Pop - Pop

Pop
Musical origins
Cultural origins Decade of the 50 and 60 , culture Western ,
United States and United Kingdom
Common Instruments Voice , guitar , bass , drums , electric guitar , keyboard , synthesizer , drum machine , sequencer , sampler , percussion
Popularity Very high all over the world
Derivatives Disco, new wave
Subgenres
Mergers

The pop music (from the English pop music , contraction of popular music ) is not a genre of music because it is derived from various genres, but meets the requirement of popular music , had its origins in the late 1950s as an outgrowth of the traditional pop , in combination with other musical genres that were in vogue at the time. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The terms pop music and music popularthey are often used interchangeably, although the latter has a broader meaning by accommodating genres other than pop that are considered popular.

As a genre, pop music is very eclectic, often borrowing elements from other styles such as urban , dance , rock , Latin music , rhythm and blues, or folk . However, there are essential elements that define pop, such as short to medium-length songs, written in a basic format (often the verse - chorus structure ), as well as the habitual use of repeated refrains, melodic themes and hooks. . The instrumentation is usually composed of guitar , drums , bass, electric guitar , keyboard , synthesizer , etc. [ 3 ]

Origin of POP

The term pop song was first recorded in 1926, used in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal." [ 4 ] Beginning in the 1950s, the term "pop music" has been used to describe a distinct genre, aimed at a young market, often characterized as a soft alternative to rock and roll . [ 5 ] [ 6 ] According to musicologist T. Warner, "following the rise of British artists known as British Invasion , circa 1967, the term was increasingly used in opposition to the concept of music rock, to describe a more commercial, ephemeral and accessible musical form ”. [ 7 ]

Although pop music is often viewed as chart-oriented singles , as a genre it is not simply the sum of all musical hits, it has always contained songs from a variety of sources, including classical music , the jazz or rock , but set a genre with a separate existence and development. [ 8 ]

Influences and development

Bing Crosby was the first artist to bear the pseudonym "King of Pop", his great popularity around the world during the 40s, 50s, 60s and his musical contribution made him worthy of this definition. [ 11 ]

Throughout its existence, pop music has absorbed influences from most other genres of popular music. The early pop was inspired by the sentimental ballad to take its form, it took from gospel and soul its use of vocal harmonies, from jazz , country and rock its instrumentation, from classical music its orchestration, from dance its tempo, electronic music its accompaniment, hip hop rhythmic elements, and recently it has also incorporated the spoken passages of rap . [ 5 ]

The swing era made stars of many popular singers, including Frank Sinatra , Dinah Shore , Jo Stafford, Perry Como , Peggy Lee , Patti Page, and David Whitfield .

Bing Crosby , the King of Pop at the time and the first to bear that pseudonym, had already established himself as the world's most popular singer in the mid-1940s. Two notable innovations were the addition of string sections and orchestral arrangements and a greater emphasis on vocal performance. [ 12 ]

The addition of lush strings can be heard in much of popular music during the 1940s and 1950s. In the early 1950s, when the dominance of swing ushered in the era of traditional pop music, many of the Vocalists associated with swing bands became even more popular and were central figures in popular music.

Michael Jackson has been called the "King of Pop" from the 1980s to the present day, and his album Thriller holds the record for the best-selling album of all time. [ 13 ]

Likewise, it has taken advantage of technological innovations. In the 1940s an improved microphone design made possible a more intimate singing style, [ 14 ] and ten to twenty years later 45rpm records - cheaper and more durable - "revolutionized the way pop spread. "And helped lead pop music to" a disco / radio / movie star system . " [ 14 ]

Another technological change was the wide availability of television in the 1950s; with televised performances, "pop stars had to have a visual presence." [ 14 ] In the 1960s, the introduction of cheap, portable radio receivers meant that teens could listen to music outside the home. [ 14 ] The multitrack recording (60) and digital sampling (80) have also been used as a means for the creation and development of pop music. [ 5 ]By the early 1980s, the promotion of pop music had been nurtured by the rise of television music programs and channels, such as MTV , which "favored artists like Michael Jackson and Madonna who had strong visual appeal." [ 14 ]

Frank Sinatra contributed to the popularization of the musical genre.

Pop music has been dominated by the North American and British music industry , whose influence has made pop music a kind of international monoculture, but most regions and countries have their own form of pop, sometimes producing local versions. broader trends and lending them local characteristics. [ 15 ] Some of these trends (for example K-pop ) have had a significant impact on the development of the genre. [ 5 ]

According to Grove Music Online , "Western styles of pop, either coexisting or marginalizing local genres, have spread throughout the world and have become common stylistic denominators in global commercial music cultures." [ 16 ] Some non-Western countries, such as Japan , have developed a thriving pop music industry, most of which focuses on Western-style pop, and has produced more music over the years than any other country except United States . [ 16 ]Not only has pop music developed internationally in Japan, it has also developed in other Asian countries such as Korea , where it was developed or in China where Cpop can be found . These different genres of pop in recent years have had a great impact among adolescents and adults, attracting them with their high-production videos and songs with lyrics of deep meaning. The expansion of Western- style pop music has been variously interpreted as representing processes of Americanization, homogenization, modernization, creative appropriation, cultural imperialism, and / or a more generic process of globalization . [ 16]

Characteristics

Cher , the pop singer who paved the way for many artists of the genre with the greatest career gap in the music industry over 50 years, nicknamed the "Goddess of Pop." [ citation required ]
The Beatles . Although the band is primarily rock , it also encompassed the pop genre, making them the best-selling pop band. [ citation required ]

