The Republic of Poland (in Polish Rzeczpospolita Polska ( ? · I ) ) is one of the twentysovereign statesforming theEuropean Union, constituted Statedemocratic lawand whose form of government is aparliamentary republic. Its territory, with capital inWarsaw, has an area of 312,696 [ 11 ] [ 12 ] square kilometers and a population of 40.30 million people, making it the fifth most populous country in the EU. It is aunitary Statewith 16 subdivisions or administrative regions called Voivodeships. It borders the Baltic Sea to the north, comprises in its largest portion to the north part of the great European plain and to the south includes mountainous territory of the Sudetenland , the Carpathians and the Santa Cruz mountain range . Although the capital and most populous city is Warsaw , the academic-cultural center is the second largest city, Krakow .
Poland borders the Kaliningrad Oblast to the north (which belongs to Russia but has no connection to it), to the northeast with Lithuania , to the east with Belarus , to the southeast with Ukraine , to the south with the Czech Republic and Slovakia and to the west with Germany .
The creation of the nation is often identified with the adoption of Christianity by its monarch Miecislaus I in 966, when its territory was similar to that of modern Poland. In addition, Poland adopted Latin Christianity instead of Greek, in doing so, Poland permanently directed its gaze towards the West, establishing a greater difference between itself and its neighbor to the East, Russia. The Kingdom of Poland was formed in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a long association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin , through which the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was erected . The Commonwealth collapsed in 1795, and the Polish territory was dividedbetween Russia , Prussia and Austria . Poland regained its independence after World War I as the Second Polish Republic , but was occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union at the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. In 1944, a Polish provisional government was formed , which , after a period of conflicts, referendums and elections, resulted in it becoming a satellite state of the Soviet Union , giving way to the Republic of Poland ( Rzeczpospolita Polska), was renamed the People's Republic of Poland ( Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa ) in 1952. During the revolutions of 1989 , the Marxist-Leninist government of Poland was overthrown, and the country adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name Rzeczpospolita Polska , often referred to as III Rzeczpospolita .
Poland is the sixth largest economy ( PPP GDP ) and one of the most dynamic in the European Union , simultaneously reaching a very high level in the Human Development Index . Furthermore, the Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Poland is a developing and democratic country, with a middle-income economy and a high standard of living. It ranks high in education, security, and economic freedom. It has a good educational system in Europe, ranked among the most educated countries. The country offers free college education, state-funded social security, and a universal health care system for all citizens. Nestled between the cultures of Eastern and Western Europe and coined by a changing history, it adds numerous historical monuments and 16 UNESCO World Heritage Sites . It is visited by 19.6 million tourists every year (2018), making it the sixteenth most visited country on the planet.
The most common place name derives from the name of the Polanian tribe, Polanie , who inhabited the Warta basin around the 6th century. [ 13 ] In turn, Polanie derives from the Proto-Slavic word polo which means field. In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian, Russian and Turkish, the name of the country derives from that of the Lendian tribe ( Lędzianie or Lachy ) who lived in the extreme southeast of present-day Lesser Poland. This name also comes from the old Polish word lęda , which means plain. [ 13 ]
Before the Polish Kingdom
Hominids seem to have been present in present-day Poland for five hundred thousand years. The Slavs settled in this territory 1500 years ago and the history of Poland as a state spans almost a millennium. The territory occupied by Poland has varied enormously during its history. In the 16th century , during the Republic of the Two Nations , it formed the largest nation in Europe, before the growth of the Russian Empire . From that moment there was no independent Polish structure until the recovery of independence in 1918, and after more than a century of rule by its neighbors, but its borders are altered again after the Second World War .
Kingdom of Poland 1025-1569
In the 10th century Poland appears as a nation; It was ruled by a series of strong leaders who converted Poles to Christianity , creating a powerful kingdom and integrating Poland into European culture. In the thirteenth century, internal fragmentation determined the erosion of the initial nation, but throughout the century the base of the new dominant state that was to come was consolidated.
The Jogalia dynasty (1385-1569) formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , beginning with the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila . In 1385 it was united with Lithuania after the coronation as king of Vladislao II Jogaila .
Thanks to the cooperation of both countries, the Lithuanian and Polish armies defeated the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410. It was the largest battle on European soil fought in the entire 15th century . The friendship was beneficial to the Poles and Lithuanians, who played the dominant role in one of the most important empires in Europe for the next three centuries.
Republic of the Two Nations
The Nihil novi , an act adopted by the Sejm in 1505, transferred more legislative power to the Sejm than to the monarch. This event marked the beginning of the period called the " Commonwealth of Nobles " when the state was ruled by "free and equal," the szlachta . The Union of Lublin of 1569 established the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as a highly influential participant in European politics and culture .
During the various invasions of Russia (1605-1618) , weakened by the Tumultuous Period , Commonwealth troops took Moscow from September 27, 1610 to November 4, 1612, until they were driven out by the patriotic uprising of Russia.
The power of the commonwealth declined after the double attack in 1648. The first was the largest Cossack rebellion , in which the Crimean Khanate collaborated , in the eastern Kresy territories ; the rebels requested the protection of the tsar against the troops of the nobility of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth .
In 1651, due to the growing threat of its allies Tatars , the hetman Cossack Khmelnytsky asked the Tsar Alexis of Russia to incorporate Ukraine to their domains, as an independent duchy under Russian protection. [ 14 ] In this way the Russian influence replaced the Polish in 1654. The second offensive against the commonwealth was the Swedish invasion in 1655, in which Transylvania and Brandenburg also participated , and is known as the " Avalanche ".
In the second half of the seventeenth century , the weakened commonwealth of John III Sobieski collided with the Holy Roman Emperor , Leopold I of Habsburg , and together they defeated the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vienna (1683), which marked the end of 250 years of conflict between Christian Europe and Ottoman Islam . For his resistance to Muslim advances, he earned the name Antemurale Christianitatis .
After sixteen years of war with the Ottomans (1682-1699), they had to withdraw from the territories north of the Danube , which they never occupied again; the war also ended the Ottoman threat to central Europe.
Partitions and occupation
In the 18th century the democracy of the nobles gradually declined into disorganization, making the once powerful commonwealth vulnerable to foreign influences. Eventually everyone wanted a piece of Poland, and they got it, wiping Poland off the map in 1795. The idea of Polish independence persisted until the 19th century . Poland's location in the center of Europe became significant in a period when Prussia and Imperial Russia were intensely involved in European rivalries and alliances and modern states were fully established on the continent .
Since the summer of 1915, Germany and Austria-Hungary had occupied all historically Polish territories, thanks to the effectiveness of the Gorlice-Tarnów offensive . The Germans proposed the creation of a Polish kingdom on November 5, 1916 and that same day Emperors Wilhelm II of Germany and Franz Joseph I of Austria proclaimed the independent kingdom of Poland. The election of a king was postponed, always considering themselves as candidates for members of the nobility of the House of Habsburg . The independence of this militarily occupied Polish state was doubtful, and the German Governor General, Colonel General Hans Hartwig von Beseler , wielded de facto power .
Second Polish Republic
With the signing of the Armistice of Compiègne , Governor von Beseler ceded power to Polish General Józef Piłsudski on November 11, 1918. [ 15 ] This transfer of power meant the reestablishment of a truly independent Polish state after 123 years of foreign occupation. (1795-1918). After a Polish uprising in German territories , Poland gained more ground. In the Treaty of Versailles , Polish independence was internationally recognized, and its western border was defined, creating a Polish corridor.one of the most controversial innovations. While Poland was at peace with Germany, its territorial integrity was far from secure.
Indeed, some regions populated by Ukrainians within Austria-Hungary [ 16 ] declared their intentions to become independent under the name of the National Republic of Western Ukraine , in October 1918. These regions included Galicia , Transcarpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina . The Ukrainian People's Republic had secretly negotiated these territories with the Austro-Hungarians since February of the same year, finally being disappointed. [ 17 ] The Polish majority in Lviv , [ 18 ]Capital of the new state, did not want to be part of a western Ukraine, and started an anti-Ukrainian uprising. This uprising received rapid Polish support, prompting the two Ukrainian republics to unite in January 1919 (see Polish-Ukrainian War ). [ 19 ] This union was symbolic, [ 19 ] since it did not mean any improvement for the military situation of the Ukrainians in Galicia. By July 1919, the Ukrainian armies were defeated and the territories of western Ukraine were assimilated by Poland. Such annexation would not be recognized by the League of Nations until March 1923. [ 19 ]
Ukrainian Popular Republic recognized the Polish gains in the west, [ 19 ] in exchange for support in the Kiev Offensive , [ 20 ] [ 21 ] whose aim was to ensure the creation of a Ukrainian state with solid borders before Bolsheviks . The start of the Polish-Soviet war did not give the expected results: a Soviet counteroffensive returned the Poles to their borders and even beyond. At the beginning of August 1920, units of the Red Army , commanded by Commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky , approachedWarsaw , in what was considered the last step in the subjugation of Poland. [ 22 ] The outcome of the Battle of Warsaw took a surprising turn on August 16, when reserve troops under General Józef Piłsudski counterattacked, driving the Soviets out of Poland. A second important defeat in the Battle of the Nemen River , motivated the Bolsheviks to propose a peace treaty. [ 23 ] Poland, exhausted, [ 23 ] agreed to define a new border after a series of short negotiations. The new frontier was embodied in the Peace of Riga. During the war, the territories destined for the Ukrainian state were absorbed by Poland and the newly established Soviet Ukraine . [ 23 ] [ 21 ]
Poland also fought two short wars against Czechoslovakia and Lithuania in 1919 and 1920 respectively (see Polish-Czechoslovak Border Conflict and Polish-Lithuanian War ), annexing the Lithuanian capital Vilnius and 20% of the territory in the latter and achieving a border settlement in the former. . With Lithuania it remained in a state of war until the start of World War II, when thousands of Polish soldiers requested asylum in Lithuania, escaping from the Nazi army.
