seoul (South Korea)
- 1992: Moscow (Russia)
- 1993: Beirut (Lebanon)
- 1995: Yakarta (Indonesia)
- 1996: Chicago (United States), San Francisco (United States), Quebec (Canada)
- 1997: Santiago de Chile (Chile), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Beijing (China), Prague (Czech Republic), Tbilisi (Georgia), Saint Petersburg (Russia)
- 1998: Lisbon (Portugal), Sofia (Bulgaria), Sydney (Australia), Yerevan (Armenia)
- 1999: Amman (Jordan), Warsaw (Poland), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Mexico City (Mexico)
- 2000: Washington DC (United States), Madrid (Spain), Athens (Greece), Caracas (Venezuela)
- 2001: London (United Kingdom), Porto Alegre (Brazil)
- 2002: Geneva (Switzerland)
- 2003: Quebec (Canada, 2nd time), Saint Petersburg (Russia, 2nd time)
- 2004: São Paulo (Brazil), Rabat (Marruecos), Casablanca (Marruecos), Túnez (Túnez), Washington DC (United States, 2nd time)
- 2005: Copenhagen (Denmark)
- 2006: Beirut (Lebanon, 2nd time), Cairo (Egypt, 2nd time), Montreal (Canada)
- 2007: Nom Pen (Camboya)
- 2009: Istanbul (Turkey), Jericho (Palestine), Quebec (Canada, 3rd time), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), San Francisco (United States, 2nd time)
- 2010: Tel Aviv (Israel), Doha (Qatar)
- 2011: Ramallah (Palestine), Río de Janeiro (Brazil, 2nd time), São Paulo (Brazil, 2nd time), Dakar (Senegal), Yerevan (Armenia, 2nd time)
- 2013: Amsterdam (Netherlands), Montevideo (Uruguay)
- 2014: Mexico City (Mexico, 2nd time)
European Capital of Culture
Venue of the 1977 Human Heritage Committee Sessions
Washington D. C.
Cairo and Luxor
Venue for the 1980 World Heritage Committee Sessions
Venue for the 1982 World Heritage Committee Sessions
Venue of the Sessions of the World Heritage Committee
Venue for the 1988 World Heritage Committee Sessions
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- Texas Instruments
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- Wikimedia Commons hosts a multimedia category on Paris .
- Wikinews has news related to Paris .
- Wiktionary has definitions and other information about Paris .
- Wikiquote hosts famous quotes from or about Paris .
- Wikivoyage houses travel guides to or about Paris .
- Paris City Hall
- UNESCO - Paris, banks of the Seine, World Heritage Site (in English and French)