A journalist is the person who is professionally engaged in journalism , in any of its forms, whether in the written press , as in photographic documentation , radio , television or digital media . His work consists of investigating and discovering topics of public interest, contrasting them, synthesizing them, ranking them and publishing them. [ 1 ]
Based on reliable and verifiable journalistic sources, he elaborates his articles, which can take various forms for their dissemination: oral, written, visual. In general, a good journalist is considered to be one who gets relevant, brief and accurate information in the shortest possible time.
There are several principles that guide the work of the journalist, of which the main ones are respect for the truth and rigor in the search for reliable and verifiable information. It is governed by strict ethical standards and other established deontological values (professionalism), always considering Human Rights as the guiding agent.
With the digital revolution, three types of journalism have emerged: traditional journalism, participatory journalism seen in the so-called Web 2.0 , where citizens generate their own distribution channels such as Blog - and citizen journalism, which is used by traditional media. who ask citizens to share with the media news that occurs in their environment with audio reports, photos or videos.
At the beginning of the 19th century , a journalist was someone who wrote in periodicals , but, since the 20th century , the term came to be applied to many other trades linked to the search for information and news of interest, and to its dissemination by written media. or audiovisual.
Types of journalists
He is the one who is in charge of issues that are related between man and his natural environment. It ranges from information regarding agriculture, livestock, weather, to social, economic, political aspects, of what has to do with the environment. Ecological research and dissemination to preserve the planet.
It is the one whose main means for research, preparation and, above all, the dissemination of information is cyberspace, with the Internet as the main exponent. Its function lies in making complex information simplified and understandable, providing them with hyperlinks and multimedia resources for the better understanding of the user.
Scientific journalism is the specification of the journalistic profession in the facts related to science , technology , innovation , health , environment , computing , archeology , astronomy , space exploration and other investigative activities . For some it is different from popular science, although there is certainly a debate regarding the definition of both terms. [ 2 ]
Risks linked to journalism
There are risks linked to the profession, this risk is born in the vocation for truth and freedom . Journalists throughout history have been victims of persecution , murder , injury , and kidnapping . threats , insults other various types of attacks. [ 3 ]
The CIAP ( Investigating Commission of Attacks on Journalists of Felap ), led by journalist Ernesto Carmona , is one of the organizations that investigates, disseminates and records this type of abuses against journalists and other press professionals in Latin America. In January 2013, he published the background information on the 45 journalists murdered in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2012.
According to the Inter-American Press Association (IAPA) of the fourteen journalists killed in the first half of 2018, four belong to Mexico, two are from Brazil, two from Guatemala, one from Colombia, one from Honduras, one from El Salvador and three to Ecuador. [ 4 ]
In the last two decades, journalists have been assassinated by drug trafficking groups, who want their "businesses" not to be known to public opinion. In some cities in northern Mexico, where drug trafficking to the United States is more intense, some newspapers have imposed self-censorship , and topics such as drugs, drug addiction, drug trafficking, are not touched by local newspapers, as they are It has been the case of attacks on newspapers by drug traffickers.
With 80 journalists murdered since 2000 and another fourteen missing since 2003, Mexico ranks as the most dangerous country on the continent for the media. In 2010 it was the second deadliest country for the press, along with Iraq and behind Pakistan. Social media users are also not safe from retaliation. For having alerted on Twitter and Facebook about a possible attack by organized crime against a school in Veracruz, María de Jesús Bravo and Gilberto Martínez Vera spent a month behind bars between August and September 2011. The charges of "terrorism" were finally dropped. and "sabotage" brought against them. The year 2011 was also marked by the murder of María Elizabeth Macías, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Primera Hora, published in Nuevo Laredo, in the state of Tamaulipas (east). The journalist, who owned a blog, also used social media to report on organized crime activities in the region.
In the six-year term of Luis Echeverría Álvarez (1970-1976), six journalists were assassinated; in the six-year term of José López Portillo (1976-1982), 12; in the case of Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (1982-1988), 33. From the presidency of Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994) 48 journalists are killed and can say that the attack on journalists is initiated by cartels of drug . In the six-year term of Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (1994-2000) there were 24; in that of Vicente Fox Quezada (2000-2006), 16 murders. While in 2007 there were seven journalists murdered, in the six-year term that Felipe Calderón Hinojosa governs (2006-2012).
The organization Reporters Without Borders reported in February 2008 that Mexico was the country in America with the highest number of journalist deaths, due to the exercise of their profession, during 2007 , when two reporters were killed, three disappeared, and the murder of three media contributors. [ 6 ]
In Ecuador, as of the entry into force of the Law of Professional Practice of the Journalist, September 18, 1975, three categories were established: 1 ° .- Whoever has obtained the academic title conferred by the Universities or other Higher Education establishments of the Republic; 2 ° .- Whoever has obtained that title or another equivalent, in foreign Universities or Higher Education establishments and legally revalidates it in Ecuador; and 3.- Whoever has obtained a certificate of professionalization granted by the Ministry of Public Education, by reason of having practiced the profession prior to the effective date of this Law and in accordance with its provisions.
Consequently, in Ecuador, as of that date, only those graduates of faculties of higher education institutions created for this purpose and recognized by the Ecuadorian State can be called "journalists". Here it is well worth highlighting the edition of the book "Untitled Journalists", written by the Ecuadorian journalist Milton Salvador, 2006, which reviews the notes in detail.
Many whom people consider journalists believe that he is interchangeable with the reporter, being a person who collects information and creates written reports or stories. However, looking at it from this point of view is very limited since there are many other types of journalists, including columnists, editor-in-chief, photographers, cameramen, editorial designers, and surrogate editor (British) or copy-editors (American). Another important difference is that designers, writers and art directors who work exclusively on advertising are not considered journalists, since the material and content are determined by the person who buys the advertisement. Regardless of the medium, the term journalist carries a connotation or expectation of professionalism in reporting, with consideration for truth, fairness, balance, decency, and ethics, although standards can vary widely between publications. Many mass market newspapers make no pretense of fairness, although in countries like the UK, generally adhere to a voluntary code of conduct, with goals such as maintaining truthfulness. Some editors argue that bias and prejudice are impossible to avoid, and that it is more honorable to take an editorial opinion by ensuring that such material is objectively correct.
In Argentina the profession of journalist was created in 1944 , under Law Decree number 7,618. This decree established for the first time in the history of the country the legal recognition of press workers.
- Professional journalistic deontology
- Journalistic genres
- Press releases
- Investigation journalism
- Category: Journalists
- "The importance of journalism" .
- "Scientific journalism: what is it and why is it necessary?" .
- «Journalist, vocation of social importance and its day» .
- "Being a journalist in Latin America is the most dangerous job . " latinamericanpost.com . Retrieved August 30, 2018 .
- "Excelsior" . Archived from the original on April 13, 2009 . Retrieved March 16, 2008 .
- RSF denounces the "apathy and duplicity" of the West and the UN in the face of attacks on freedom of expression
- «What is being a journalist?» .