Although Polish policy during the interwar period stipulated that the military alliance with France obtained in the Locarno Treaties was the best guarantee against Germany and the Soviet Union, this did not prevent Poland from signing non-aggression pacts with the Soviets in 1932. Although the Bolsheviks threatened to break the pact if Poland occupied Czechoslovak territories during the Sudeten Crisis ; These threats were not carried out, and Poland annexed Zaolzie . This pact was reaffirmed in 1938.
Second World War
On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland . Two days later, the United Kingdom and France declared war on the aggressor, starting World War II . On September 17, the Soviet invasion of Poland began . The German army and the Soviets did not attack each other and divided Poland, as they had agreed in a secret clause of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact .
The Nazis set up a very effective blitzkrieg , they advanced fast. In the conquest of Poland, they launched bombardments and attacks that devastated the nation. Faced with the resistance, the Germans hardened their offensives on the cities, which partially destroyed and killed thousands of people. Faced with such superiority, at the beginning of October 1939 the country was fully occupied.
In occupied Poland, Jews were locked up within the cities of Warsaw and Lodz . In those ghettos , overcrowding, hunger and disease claimed thousands of lives. From among them, people were selected to be sent by rail to the death camps, where they sent the local Jewish population and from other occupied countries, as well as gypsies and dissidents from Germany.
On April 19, 1943, under the command of Mordecai Anilewicz, in the Warsaw ghetto they took up arms against the Nazis , who were crushed on May 6. Almost the entire Polish Jewish population was exterminated.
In August 1944, the Warsaw Uprising began , planned by the Armia Krajowa or Territorial Army , representing the constitutional government in exile . It was part of Operation Tempest , to liberate Poland before the Soviet Union did . Polish troops held the German siege for 63 days, but in the absence of Allied support , they were outmatched by the much better equipped German troops. The end of the war left 250,000 Warsaw civilians dead, most of them executed, and more than 85% of the city's buildings destroyed.
Germany administered the nucleus of the Polish territories under its control under the form of the General Government , the westernmost regions being annexed to Germany. The forces of Nazi Germany were forced to withdraw by the Red Army and Polish volunteers, creating in the postwar period the People's Republic of Poland , a satellite socialist state of the Soviet Union . Its borders, established at the Potsdam Conference , underwent a drastic change, as the " Curzon A Line ", established in the east, stripped Poland of territories that it recovered in the west under the " Oder-Neisse Line.'At the expense of Germany.
The Second World War caused an overwhelming trauma in Poland. Their cities were destroyed and 20% of the population had been killed by the Germans or killed by the attacks. Much of the nation's identity was outraged and 80% of important buildings reduced to rubble. The reconstruction of the country began during the Cold War , until it was reached in the 1980s.
People's Republic of Poland
At the end of World War II, the USSR was left with the territory of Poland up to the Curzon line and the territories of the German city of Königsberg; In compensation, it was agreed in the Potsdam agreement that the western border of Germany should be moved to the Oder-Neisse line, thus losing Germany 25% of its territory, with which Poland finally lost 76,855 square kilometers of the area it had in 1939, subtracting what the USSR took from what it gained from Germany. Poland thus became the only country that, winning a war, lost territorial extension.
This generated the forced departure of several million Poles from their lands, and fourteen million Germans from theirs, of which half a million Germans died during the expulsion, among those who chose to stay, a policy was carried on them. of repression, carrying out laws for example that prohibited speaking German, receiving fines for it, because of these policies, most of those who had decided to stay were forced to emigrate to Germany.
Third Polish Republic
At the end of the 1980s, an opposition movement to the government, led by the Solidarność labor union, managed to put in check the communist regime , supported by the Western powers and the Catholic Church , which managed to influence the process, through its leaders, to secure the restoration of democratic freedoms. On September 13, 1989, parliament approved a new non-communist government, the first in the Eastern Bloc . [ 25 ] The doors were opened to capitalism and the free market (introduced through liberalizing reformsby the previous administration) under a multiparty parliamentary electoral regime , giving rise to the modern Polish State, which changed its official name to the Republic of Poland. [ 26 ] Poland joined the European Union in 2004.
government and politics
Poland has a president as head of state . The president is elected by direct universal suffrage every five years. From December 23, 2005, the president was Lech Kaczyński , the twin brother of Jarosław, the former prime minister, until he died in a plane crash in 2010. [ 27 ] From 2010 to 2015 the president was Bronisław Komorowski . The current President of the Republic of Poland is Andrzej Duda .
The government structure is centered on the Council of Ministers , led by the Prime Minister . The current one is Mateusz Morawiecki . The president appoints the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister, who usually belongs to the majority coalition in the lower house of Parliament ( Sejm ) that must also approve these proposals. Due to the distribution of executive power between the President and the Prime Minister, Poland is considered a semi-presidential regime.
Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament from a Sejm , the lower house, of 460 "deputies" and a Senat , the upper house, of 100 senators. The Sejm is elected multinominally according to the D'Hondt system , a method quite generalized in other parliamentary systems. The Senate is elected with a particular simple majority block vote: the candidates with the greatest support from each electoral district are chosen.
Except for ethnic minority parties, only candidates from parties that receive at least 5% of the total national vote will enter the Sejm. By sitting in joint session, the members of the Sejm and the Senate form the National Assembly ( Zgromadzenie Narodowe ). The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: with each new President, when an accusation against the President of the Republic reaches the State Court ( Trybunał Stanu ) and when a permanent incapacity of the President to exercise his duties is declared due to his state of Health. At the moment, only the first has been given.
The judiciary has an important role in decision-making. Its main institutions include the Supreme Court of Poland ( Sąd Najwyższy ); the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland ( Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny ); the Constitutional Court of Poland ( Trybunał Konstytucyjny ); and the State Court of Poland ( Trybunał Stanu ). Upon Senate approval, the Sejm also appoints the Ombudsman ( Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich ) every five years. The Ombudsman has the duty to protect and implement the rights of Polish citizens and residents, and of the law and the principles of community life and social justice.
In recent years, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations of Europe and many countries in development .
Poland is a member of the European Union , NATO , the UN , the World Trade Organization , the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Economic Area , the International Energy Agency , the Council of Europe , the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the International Atomic Energy Agency , the European Space Agency , G6 , the Council of Baltic Sea States , the Visegrád Group ,Weimar Triangle , the Schengen Agreement , among others.
In 1994, Poland became an associate member of the European Union (EU), and the Western European Union (WEU), having submitted preliminary documentation for full members in 1996, formally joined the European Union in May. 2004, along with the other members of the Visegrád Group . In 1996, Poland achieved full membership of the OECD, and at the Madrid Summit of 1997 it was invited to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), finally becoming a full member of NATO in March of 1999.
As part of the changes since the fall of communism in 1989, Poland has sought to forge strong and mutually beneficial relationships with its seven new neighbors, including signing 'treaties of friendship' to replace relationships broken by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. . The Poles have forged special relationships with Lithuania and in particular with Ukraine , where it co-hosted the UEFA European Football Championship in 2012, in an effort to firmly anchor these countries in the Western world and offer them an alternative to aligning with the Federation. From Russia. Despite many positive developments in the region, Poland has found itself in a position where it must try to defend the rights of ethnic Poles living in the former Soviet Union ; This is largely the case in Belarus , where in 2005 President Aleksandr Lukashenko launched a campaign against the Polish ethnic minority. [ 28 ]
Poland is the sixth most populous member country of the European Union , and since joining in 2004, it has pursued policies to increase its role in European affairs. Poland has a total of 51 representatives in the European Parliament . A survey carried out by the Polish Public Opinion Research Center between March 30 and April 2, 2007 found that 86% of Poles believed that entry into the European Union had been positive, and only 5 % were openly against it. In the same survey, 55% of those surveyed said they preferred the European Union to remain a union of sovereign states, while 22% preferred the idea of a " United States of Europe ". [ 29] According to 75% of those surveyed, entry into the European Union has improved agriculture, productivity (57%) and employment (56%). [ 30 ]
The Polish Armed Forces are made up of five branches: Army of the Republic of Poland (in Polish , Wojska Lądowe RP ), the Special Forces of the Republic of Poland (in Polish , Wojska Specjalne RP ), the Navy of the Republic of Poland (in Polish , Marynarka Wojenna RP ), Territorial Defense Forces (in Polish , Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej ) and the Air Force of the Republic of Poland (in Polish , Siły Powietrzne RP), and are under the command of the Ministry of National Defense (in Polish , Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej ), however, their only commander-in-chief is the President of the Republic.
