Portugal - Fußball-Europameisterschaft 2004/Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic (in Portuguese : República Portuguesa ; pron. AFI [rɛ'puβlikɐ puɾtu'ɣezɐ] or [ʁɛ'puβlikɐ puɾtu'ɣezɐ]; in Mirandese : República Pertuesa ), is one of the twenty-seven sovereign states that make up the European Union , constituted as a democratic rule of law . It is a transcontinental country . Most of its territory, with its capital in Lisbon , is located in southwestern Europe , on the Iberian Peninsula. It limits to the east and north with Spain , and to the south and west with the Atlantic Ocean . It also includes the autonomous archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira located in the northern hemisphere of the Atlantic Ocean.
The name of Portugal probably comes from the old name of Porto , from the Latin "Portus-Galliae" —port of Gaul, due to the fact that Gallic ships frequented this port— or, more probably, from “Portus-Cale” —toponym attested in the Chronicle of the 5th century historian Hydatius -, by an existing mooring in a fortified place called «Cale». [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
Portugal has been a historical witness to a constant flow of different civilizations for the last 3100 years. Tartessians , Celts , Phoenicians , Carthaginians , Greeks , Romans , Germans ( Swabians and Visigoths ), Muslims , Jews and other peoples have left their mark on culture, history, language and ethnicity. During the 15th and 16th centuries , Portugal was a world economic, social and cultural power, as well as an empire that stretched from Brazil to theEast Indies . Later, especially after the Napoleonic Wars and the independence of Brazil between the late 18th and early 19th centuries , Portugal began to experience turbulent periods. With the Revolution of 1910, the monarchy ended, having had, from 1139 to 1910, 34 monarchs. The country lived under a dictatorship between 1933 and 1974, when it fell after a revolt known as the Carnation Revolution . In 1986 it joined the European Union and, since 2001, is part of the eurozone .
It is a developed country , [ 8 ] with a Human Development Index (HDI) considered "very high", [ 5 ] and a high literacy rate. [ 9 ] The country is ranked as the 19th with the best quality of life , has one of the best health services on the planet and is considered a globalized and peaceful nation. [ 10 ] It is also the 18th world tourist destination in terms of visitor volume. It is a member of the UN , the European Union (including the eurozone and theSchengen Area ), NATO , OECD and CPLP , among others. It also participates in the United Nations peacekeepers .
Cale , the current city of Vila Nova de Gaia , was already known as Portucale since the times of the Goths and the Suevi . [ 11 ] In the 5th century , during the invasion of the Suevi, Idácio de Chaves already wrote about a place called Portucale, where Requiario fled, however at that time it was only the name of a town in the vicinity of Port:
Rechiarius to a place called Portucale escaped to Theudorico prisoner dew which keep being reduced to others who had survived a previous contest handed over to the Swabians, some nevertheless been killed, the kingdom has been destroyed and finite Suevic [ 12 ]Requiario, who fled to the place they call Portucale, was taken not as a prisoner to King Theodoric. He was taken into custody while the rest of the surviving Suebi from the previous battle had surrendered - although some had died; This is how the kingdom of the Suevi was destroyed.
It will not be until the 9th century that the Portucalense denomination and derivatives begin to be used to designate the territory of the current north of Portugal, leading to the creation of the Portucalense County .
In a writing of the year 841, the mention of the "portucalense" province appears for the first time. It is signed by Alfonso II of Asturias, who expanded the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishop of Lugo and says:
Of the whole of Galicia, that is, Portugalensi Provintiae thinks this to take up the office of bishop. [ 13 ]That he take the supreme government of all Galicia, or province of Portugal.
The Portucalense County or county of Portugal will remain as an integral part of the kingdom of Asturias and later of those of Galicia and León until in 1139 Alfonso I of Portugal proclaims himself king, passing from a county to the Kingdom of Portugal. In the centuries to come the kingdom will expand south into the lands of ancient Lusitania.