The Musicologists often identify a series of very typical characteristics of the genre of popular music: a focus on individual songs or singles ( singles ) rather than extensive or albums works; the goal of attracting a general audience, rather than targeting a sub-culture or ideology; a preference for craftsmanship over formal artistic qualities ; some emphasis on recording, production and technology , rather than live performance; and a tendency to reflect existing trends rather than progressive developments. [ 5 ] [ 6 ][7][17]

The main element of pop music is the song , often three to five minutes in length, usually marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element , a mainstream style, and a simple, traditional structure . [ 18 ]

The most common variants are the stanzas, the chorus, and the thirty-two bar form, with a focus on catchy melodies and a chorus that contrasts melodically , rhythmically, and harmonically with the stanza. [ 19 ]

Rhythm and melodies tend to be straightforward, with limited harmonic accompaniment. [ 20 ] The lyrics of modern pop songs love relationships, personal experiences and social issues, including typically focus on topics of everyday life among them. [ 5 ]

The harmony of pop music coincides with that of classical European tonality , often using the cycles of subdominant-dominant-tonic, but also with frequent influences from the blues scale . [ 21 ]

critics

Pop, while being the musical genre with the greatest diffusion and popularity, is also the target of various criticisms.

In the view of British rock critic and sociologist Simon Frith , pop music is produced 'as a matter of business, not art ... it is designed to appeal to everyone' and 'does not come from any particular place or brand. particular taste ». It is "not driven by any significant ambition, except profit and commercial reward ... and in musical terms, it is essentially conservative."

It is always provided from above (by record companies , radio programmers, and concert promoters) rather than being made from below ... Pop is not "do-it-yourself" music, but is professionally produced and packaged. ». [ 22 ]

On the other hand, some music critics, [ 23 ] social commentators [ 24 ] [ 25 ] and researchers from the music industry [ 26 ] indicate that contemporary pop music suffers from a decline in quality . This decline can be reflected in the decline in sales, [ 27 ] the increasingly unfavorable public opinion, [ 28 ] [ 29 ] studies historical [ 30 ] and the decrease in the audience ofconcerts . [ 31 ] In addition, research shows that pop songs are increasingly similar to each other, in addition to that their composition has become much more minimalist , as a result of the decrease in interest on the part of composers in incorporating novelties in their productions, choosing instead to imitate his predecessors and contemporaries. [ 32 ]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Evolution of pop" . Centers 4. Archived from the original on August 31, 2010 . Retrieved August 18, 2010 .
  2. ^ "History of Pop music" . pianored . Retrieved August 18, 2010 .
  3. Bill Lamb, "What Is Pop Music? A Definition", About.com, retrieved 8 March 2012.
  4. J. Simpson and E. Weiner, Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), cf pop.
  5. a b c d e f S. Frith, "Pop Music" en S. Frith, W. Stray and J. Street, The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 93–108.
  6. ^ A b "Early Pop / Rock" . Allmusic . Retrieved August 7, 2009 .
  7. a b T. Warner, Pop music: technology and creativity: Trevor Horn and the digital revolution (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), p. 3.
  8. R. Serge Denisoff, and William L. Schurk. Tarnished gold: the record industry revisited (Transaction Publishers, 3rd edn., 1986), ISBN 0-88738-618-0, pp. 2–3.
  9. Glenday, 2007, p. 167
  10. ^ "Madonna" . Esmas . November 27, 2014 . Retrieved May 1, 2015 .
  11. Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s (audiobook).
  12. Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s (audiobook).
  13. ^ Leight, Elias (August 31, 2017). "How Michael Jackson's 'Bad' Scored a Staggering Five Number Ones" . Rolling Stone (English) . Retrieved June 10, 2020 .
  14. a b c d e D. Buckley, "Pop" "II. Implications of technology", Grove Music Online, retrieved 15 March 2010.
  15. J. Kun, Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005), ISBN 0-520-24424-9, p. 201.
  16. a b c P. Manuel, "Pop. Non-Western cultures 1. Global dissemination", Grove Music Online, retrieved 14 March 2010.
  17. R. Shuker, Understanding popular music (London: Routledge, 2nd edn., 2001), pp. 8–10.
  18. W. Everett, Expression in Pop-rock Music: A Collection of Critical and Analytical Essays (London: Taylor & Francis, 2000), p. 272.
  19. J. Shepherd, Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Performance and production (Continuum, 2003), p. 508.
  20. V. Kramarz, The Pop Formulas: Hamonic Tools of the Hit Makers (Mel Bay Publications, 2007), p. 61.
  21. Winkler, Peter (1978). "Toward a theory of pop harmony", In Theory Only, 4, pp. 3-26.
  22. Frith (2001), pp. 95–6.
  23. ^ Washington (2012). "The Quality Of Popular Music Has Declined" . starpulse.com . Archived from the original on October 5, 2015.
  24. ^ Steyn, Mark (2011). "A Tale of Two Declines" . National Review Online . Archived from the original on October 16, 2014.
  25. Cisneros, Makayla (2012). «As industry dies, music declines». Clarion.
  26. «Foo Fighters’ Dave Grohl Blames Declining Sales On Lack Of Talent». live4ever. 2011.
  27. ^ Mulligan, Mark (2013). "The Decline and Fall of the Top 10" . USC Annenberg . Archived from the original on October 5, 2015.
  28. ^ Register, Larry (2011). "Best decade for music?" . Poll Position . Archived from the original on May 13, 2013.
  29. Hazel, Cheers (2010). «80's Music is Top of the Pops!». Daily Star (UK).
  30. Loken, John (2011). «The Death of Pop Music?». brands+music.
  31. ^ Cohan, Jillian (2008). "The Show Must Go On . " The American . Archived from the original on September 29, 2013 . Retrieved October 21, 2013 .
  32. «Science Proves: Pop Music Has Actually Gotten Worse». SmartNews. 2012.

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