The responsibility for national defense rests with the Armed Forces, which are assigned by article 26 of the Constitution of Poland the mission of guaranteeing the sovereignty and independence of Poland and defending its territorial integrity. The Polish Armed Forces have traditionally been divided into four arms: Army, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces.
The Polish army consists of an active staff of 65,000, while the navy and air force employ 14,300 and 26,126 men and women respectively. The Polish Navy is one of the largest navies in the Baltic Sea and is mostly involved in Baltic operations such as supplying search and rescue for the section of the Baltic under Polish command, as well as hydrographic measurements and the investigation; however, the Polish Navy played a more international role as part of the 2003 invasion of Iraq , providing logistical support to the United States Navy.
The current position of the Polish Air Force is very similar; it has routinely taken part in Baltic Air Police assignments, but otherwise, except for a number of units serving in Afghanistan , it has not seen active combat since the end of World War II . In 2003, the F-16C Block 52 was chosen as the air force's new general multi-role fighter.
The most important mission of the armed forces is the defense of the territorial integrity of Poland and of Polish interests abroad. The armed forces are being reorganized according to NATO standards , and on January 1, 2010, the transition of the army was completed. During the previous period, men were forced to do compulsory military service. In the final stage of the validity of this type of military service (from 2007 until the amendment of the law on compulsory military service in 2008) the duration of compulsory service amounted to nine months.
Polish military doctrine reflects the same defensive character as that of its NATO partners . From 1953 to 2009, Poland was a large contributor to various United Nations peacekeeping missions . The Polish armed forces took part in the invasion of Iraq in 2003 , deploying some 2,500 soldiers in the south of that country.
|CESCR||CCPR [ 33 ]||CERD [ 34 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 36 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 40 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
Since January 1, 1999, Poland has been divided into three levels of territorial units: 16 voivodeships or voivodeships ( województwo ), 380 districts ( powiat ) and 24,787 municipalities ( gmina ). [ 41 ] In different periods of Polish history the number of voivodeships has been higher or lower.
La capital es Varsovia ( Warsaw ; en alemán: Warschau ; en inglés Warsaw ) las ciudades mayores son: Cracovia ( Kraków ), Breslavia (Wrocław), Lodz ( Łódź ), Poznan ( Poznań ), Gdansk ( Gdańsk ), Szczecin , Bydgoszcz , Lublin , Katowice , Bialystok ( Białystok ), Toruń , Olsztyn , Rzeszów. The largest conurbation in Poland and one of the most populous in the European Union is the Silesian Metropolitan Area .
The territory of Poland extends through several geographical regions, between latitudes 49 ° and 55 ° N and longitudes 14 ° and 25 ° E. To the northwest is the coast of the Baltic Sea, which extends from the Bay of Pomerania to the Gulf of Gdansk . This coast is marked by several lagoons, coastal lakes (old bays that have been cut off from the sea), and dunes. The largely straight coastline is interrupted by the Szczecin Lagoon , Puck Bay, and the Vistula Lagoon . The center and much of the north lie within the North European plain .
Rising above these lowlands, it is a geographic region comprising the four moraine moraine districts and dammed moraine lakes formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age . These districts are the Pomeranian Lake , the Great Polish, the Kashubia and the Masurian Lake District . The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and covers much of northeastern Poland. The lake districts are part of the Baltic mountain range, a series of moraine ribbons along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea .
South of the lowlands of northern Europe are the Silesian and Mazovian regions , characterized by valleys and rivers. Further south is the Polish mountain region, including the Sudetenland , the Krakow-Czestochowa Plateau, the Holy Cross Mountains , and the Carpathian Mountains , including the Beskides Mountains . The highest part of the Carpathians is the Tatra Mountains , along the southern border of Poland.
The geological structure of Poland has been formed by the continental collision of Europe and Africa in the last 60 million years, by the Quarterian glaciations of northern Europe. Both processes made up the Sudetenland and the Carpathians . The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils composed mainly of sand or loam , while the river valleys of the south often contain loess . The Krakow-Czestochowa Plateau, the Pieniny Mountains and the Western Tatras consist of limestone, while the High Tatras , the Beskidy Mountains and the Giant Mountains are mainly made up of granite and basalt . The Krakow-Czestochowa Plateau is one of the oldest mountain ranges on earth.
Poland has 70 mountains of more than 2000 m altitude, all in the Tatras Mountains . The Polish Tatras, consisting of the High Tatras and the Western Tatras, is the highest mountain group in Poland and the entire Carpathian mountain range . In the High Tatras is the highest point in Poland, the north-west of Rysy Peak , at 2499 m . At its feet is the Black Lake, at the foot of Mount Rysy and Morskie Oko (Sea Eye).
The second highest group of mountains in the country are the Beskidy Mountains , whose highest peak is the Babia Góra , at 1725 m . The next highest mountain groups are found in the Giant Mountains in the Sudetenland , the highest point of which is Sněžka , at 1602 m ; and the Králický Sněžník Mountains , whose highest point is Snieznik, at 1425 m .
Tourists also frequent the mountains located in the Bieszczady National Park , in the extreme southeast of Poland, whose highest point in Poland is Tarnica , with an elevation of 1346 m ; the Gorce Mountains in Gorce National Park , whose highest point is Turbacz, with elevations 1310 m , and the Pieniny Mountains , in Pieniny National Park , whose highest point is Wysokie Skalki ( Wysoka ), with elevations of 1050 m . The lowest point in Poland - 2 meters below sea level - is located at Raczki Elbląskie, near Elbląg in the Vistula delta..
The only desert located in Poland extends over the Zagłębie Dąbrowskie (located near the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza ). It is called the Błędów Desert , located in the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland. It has a total area of 32 square kilometers. It is one of only five natural deserts in Europe. But it is also the hottest desert that appears at this latitude. The Błędów Desert was created thousands of years ago by a melting glacier. The specific geological structure has been of great importance. The average thickness of the sand layer is about 40 meters, with a maximum of 70 meters.
The activity of the Baltic Sea in the Słowiński National Park has created the sand dunes, which in the course of time separated the bay from the sea. As the waves and the wind carry the sand into the dunes, they move slowly at a speed of 3 to 10 meters per year. Some dunes are quite high (up to 30 meters). The highest peak in the park (Rowokol at 115 meters) is also an excellent point. The areas around the cities of Szczecin , Świnoujście and Gdansk and Elbląg were formed by the Oder and Vistula rivers .
The climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. The climate is oceanic in the north and west, gradually becoming warmer and more continental to the south and east. Summers are generally warm, with average temperatures between 18 and 30 ° C depending on a region. Winters are quite cold, with average temperatures of 3 ° C in the northwest and -6 ° C in the northeast. The precipitations are frequent throughout the year, although, especially in the east; in winter it is drier than in summer.
The warmest region in Poland is Lower Silesia located in southwestern Poland, where temperatures in the summer average between 24 and 32 ° C, but can go as high as 34 to 39 ° C on some days in the month over hot in July and August. The warmest cities in Poland are Tarnów and Krakow , both located in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship . Average temperatures in Krakow are 20 ° C in the summer and 0 ° C in the winter, but Tarnów has the longest summer in all of Poland, lasting 115 days, from mid-May to mid-September. The coldest region of Poland is located in the northeast in thePodlachian Voivodeship , near the border with Belarus and Lithuania . Usually the coldest city is Suwałki . The climate is affected by the cold fronts that come from Scandinavia and Siberia . The average winter temperature in Podlachia ranges from -4 ° C -15 ° C.
The longest rivers are the Vistula , 1047 kilometers long; the Oder , which is part of the western border of Poland, 854 kilometers long; its tributary, the Varta River , 808 kilometers long; and the Western Bug , a tributary of the Vistula, 772 kilometers long. The Vistula and the Oder flow into the Baltic Sea , as do many minor rivers in Pomerania .
The Łyna River and the Angrapa flow through the Pregolya River to the Baltic Sea, while the Czarna Hańcza flows into the Baltic Sea through the Niemen River . While the vast majority of Poland's rivers drain into the Baltic Sea, Poland's Beskidy Mountains are the source of some of the upper tributaries of the Orava River , which flow through the Váh and the Danube into the Black Sea. The eastern Beskidy Mountains are also the source of some streams that drain through the Dniester to the Black Sea.
The rivers of Poland have been used since ancient times for navigation. The Vikings , for example, traveled to the Vistula and the Oder in their longships . In the Middle Ages and in modern times, when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the granary of Europe; shipments of grain and other agricultural products, moved through the Vistula to Gdansk and from there to other parts of Europe where they acquired great importance.
With nearly 10,000 enclosed bodies of water covering more than 1 hectare (2.47 acres) each, Poland has one of the highest lake numbers in the world. In Europe , only Finland has a higher density of lakes. The largest lakes, covering more than 100 square kilometers, are Lake Śniardwy and Lake Mamry in Masuria , and Lake Łebsko and Lake Drawsko in Pomerania .
In addition to the lake districts in the north (in Masuria , Pomerania , Kashubia , Lubusz , and Greater Poland ), there are also a large number of mountain lakes in the Tatras Mountains , of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in the area. . The lake with the deepest depth of more than 100 meters, is Lake Hańcza , east of Masuria in the Podlachian Voivodeship .
Among the first lakes whose shores were populated, were those of Greater Poland . The Biskupin stilt houses were occupied by more than a thousand inhabitants, being founded before the 7th century BC. C. by the people of the Lusatian culture .
Lakes have always played an important role in Polish history and remain of great importance to modern Polish society. The ancestors of today's Poles, the Polanie , built their first fortresses on the islands of these lakes. The legendary Prince Popiel ruled Kruszwica from a tower erected on Lake Gopło. The first historically documented ruler of Poland, Duke Miecislaus I , had his palace on an island in the Varta River in Poznan . Today the Polish lakes provide a place for water sports such as sailing and windsurfing .
The Baltic coast of Poland is approximately 528 kilometers long and stretches from Świnoujście on the islands of Usedom and Wolin in the west to Krynica Morska in the Vistula Ridge to the east. For the most part, Poland has a smooth coastline, which has been formed by the continuous movement of sand by currents and winds. This continuous erosion and deposition has formed cliffs, dunes and spits, many of which have migrated inland to close old lagoons, such as Lake Łebsko in Słowiński National Park .
Before the end of World War II and the subsequent modification of national borders, Poland had only a small coastline; It is located at the end of the Polish Corridor , the internationally recognized Polish territory, which only gave countries access to the sea. However, after WWII, the redrawing of Poland's borders and the consequent 'shifting' of the country's borders left a greatly expanded coastline, allowing much greater access to the sea than was ever possible before. The importance of this event, and the importance of it for the future of Poland as an industrialized nation, alludes to the Marriage of Poland with the Sea of 1945.
The largest littoral ranges are those of the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Range. The largest island in Poland is the island of Wolin . The largest seaports are those of Szczecin , Świnoujście , Gdansk , Gdynia , Police and Kołobrzeg . The main coastal resorts are Świnoujście , Kołobrzeg , Sopot , Władysławowo and the Hel Peninsula.
Poland is the fourth most forested country in Europe. Forests cover approximately 30.5% of Poland's land area based on international standards, and their global share continues to increase. Poland's forests are managed by the National Reforestation Program (KPZL), with the goal of increasing forest cover to reach 33% by 2050. The richness of Poland's forests is more than twice as high to the European average (with Germany and France at the top), which contains 2304 million cubic meters of trees. The largest forest complex in Poland is the Lower Silesian Wilderness Area .
More than 1% of the territory of Poland, 3,145 square kilometers, is protected within 23 national parks. Three other national parks are projected for Masuria, the Krakow-Czestochowa plateau, and the Beskidy mountains . Furthermore, the wetlands along lakes and rivers in central Poland are legally protected, as are the coastal areas in the north. There are more than 120 areas designated as natural parks, along with numerous nature reserves and other protected areas (eg the Natura 2000 Network ).
Today Poland is a country with favorable agricultural prospects, and more than two million private farms. It is the main European producer of potatoes and rye (the second largest in the world by 1989), the world's largest producer of triticale , and one of the most important producers of barley , oats , beets , cucumber , flax and fruit. It is the fourth largest supplier of pork to the European Union, after Germany, Spain and France. On the other hand, the government continues to debate a new agrarian reform and the search for the option of auctioning large tracts of state-owned agricultural land.
Phytogeographically , Poland belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom . According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the territory of Poland belongs to three Palearctic continental forest ecoregions encompassing Central and Northern Europe of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, as well as that of the Carpathians .
Many animals that have become extinct in other parts of Europe still survive in Poland, such as the European bison in the former forest of Białowieża and Podlachia . Other such species include the brown bear in Białowieża , in the Tatras and Beskidy mountains , the gray wolf and the Eurasian lynx in various forests, the elk in the north of the country, and the beaver in Masuria , Pomerania , and Podlachia. .
In the forests, game animals are also found, such as deer , roe deer and wild boar . In eastern Poland there are a number of ancient forests, such as that of Białowieża. There are also large forested areas in the mountains of Masuria, Pomerania, Lebus and Lower Silesia.
Poland is home to the most important nesting ground for a variety of European migratory birds. Of all migratory birds arriving in Europe in summer, a quarter of the world population of white storks (40,000 breeding pairs) nest in Poland, especially in the lake and wetland districts along the Biebrza , the Narew and the Warta, which are part of the nature reserves or national parks.
The state economic system (known hyperbolically as communism or socialism , due to the propaganda of capitalism and the Soviet Bloc , respectively) that was established in Poland after the Second World War favored the industrialization of the country, whose economy was traditionally based on agriculture. The command economy was not fully applied in the agricultural sector and half of the properties remained private. However, state control over production, prices and distribution left the countryside without incentives for competitiveness, and with very low technification and productivity. Already in the market economy, the distribution of production continues to show the importance of agriculture, which provides 4% of its GDP . [ 42 ] The cultivation of potatoes , of which it is the fifth largest producer in the world, and cereals stand out. The beet , textile fibers, hops and snuff are the main industrial crops. Legumes, forage, vegetables and turnips are also obtained.
The pig and bovine cabins are remarkable. Meat , milk and leather are obtained from them . Forest exploitation is scarce, despite the fact that forests cover 28% of the territory. The fishing activity is significant and, although it operates in the Baltic Sea , its offshore fishing fleet stands out for catching hake and herring . In terms of obtaining mineral and energy resources, coal is the country's main resource and one of its main export products. It is mined in the Upper Silesian and Wałbrzych basins . The reserves of sulfur , copper are also importantand lead , as well as zinc , silver , nickel , magnesite and rock salt . The rest of the energy resources are scarce, except for natural gas , which is found in the Carpathians .
When the market economy system was introduced in 1990, the main problems of the industrial sector were observed: high concentration of the economy in one sector (heavy industry), business oversize and obsolete technology, which generated low returns and serious environmental problems. The privatization and economic reform program began in 1990. With the collaboration of global economic institutions, such as the IMF and the World Bank , the industry began to generate very good results, but with a great disparity in wealth. The main industrial areas of the country are located in Upper Silesia ( Katowice , Rybnik, Bielsko ), in Krakow and Warsaw . The most important iron and steel activities are the production of cast iron, steel , aluminum and zinc and lead smelting . Copper metallurgy is important worldwide, competing with its peers in Chile and Cyprus . The construction of machinery is highly developed and a large part is dedicated to exports, while the industry that produces consumer goods is growing in importance.
In the five-year period 2000-2004, Poland partially solved its main macroeconomic problems - high deficits and highly fluctuating inflation - which allowed it to join the European Union . By size and population, Poland is called to be a member of great importance. Currently, its main suppliers are members of the European Union (39.8%), among them Germany (25.2%) stands out.
The most prosperous regions are Mazovia , Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia . These regions have a GDP comparable to several regions of great wealth and industrial development in the union . The poorest regions are located in eastern Poland: Lublin and Subcarpathia , their GDP does not exceed $ 2 thousand and is less than 40% of the average for the entire European Union.
Having completely turned the page on the planned economy in the years 1990-2000, the Polish economy is today one of the most dynamic in Europe and is the only European state that has not experienced recession during the crisis of 2008-2011. Despite the economic crisis, the Polish economy is growing at 1.2% (Q3 2009), which is the best result in the European Union.
Agriculture employs 10.5% of the active population , but contributes only 7% of GDP, which shows the low productivity of this sector. [ 42 ] The least employment in agriculture occurs in the Silesian and Lower Silesian regions (approximately 5%).
Contrary to what happened in the industrial sector, during the communist period the Polish agricultural sector was largely in private hands. Most of the former state farms are currently leased to farmers, as the lack of credit lines hampers the sale of state farmland. However, the possible revision in 2007 of the distribution of aid to agriculture by the European Union could help to soften the situation.
Currently, two million private farms occupy 90% of agricultural land and represent approximately the same percentage of total agricultural production. These farms are small, measuring 8 ha, and are often divided. Farms with an area greater than 15 hectares represent 9% of the total, but occupy 45% of the agricultural land. More than half of the farms in Poland produce only what is necessary for self-consumption or very little for sale.
However, Poland is the largest European producer of potatoes and rye and one of the world's largest producers of beets. It is also a large producer of rapeseed , and of pigs and cattle. Poland exports sweets, manufactured fruits and vegetables, meat and dairy products.
Wheat, grain, vegetable oil and protein foods are often imported, which are generally insufficient to meet domestic demand. Attempts to increase grain production have been hampered by the short growing season, poor soil, and small farm sizes.
Before World War II, the Polish industrial base was in the coal, textile, chemical, machinery, iron and steel sectors. Today there is also industrial activity for the production of fertilizers, petrochemicals, automatic and electrical tools, electronic items, and the construction of cars and boats.
The Polish industrial base was practically destroyed in World War II . The communist economic system imposed in the 1940s created large economic structures that developed under the centralist system, which ended up collapsing the system.
In 1990, the Mazowiecki government began a reform program to replace the centralist program with a more market-oriented system. The results were a gradual incorporation into the market economy and an increase in the results of the different productive sectors. In February 2004, industrial production was growing at 18% per year.
Poland experienced an increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union . Tourism in Poland contributes to the overall economy of the country and constitutes a relatively large proportion of the country's service market.
Krakow was the ancient capital and a relic of Poland in the Golden Age of the Renaissance . It contains the place of the coronation of most of the Polish kings. It was named European Capital of Culture by the European Union for the year 2000. The city of Wroclaw was designated as European Capital of Culture in 2016, in addition to being one of the oldest cities in Poland. During WWII , Wroclaw was one of the worst hit cities, yet the city has been restored and attracts several million visitors each year. The capital of Poland, Warsaw , which was also destroyed and rebuilt, offers a wide variety of attractions.
The main tourist offers in Poland are based around tourism in its main cities, as well as in extra-urban areas, qualified tourism, agritourism , mountain hiking and climbing, as well as business trips. Poland is the 17th most visited country in the world by foreign tourists, according to the ranking of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in 2012. Other tourist destinations include coastline in the north of the Baltic Sea , the Masurian Lake District , and the Bialowieza forest in the east, in the south are the Giant mountains , the Table mountains , theTatras Mountains , where you can find the highest peak in Poland ( Rysy ) and the famous Orla Perć; the Pieniny national park , as well as the mountains of the Bieszczady national park in the extreme southeast of the country.
Tourism in the province is based on the virtues of nature, monuments and traditional culture. These include spa, towns and rural tourism villages. In Warsaw , Krakow , Poznan , Toruń and many other research centers the development of tourism is cultural and scientific in nature.
Transport in Poland is generally distributed via railways , highways, sea transport and air travel. Positioned in central-eastern Europe, Poland has long been, and continues to be, a key country through which imports pass into the European Union and are exported outside of it.
Since joining the European Union in May 2004, Poland has invested large amounts of money in modernizing its transport networks. The country has a network of development highways made up of highways such as the A1 , A2, A4 , A18 and expressways such as the S1, S3, S5, S7, and S8. In addition to these newly built roads, many local and regional roads are being rebuilt as part of a national program to rebuild all roads in Poland.
Once again, when it comes to railways, the same situation is occurring. The Polish authorities have started a program by which they hope to increase operating speeds across the entire Polish rail network. The Polish State Railways (PKP) are using the new rolling stock, ten new Siemens Taurus ES64U4 machines capable of reaching speeds equal to 200 km / h. Finally, there is a plan to introduce high-speed rail to Poland from around December 2014. The Polish government has revealed its intention to connect all major cities of a future high-speed rail network by 2020. The new test train PKP Pendolino ETR 610 set the record for the fastest train in Polish history, reaching 293 km / h,Warsaw to Krakow . The old recorded top speed was 160km / h since 1985.
Most of the intercity rail operations in Poland are operated by PKP Intercity, while regional trains are run by a number of operators, the largest of which is Przewozy Regionalne.
The air and sea transport markets in Poland are well developed. Poland has a number of international airports; the largest of which is Warsaw Chopin Airport , which is the global hub of LOT Polish Airlines . LOT is the 28th largest European airline and one of the twelve oldest still in operation, established in 1929, from a merger of Aerolloyd (1922) and Aero (1925). Other major airports with international connections in almost all regions, for example, John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice , Gdansk-Lech Walesa , International Airport Katowice and the Airport Wroclaw-Copernicus.
There are seaports along the Baltic coast of Poland, where most freight operations use the ports of Szczecin , Świnoujście, Gdynia and Gdansk as their base. Passenger ships link Poland with the Scandinavian countries throughout the year; these services are provided from Gdansk and Świnoujście by Polferries, Stena Line from Gdynia, and Unity Line from the port of Świnoujście.
Science and Technology
Poland has been home to some of the most outstanding researchers in different scientific fields. In chemistry and physics: Marie Curie , Roald Hoffmann , Albert Abraham Michelson , Isidor Isaac Rabi , Ignacy Łukasiewicz or Frank Wilczek . In mathematics, astronomy, medicine and economics: Nicolás Copernicus , Johannes Hevelius , Aleksander Wolszczan , Jan Brożek , Marian Rejewski , Stefan Banach , Karol Borsuk , Emil Leon Post , Jędrzej Śniadecki ,Stanisław Ulam , Andrew Schally , Józef Kosacki and Leonid Hurwicz . Thus, about 30 Poles (of nationality or origin) have been awarded the Nobel Prize .
According to Frost & Sullivan's Country Industry Forecast, the country is becoming an interesting place for investment research and development. Multinational companies such as: ABB, Delphi, GlaxoSmithKline, Google , Hewlett-Packard , IBM , Intel , LG Electronics , Microsoft , Motorola , Siemens and SamsungThey have created research and development centers in Poland. More than 40 research and development centers and 4,500 researchers live in Poland, making it the largest research and development center in Central and Eastern Europe. Companies generally choose Poland because of the availability of a highly skilled workforce, the presence of universities, the support of the authorities, and the larger market in Central Europe.
Today the Polish tertiary education institutions; traditionally universities (found in their major cities), as well as technical, medical and economic institutions, employ some 61,000 researchers and staff members. There are about 300 research and development institutes, with about 10,000 researchers. In total, there are about 91,000 scientists in Poland today. However, in the 19th and 20th centuries many Polish scientists worked abroad; one of the greatest of these exiles was Marie Curie , a Polish physicist and chemist who lived much of her life in France. In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing center of mathematics. Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the Lwów School of Mathematics (with Stefan Banach , Hugo Steinhaus , Stanisław Ulam ) and the Warsaw School of Mathematics (with Alfred Tarski , Kazimierz Kuratowski , and Waclaw Sierpinski ). The events of World War II drove many of them into exile. Such was the case with Benoît Mandelbrot , whose family left Poland when he was still a child. A student of the Warsaw School of Mathematics was Antoni Zygmund, one of the forgers of mathematical analysis in the 20th century .
According to a KPMG report, 80% of current investors in Poland are happy with their choice and are willing to reinvest. In 2006, Intel decided to double the number of employees at its research and development center in Gdansk .
The share of the telecommunications sector in GDP is 4.4% (final figure for 2000), compared to 2.5% in 1996. Coverage increased from 78 users per 1000 inhabitants in 1989 to 282 in 2000.
The value of the telecommunications market is 38.2bn zl (2006), and grew 12.4% in 2007 PMR. Mobile cellular coverage has more than 1000 users for every 1000 people (2007). Regarding mobile-cellular telephones, there are more than: 38.7 million users (Onet.pl and GUS Report, 2007), in addition to 1 2,500,000 land telephone lines in use (Telecom Report, 2005).
Regarding Internet access , the most popular services for home users in Poland are Neostrada provided by Orange (Poland) and Net24 provided by Netia. Business users as well as some home users use DSL TP Internet also offered by TPSA. According to Eurostat , the OECDand others, Internet access in Poland is among the most expensive in Europe. This is mainly due to the lack of competitiveness. New operators, such as Diálogo and GTS Energis, are creating their own supplier lines and offering a more attractive and cheaper service. The Polish Electronic Communication Office is forcing TPSA to rent 51% of its ADSL lines to other ISPs with prices up to 60% lower. This measure will affect DSL prices in Poland.
The public postal service in Poland is operated by Poczta Polska. It was created on October 18, 1558, when King Sigismund II Augustus Jagellon established a permanent postal route from Krakow to Venice (later also to Wilno ) in order to manage the affairs of Italy that arose after the death of the queen. Bona Sforza from Milan , her mother. Since then, the service has been dissolved several times, especially during the partitions of Poland.. After regaining independence in 1918, the territory of the Polish States was in need of a uniform distribution network of communication. Therefore, the interwar period saw the rapid development of the postal system as new services were introduced (eg, money transfers, pension payments, magazine delivery, and airmail). Although, during national uprisings and in the course of communication at war, it was provided mainly through field messages, which were subject to military authority, where postmen always took an active part in the fight for independence through the delivering packages and documents in secret or by providing vital information about the enemy.Warsaw uprising . During the difficult times of World War II , the Polish post in exile tried to lift the spirits of their compatriots by issuing postage stamps.
Poland, with 38,544,513 inhabitants, has the eighth largest population in Europe and is the fifth-largest country in the European Union . It has a population density of 122 inhabitants per square kilometer (328 per square mile).
Poland historically contained many languages, cultures and religions on its soil. The country had a particularly large Jewish population before World War II , when Nazi Germany carried out the Holocaust . There were more than 3 million Jews before the war and afterwards only about 300,000 remained. The result of the war, in particular the displacement of the borders of Poland to the area between the Curzon line and the Oder-Neisse line , together With the expulsion of minorities in the postwar period, it significantly reduced the ethnic diversity of the country. More than 7 million Germans fled or were expelled from the Polish part of the Oder-Neisse border.
The ethnic composition of Poland has changed markedly throughout the 20th century . Until the Second World War , 30% were made up of minority groups. The Germans were concentrated in lands close to their country of origin, while the Ukrainians and Belarusians lived in eastern regions. Many Jewish communities were also established in Polish cities. The Republic of Poland was the second country in Europe with the most fatalities in World War II , only surpassed by the Soviet Union . To these losses must also be added the loss of a significant number of inhabitants as a result of the restructuring of its borders.
In recent years, Poland's population has decreased due to increased emigration and a sharp decline in the birth rate. Since Poland's accession to the European Union, a significant number of Poles have emigrated, mainly to the United Kingdom , Germany and the Republic of Ireland in search of better job opportunities abroad. By April 2007, the UK's Polish population had increased to around 300,000, and estimates put the Polish population in Ireland at 65,000. Some sources claim that the number of Polish citizens who emigrated to the UK after 2004 it is as high as 2 million.
All these marked the current configuration of the Polish population, which had as its main consequence the homogenization of the population. At present it is composed of 98.7% Poles compared to 1.3% of people of other origins, mainly Germans , Lithuanians , Tatars , Ukrainians and Belarusians, as well as Jews and Gypsies .
Poland currently has a population of 38.5 million inhabitants, the present ethnic composition is as follows: [ 43 ]
- Poles: 98.7%
- From other European countries: 1.2%
- Gypsies, others: 0.1%
As for the language, the Polish language, part of the branch of the West Slavic languages, functions as the official language of Poland. Until the last decades the Russian language was commonly learned as a second language, but it has been replaced by English and Spanish as of 2019, [ 44 ] the second most common languages to be studied and spoken.
The most important cities in Poland are: Warsaw , which is the capital and is in the center of this country, in Mazovia ; Krakow , the second most populated city in the country and the former capital of Poland in the south of the country (in " Little Poland "), has almost 800 thousand inhabitants and is the city that receives the most tourists; Lodz which is situated in its center; Gdansk , the capital of Pomerania , a city with one of the most important ports on the Baltic; Wroclaw , the capital of Lower Silesia and one of the main economic and technological development centers of the country.
Most populous cities in Poland |
Official report for 2013
| ||Town||Voivodeship||Population||Town||Voivodeship||Population|| |
|1||Warsaw||Mazovia||1 715 517||11||Bialystok||Podlaquia||294 921|
|2||Cracovia||Little poland||758 463||12||Gdynia||Pomerania||248 726|
|3||Lodz||Lodz||718 960||13||Czestochowa||Silesia||234 472|
|4||Wroclaw||Lower Silesia||631 188||14||Radom||Mazovia||219 703|
|5||Poznan||Greater poland||550 742||15||Sosnowiec||Silesia||213 513|
|6||Gdansk||Pomerania||460 427||16||Toruń||Kuyavian and Pomeranian||204 299|
|7||Szczecin||Pomerania Occidental||408 913||17||Kielce||Santa Cruz||200 938|
|8||Bydgoszcz||Kuyavian and Pomeranian||361 254||18||Gliwice||Silesia||186 210|
|9||Lublin||Lublin||347 678||19||Rzeszow||Subcarpathian||182 028|
|10||Katowice||Silesia||307 233||20||Zabrze||Silesia||179 452|
Outside its borders another twelve million Poles live, in the territories that call themselves "the Polonias." The main host states for these waves of migration were the United States , Canada , Germany , France and the former Soviet republics of Lithuania , Ukraine , Latvia and Belarus . In South America the largest Polish colonies are those of the southern cone countries : Argentina , southern Brazil and Uruguay . Likewise VenezuelaIt was observed by Poles as a valid destination to emigrate due to the difficulties of being received in traditional countries such as the United States, Canada and Brazil. [ 45 ] In Central America, the Polish community in Costa Rica is notable .
|Religion in Poland (2011) [ 46 ]|
|Catholic Church 87.5% Irreligion or no response 11.1% Other religions 1.4%|
Catholicism continues to play an important role in the lives of many Poles, and the Catholic Church in Poland enjoys social prestige and political influence, despite the repression experienced under Communist rule. Its members consider it a repository of Polish heritage and culture. Poland claims to have the highest proportion of Catholic citizens of any country in Europe except Malta (even more than in Italy, Spain and Ireland).
Since its inception, Poland has contributed substantially to the development of religious freedom. Since the country adopted Christianity in 966, it also welcomed other religions through a series of laws: Statute of Kalisz (1264), Confederation of Warsaw (1573). However, King Vladislaus II of Poland was pressured by the Catholic Church to issue the Edict of Wieluń (1424), which in principle prohibits Hussite Protestants . Polish theological thought includes theological movements, such as the Calvinist Polish Brethren and a number of other Protestant groups, as well as atheists, such as the ex-Jesuit philosopher.Kazimierz Łyszczyński , one of the first atheistic thinkers in Europe.
Until World War II , Poland was a religiously diverse society, in which important Jewish , Orthodox Christian , Protestant, and Catholic groups coexisted. In the second Polish republic, Catholicism was the dominant religion, declared by 65% of Polish citizens, followed by other Christian denominations, and around 3% of believers in Judaism. As a result of the Holocaust and post-WWII events, such as the expulsion of the Germans and Operation Vistula , Poland has become an overwhelmingly Catholic majority.
The Constitution of Poland of 1997 includes in its article 25 the autonomy of religious confessions, with equal rights. The State will guarantee their freedom of expression in public life, mutual independence and cooperation for the individual and common good. Relations with the Catholic Church are collected through an international treaty. [ 47 ] Such relationships are contained in the 1993 Agreement, which recognizes the right to religious education in schools, the free constitution of educational and charitable institutions, and the civil effects of canonical marriage and marriage nullity. [ 48 ]
In 2007, 88.4% of the population belonged to the Catholic Church. Despite the lower rates of religious observance, at 52% or 51% of Polish Catholics, Poland remains one of the most devoutly religious countries in Europe [ citation needed ] . According to a 2007 survey, 72% of those surveyed were not opposed to religious teaching in public schools [ citation needed ] . Some famous Catholic pilgrimage sites in Poland include the Jasna Góra Monastery in the southern Polish city of Czestochowa , as well as the John Paul II family home in Wadowice outside of Krakow .
From October 16, 1978 until his death on April 2, 2005, Karol Józef Wojtyła (later known as John Paul II ), a native of Poland, was Pope of the Catholic Church . He has been the only Slavic and Polish pope to date, and was the first non-Italian pope since Pope Hadrian VI in 1522. He is further credited with having played a major role in hastening the fall of communism in Poland and throughout from Central and Eastern Europe ; since the visit of Juan Pablo II to Poland in 1979, was the "detonator" of the changes. [ 49 ] On the occasion of his death, the president of theEuropean Parliament , José Borrell , wrote:
I bow with respect to the memory of that great personality that has decisively marked the history of the last quarter of a century. (...) It imposed respect for the clarity of their opinions and for the sincerity of their continuous efforts in favor of justice, peace and respect for dignity and human rights. No one will forget his gestures of openness and dialogue directed at the representatives of the other religions, particularly during the meetings in Assisi. History will recall the decisive commitment of John Paul II to redirect the Central and Eastern European States towards democracy and freedom. He will also recall his activity, often discreet but determined, in favor of dialogue between the peoples and States in conflict and for the resumption of negotiations between the States of the Middle East.
Religious minorities include Orthodox Church Polish (about 506 800), several Protestant (over 150 000), Jehovah 's Witnesses (126,827), Eastern Catholics , mariavitistas, Polish Catholics, Jews and Muslims (including the Tatars of Bialystok ). Members of the Protestant churches include approximately 77,500 in the Augsburg Evangelical Church. There are also a few thousand pagans some of whom are members of those churches officially registered as the Native Polish Church , ( Rodzimy Kościół Polski ).
The Polish health system is based on an entire insurance system. The state is the one who subsidizes the system and it is available to all Polish citizens who are covered by this general health insurance program. However, it is not mandatory to be treated in a state hospital, since the country has many private institutions that offer health services.
All medical service providers and hospitals in Poland are subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Health, which provides supervision and control services for general medicine, as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the health system. In addition to these functions, the ministry is also tasked with maintaining hygiene and patient care standards.
Hospitals in Poland are organized according to the regional administrative structure, with the result that most cities have their own hospital ( Szpital Miejski ). The largest and most specialized medical complexes tend to be in large cities, with some even more specialized units located only in the capital, Warsaw . However, all voivodeships have their own general hospital (most have more than one), all of which are required to have a trauma center; such hospitals, which are able to deal with almost all medical problems are called "Regional Hospitals" ( Szpital Wojewódzki). The last category of hospital in Poland is that of specialized medical centers, an example of what would be the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology , leader in Poland, and the most highly specialized for cancer research and treatment .
In 2012, the healthcare industry underwent a transformation. Hospitals were given priority for restoration when needed. As a result of this process, many hospitals have been updated with state-of-the-art medical equipment.
The education of Polish society was a goal of the rulers as early as the 12th century , and Poland became one of the most cultured countries in Europe. The catalog of the Krakow Cathedral Chapter Library, dating from 1110, shows that at the beginning of the 12th century , Polish intellectuals had access to European literature. The Jagiellonian University , founded in 1364 by King Casimir III in Krakow , is the 20th oldest university in the world. The National Education Commission ( Komisja Edukacji Narodowej ), established in 1773, is the world's first state ministry for education.
The first university in Poland, the Jagiellonian University of Krakow, was established in 1364. The Report of the International Program for Student Assessment , coordinated by the Organization for Cooperation and Development , ranks the Polish education system in its PISA 2012 as 10th best in the world, achieving better results than the OECD average.
Primary school and high school
Education in Poland begins at the age of five or six years (with the particular age chosen by the parents) for Class 0 (equivalent to preschool), and six or seven years in the first class (first grade) of school primary school ( szkoła podstawowa ). Children are required to participate in one year of formal education before entering the first class within a maximum period of 7 years of age. Corporal punishment of children in schools has been officially prohibited since 1783 (before partitions) and criminalized since 2010 (in schools, as well as at home).
At the end of the 8th class when most of the students are 15 years old, they take a mandatory exam that will determine their acceptance and transition to high school. There are several alternatives, the most common being four years in a liceum (high school) or five years in a technikum (technical). Both end with a maturation exam ( matura , quite similar to high school French), and can be followed by various forms of higher education, leading to the degree of bachelor ( licencjat ) or engineer ( inżynier ), subsequently masters (second cycle). qualification) and, finally, doctorate ( doktor) (third cycle degree).
There are 500 organizations for the pursuit of higher education in Poland, one of the largest numbers in Europe.
There are 18 fully accredited traditional universities in Poland. There are twenty technical universities, nine independent medical universities, five universities for the study of economics, nine agricultural academies, three pedagogical universities, one theological academy, and three maritime services universities.
There are a number of higher education institutions dedicated to teaching the arts. Among them are the seven highest state academies of music. There are a number of private educational institutions and four national military academies (two for the army and one for the other branches of services).
|Maritime Academy of Gdynia [ 51 ]||Jagiellonian University of Krakow [ 51 ]||Gdansk University of Technology [ 51 ]||Wroclaw University [ 51 ]|
The culture of Poland is closely related to its 1000 years of history . Its unique character was developed as a result of its geography, at the confluence of European cultures. With origins in Proto-Slavic culture, over time Polish culture has been deeply influenced by its ties to Germanic , Latin, and Byzantine culture , as well as continued contact with the many other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland. . The people of Poland have traditionally considered themselves hospitable to foreign artists and eager to follow popular cultural and artistic trends from other countries. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Poland's focus on cultural promotion often took precedence over political and economic activity. These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances.
Musicians from Poland, including famous composers such as Chopin or Penderecki and traditional folk musicians, create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes their own genres of music, such as sung poetry ( śpiewana poezja ) and disco polo . Poland also produced famous pianists like Arthur Rubinstein .
The origins of Polish music can be traced as far back as the 13th century ; Manuscripts have been found at Stary Sącz, containing polyphonic compositions related to the School of Notre Dame . Other compositions, such as the melody of Bogurodzica and Bóg się Rodzi (a coronation polonaise of the kings of Poland by an unknown composer), also date back to this period, however the first known notable composer, Mikolaj de Radom, was born and lived in the 15th century . During the 16th century , the two main musical groups - both based in Krakow and belonging to the King and Archbishop ofWawel - led to the rapid evolution of Polish music. Composers and writers during this period include Wacław de Szamotuły, Mikolaj Zielenski, and Mikołaj Gomolka. Diomedes Cato, an Italian by birth, who lived in Krakow from the age of five, became one of the most famous lute players at the court of Sigismund III .
In the late 18th century , Polish classical music developed into national forms such as Polonaise . In the 19th century the most popular composers were: Józef Elsner and his students Frédéric Chopin and Ignacy Dobrzyński. The important opera composers of the time were Karol Kurpiński and Stanisław Moniuszko while the list of famous soloists and composers included Henryk Wieniawski and Juliusz Zarebski . In the middle of the 19th and 20th centuries the most prominent composers were Wladyslaw Zelenski and Mieczysław Karłowicz, along with Karol Szymanowski , the latter gaining prominence before WWII, Alexandre Tansman living in Paris, but with strong connections to Poland, Witold Lutoslawski , Henryk Górecki and Krzysztof Penderecki , and Andrzej Panufnik .
Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many renowned Polish composers, and no more so than on Frédéric Chopin , a recognized national hero of the arts, whose works involve the piano and are technically demanding, emphasizing the nuances and expressive depth. As a great composer, Chopin invented the musical form known as the instrumental ballad and made major innovations to the piano sonata , mazurka , waltz , nocturnal , polonaise , study , impromptu, and prelude., was also the author of a series of polonaises that borrowed heavily from traditional Polish folk music. It is largely thanks to him that the pieces gained great popularity throughout Europe during the 19th century . Today the most characteristic folk music can be heard in the cities and towns of the mountainous south, particularly in the region surrounding the winter holiday town of Zakopane .
Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the genres of jazz and metal, which is very popular among the contemporary population. Polish jazz musicians like Krzysztof Komeda , created a unique style, which was the most famous in the 60s and 70s and is still popular today. Since the fall of communism, Poland has become an important location for large-scale music festivals, including the Open'er Festival, the Opole Festival, and the Sopot International Song Festival .
The Krakow school of historicist painting developed by Jan Matejko produces monumental representations of customs and important events in Polish history. Tamara de Lempicka , who specializes in art deco painting , is known to be one of the most famous painters. [ citation required ]
Stanisław Witkiewicz was a supporter of realism in Polish art, his main representative is Józef Chełmoński . [ citation needed ] The Młoda Polska ( Young Poland ) was a modernist period of art, and it engaged in a great deal of formal experimentation led by Jacek Malczewski ( symbolism ), Stanisław Wyspiański , Józef Mehoffer , and a group of impressionist Poles. Tadeusz Makowski's art was influenced by Cubism ; while Władysław Strzemiński andHenryk Stażewski worked in constructivist language. The most famous Polish sculptors include Xawery Dunikowski and Magdalena Abakanowicz . [ citation required ]
Since the interwar years, Polish art and documentary photography have enjoyed worldwide recognition. [ citation needed ] In the 1960s, the Polish Poster School was formed, with Henryk Tomaszewski and Waldemar Swierzy . Some renowned art schools are the Krakow Academy of Fine Arts, the Krakow School of Art and Fashion Design, the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts , the Szczecin Academy of Art, the Poznan University of Fine Arts, and the Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts.
The history of Polish cinema is as long as the history of cinematography. For decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors who achieved worldwide fame, especially in Hollywood . In addition, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern television. Among the most famous directors and producers, who worked in Poland and abroad are Roman Polański , Andrzej Wajda , Samuel Goldwyn , the Warner Brothers (Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack), Max Fleischer , Lee Strasberg , Agnieszka Holland andKrzysztof Kieślowski .
In the 19th century , throughout the division of Poland, numerous amateur inventors, such as Kazimierz Prószyński, were eager to build a movie projector. In 1894, Prószyński managed to create a pleograph, one of the world's first cameras. The invention, which took photographs and projected images, was built before the Lumière brothers filed their patent. [ 52 ] He also patented an "aeroscope", the first successful manually operated film camera. In 1897, Jan Szczepanikobtained a British patent for his telectroscope. This television prototype could easily transmit images and sound, thus allowing a live remote viewing. After the invention of appropriate gadgets and technological development in the years to come, his then-impossible concept became a reality.
Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most famous star of the silent film era was the Polish actress Pola Negri. During this time, Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland. Yiddish films with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk (1937), played an important role in pre-war Polish cinematography. In 1945, the government established Film Polski, a state-run film production and distribution organization, with director Aleksander Ford as head of the company. Ford's Knights of the Teutonic Order (1960) were seen by millions of people in the Soviet Union , Czechoslovakia and France.
Polish cities and towns reflect a spectrum of European architectural styles. [ 55 ] Romanesque architecture is represented by St. Andrew's Church in Krakow, and the Wroclaw Cathedral is characteristic of the brick Gothic style found in Poland. [ 55 ] Richly decorated attics and arcadeloggies are the common elements of Polish Renaissance architecture, as is evident in the Poznan City Hall . For some time, the late Renaissance style known as Mannerism, most notably at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, coexisted with the early Baroque style, typified in the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Krakow.
History has not been kind to the architectural monuments of Poland. [ 56 ] However, several ancient structures have survived: castles, churches and manor houses, often unique in the regional or European context. Some of them have been carefully restored, such as Wawel Castle , [ 57 ] or completely rebuilt, including the Old Town of Gdansk and the Old Town of Warsaw . [ 57 ] Warsaw now has many modern buildings and skyscrapers in the city center, where the tenement houses once stood .
The architecture of Gdansk is mainly of the Hanseatic variety , a Gothic style common among ancient trading cities along the Baltic Sea and in the northern part of Central Europe. The architectural style of Wroclaw is primarily representative of German architecture, as it was for centuries located within the Holy Roman Empire . The center of Kazimierz Dolny is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town. The former capital of Poland, Krakow, ranks among the best-preserved Gothic and Renaissance urban complexes in Europe. [ 57 ]
The second half of the seventeenth century is marked by Baroque architecture . The side towers, like those of the Branicki Palace [ 55 ] in Bialystok , are typical of the Polish Baroque. The classic Silesian Baroque is represented by the University of Wroclaw . The profuse decorations of the Wilanów Palace are characteristic of the Rococo style. The center of Polish classicism was Warsaw under the rule of the last Polish king Stanislaus II Poniatowski . The Lazienki palace is the most notable example of Polish neoclassical architecture. TheLublin Castle represents the Gothic Revival style in architecture, while Moszna Castle is an example of eclecticism.
During the Middle Ages, most Polish writers and scholars (eg Jan Długosz) wrote only in Latin , the common language of European letters. This tradition was broken by Jan Kochanowski , who became the first Polish author to write most of his works in Polish. Poland was the birthplace of great authors during the 19th and 20th centuries , such as Adam Mickiewicz , Henryk Sienkiewicz , Bolesław Prus , Wladyslaw Reymont , Witold Gombrowicz and Czeslaw Milosz . Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), son of the Polish playwright and poetApollo Korzeniowski , gained worldwide fame by adapting English as a literary language in his novels. Two Polish prose writers have won the Nobel Prize for Literature : Henryk Sienkiewicz and Wladyslaw Reymont.
Among the best known Polish poets are the "three bards" ( "trzej wieszcze" ), a group made up of Mickiewicz , Krasinski and Słowacki , three representatives of the country's romantic literature. The Polish word "wieszcz" means prophet or soothsayer. Poland has had two Nobel Prize-winning poets: Czeslaw Milosz and Wisława Szymborska .
The gastronomy of Poland is a mixture of gastronomies of West Slavic and German origin , as well as culinary traditions typical of the area. It is closely related to Slavic cuisines in the use of oats and other cereals , but has been influenced by Turkish , German , Hungarian , Jewish , Armenian , French [ 60 ] or colonial cuisines of the past. [ 61 ]It can be said with great generality that Polish cuisine is rich, substantial and relatively high in fat. Poles are famous for the generosity they put into periods of enjoyment of food. The best known product that originated in Poland is the bagel .
During the Middle Ages the cuisine of Poland was very strongly seasoned with spices . At that time two of the main ingredients were meat (veal) and cereal. The territory of present-day Poland was densely populated with trees, and it is for this reason that mushrooms , berries, nuts and honey were used so frequently in the kitchen at that time . Thanks to the proximity to the Eastern countries the price of some spices such as juniper , black pepper and nutmegThey had lower prices than in the rest of Europe, and this was the reason why the use of spices in some dishes of Polish cuisine became popular. Another purpose was the need to neutralize bad odors from not so perfectly preserved food. [ 62 ] The most popular beverage is beer , including the very little fermented podpiwek, and mead . In the 16th century the upper classes began to import wines from Hungary and Silesia . Some distilled spirits such as vodka , which were becoming popular in Europe, were already common drinks in the lower classes.
With the accession to the throne of Queen Bona Sforza , the second wife of Sigismund I of Poland in 1518, countless dishes from Italian [ 60 ] and French cuisine were brought to Poland. In this simple way, some of the vegetables classically used in these cuisines began to be seen more and more in Polish cuisine, such as lettuce , leek , celery and cabbage . Even today, the naming of these vegetables such as leeks , carrots and celery are known in Polish as wloszczyzna, referring to Wlochy which is the Polish name for Italy. [ 63 ]
A typical meal consists of three plates, usually start with soup, as żurek (meal soup sour taste), [ 64 ] the barszcz (beet soup) or tomato soup, followed perhaps a snack of salmon or herring (prepared in cream, oil or vinegar ). Other popular snacks are made with different meats, vegetables or fish in aspic (jelly). For the main course you can try the national dish called bigos ( sauerkraut or sour sauerkraut with pieces of meat and sausages) or schnitzel (in Polishschabowy , breaded pork chop). Finishing with a kind of sweet note like ice cream, or better yet if you are lucky a piece of makowiec , which is a kind of homemade poppy seed cake, or napoleonka, a type of yeast cake .
Other Polish specialties include golonka (pork knuckle), goulash (pieces of meat boiled with vegetables), kołduny (kind of boiled dumpling stuffed with meat that accompanies soups), pulpety (meat balls from Italy), zrazy (slices of veal), salceson (a kind of smoked sausage ), tripe , sausages , pierogi (dumplings) and bagel (bread product). [ 61 ]
Many sports are popular in Poland. The volleyball and football are the most popular in the country, with a rich history of international competition. Athletics , ski jumping , basketball , boxing , fencing , handball , ice hockey , swimming , and weightlifting , among others, are also popular .
The golden age of soccer in Poland occurred throughout the 1970s and continued until the early 1980s when the Polish soccer team achieved its best results, finishing 3rd in the Soccer World Cup in the 1974 and 1982 editions . In addition, the team won the gold medal in soccer at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games , also obtaining silver medals in the 1976 and 1992 editions. Poland, along with Ukraine , hosted Euro 2012 .
Mariusz Pudzianowski is a highly successful strength athlete and has won more titles in the World's Strongest Man competition than any other competitor in the world, winning the event in 2008 for the fifth time. The first Polish Formula 1 driver , Robert Kubica , has brought great excitement. Poland has made a distinctive mark on the racing motorcycle road thanks to Tomasz Gollob, a highly successful Polish rider. The Polish National Speedway Team is one of the great teams when it comes to speedway practiceand has been very successful in various competitions. One of the most important motorcycling circuits in Poland is Poznan. Many Poles have made significant achievements in mountaineering , particularly in the Himalayas ( Ochomil ). The most famous Polish climbers are Jerzy Kukuczka , Krzysztof Wielicki , Kinga Baranowska and Wanda Rutkiewicz .
The Polish mountains are an ideal place for hiking , climbing , skiing and mountain biking , attracting millions of tourists each year from all over the world. The Baltic Sea , as well as some beaches and resorts, are popular places for fishing , boating , kayaking, and a wide range of other water sports.
Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity . Poland is one of the most fashionable and best dressed countries in the world. [ 65 ] Although the Polish fashion industry is not that famous compared to the industries of France and Italy , it still contributed to global trends and dress habits. In addition, various Polish designers and stylists left a permanent legacy of beauty and cosmetic inventions, which are still used today.
Throughout history, clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from neighboring countries and the Middle East . Due to its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route linking Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , the Crimean Khanate, and Persia . This allowed the Poles to absorb various habits, which were present in the Middle East at that time. The nobility and upper-class magnates wore an outfit that somewhat resembled oriental styles. [ 66 ] The teams included a Żupan , Delia , Kontuszand a type of sword called the Karabela , brought by Armenian merchants . The Polish aristocrats rich also kept the Tartars and janissaries captives in their courts; This affected the national dress. The extensive multiculturalism present in Poland-Lithuania developed the ideology of " sarmatism ". [ 66 ]
Polish national dress, as well as Polish fashion and etiquette, also reached the royal court of Versailles in the 18th century . Some French dresses inspired by Polish costumes were called à la polonaise , which means "Polish style." The most famous example is robe a la polonaise or simply polonaise, a women's garment with a loose draped skirt. [ 67 ] Another notable example is the Witzchoura, a long cloak with a collar and hood, possibly introduced by Napoleon's Polish mistress , Maria Walewska . [ 68 ]
Established in 1999, Reserved retail store is the most successful clothing store chain in Poland, operating in more than 1,700 retail stores in 19 countries. [ 69 ] In 2016 it was announced that Reserved will move into a former BHS store on London's Oxford Street , one of Europe's most prestigious and busiest shopping malls. [ 70 ]
At the beginning of the 20th century , the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetic industry in the Congress Kingdom of Poland was heavily dominated by Western styles, mainly from the United Kingdom and the United States. This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a cosmetic line called Max Factor in California. In 1920, Faktorowicz invented the joint word "makeup" based on the verb phrase "make up", which is now used as an alternative to "cosmetics." [ 71 ]Faktorowicz also became famous for inventing modern eyelash extensions and serving Hollywood artists of the time such as Gloria Swanson , Pola Negri , Bette Davis , Joan Crawford, and Judy Garland . [ 72 ]
Another Pole who contributed to the development of cosmetics was Helena Rubinstein , founder of Helena Rubinstein Incorporated Cosmetics Company, which made her one of the richest women in the world, and was bought by L'Oréal . [ 73 ] One of Rubinstein's most controversial quotes was "There are no ugly women, only lazy". [ 74 ]
Founded in 1983, Inglot Cosmetics is Poland's largest manufacturer and retailer of beauty products, sold in 700 locations around the world, including salons in New York City , London, Milan , Dubai and Las Vegas. . [ 75 ]
|Date||Name in Spanish||Local name|
|January 1||New Year||New Year|
|January 6th||wise men||Three Kings|
|March or April||The passover||Easter|
|May 1||Labor Day||Labour Day|
|May 2||National Flag Day||Day of the Flag of the Republic of Poland|
|May 3||Day of the constitution||Feast of the Constitution|
|June||Body of Christ||Corpus Christi|
|August 15th||Asunción and Armed Forces Day||Assumption and Polish Army Day|
|August, 31||Day of Solidarity and Freedom||Solidarity and Freedom Day|
|November 1st||All Saints Day||All the saints|
|November 11th||Independence Day||Independence Day|
|Dec. 24||Good night||Eve|
|December 25th||Day Christmas||Christmas|
|December 26||Christmas||The second day of Christmas|
- Portal: Poland . Content related to Poland .
- Constitution of May 3
- Katyń massacre
- History of Jews in Poland
- (1112) Poland
- After the coronation of Boleslao I the Brave .
- Annexed by the German Empire in 1915 during World War I , which imposed on the conquered territory a kind of Polish Regency with the intention of calling it the Vistula Territories, until its independence in 1918 after the German defeat.
- Formally since January 1, 1990.
- Central Statistical Office, data for 2018, as of 01/01/2018. 
- Bankier.pl, The area of Poland increased by 1643 ha 
- CIA. "Poland - Geography - World Book of Facts" . Retrieved February 12, 2017 .
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