However, there are scholars who affirm that the name "Portugal" comes from "Portogatelo", a name given by a chief from Greece called Catelo who landed and settled near present-day Porto . [ 14 ] The first time the name of Portugal appeared as a root element heraldry was in a letter of donation of the church of São Bartolomeu de Campelo by Alfonso I of Portugal in 1129. [ 15 ]
The prehistory of Portugal is linked to that of the Iberian Peninsula . Towards the year 10 000 a. C. the Iberians began to populate the interior of the lands of the peninsula to which they would give their name. Between 4000 a. C. and 2000 a. C., Portugal and Galicia saw an original megalithic culture develop , with respect to the rest of the peninsula, characterized by its funerary architecture, its own rituals and the practice of collective burial. You can still find monuments from then, especially in Alentejo : the Crómlech de los Almendros , near Évora , those of the Maria do Meio valley or Portela de Mogos, as well as the dolmen de Zambujeiro.
In the Bronze Age there were some first maritime contacts between the Atlantic coast and the British Isles , while the south of the peninsula began its commercial relations with the Mediterranean : Greeks and Phoenicians , from present-day Lebanon , as well as their descendants, the Carthaginians . [ 17 ] This led to the installation of the first semi-permanent trading posts. [ 18 ]The engine of this trade was the wealth of the peninsula in metals (gold, silver, iron and tin) as well as the salted Atlantic fish, which enjoyed a great reputation in the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians were precisely the ones who founded Lisbon around the year 1000 BC. C. [ 19 ] The legend says that it was Ulysses who gave it its name. [ 20 ]
During the Iron Age , an Indo-European people settled throughout the region: the Celts . They occupied the entire territory known today as Portugal, they lived in small isolated population centers that were in the high points with circular houses or forts and practiced agriculture and livestock. [ 21 ] With his mastery of iron the works of the land were more efficient, the harvests increased and the living conditions and the demography improved.
The Carthaginians reached the Iberian Peninsula in the s. III a. C. attracted by its mining and fishing resources and by the reputation of the Iberian warriors. They occupied southern Portugal and, allied with the Lusitanians of Celtic origin, formed the first resistance to the Roman invasion of the peninsula. However, after the Punic Wars the Carthaginians were defeated and the Romans incorporated the region into their empire as Hispania, from 45 BC. C. [ 22 ] After the dissolution of the Roman Empire in the s. V d. C. Lusitania was invaded by peoples such as the Suevi , theVandals , Alans , Burians and Visigoths until, finally, it was conquered by the Arabs . In 868, during the Reconquista , the formed Portucalense County , which was incorporated into the Kingdom of Galicia in 1071. [ 23 ]
Formation and consolidation of the kingdom
Long before Portugal achieved its independence there were some attempts to achieve greater autonomy, and even independence, by the counts who ruled the lands of the county of Galicia and Portucale . With the idea of ending this independence climate of the local nobility in relation to the Leonese domain, King Alfonso VI of León handed over the government of the county of Galicia, which at that time included the so-called "lands of Portucale", to Count Raimundo de Burgundy . After many military failures of Raymond against the Arabs, Alfonso VI decided in 1096 to give his cousin, Count Enrique de Borgoña, the government of the southernmost lands of the county of Galicia, thus founding the Portucalense county. With the government of Count Henry of Burgundy, the county experienced not only a more effective military policy in the fight against the Arabs, but also a more active independence policy.
After his death and the coming to power of his son Afonso Henriques , Portugal gained independence with the signing in 1143 of the Treaty of Zamora and recognized by Pope Alexander III in the Bull manifestis probatum in 1179. He subsequently won major towns like Santarém , Lisbon , Palmela and Évora . [ 25 ] Once the Portuguese Reconquest was finished in 1249, the independence of the new kingdom was called into question several times by the kingdom of Castile.. In one of these situations of conflict with the kingdom of Castile, King Dionisio I of Portugal signed together with King Ferdinand IV of Castile (who was represented, being a minor, by his mother Queen María de Molina ) the Treaty of Alcañices , in which it was stipulated that Portugal suppressed the treaties agreed against the kingdom of Castile for supporting the Infante Juan de Castilla . This treaty established, among other things, the boundary delimitation between the then kingdoms of Portugal and León, which included the questioned town of Olivenza . The first was due to the succession crisis opened after the death ofFerdinand I of Portugal , which ended with Portuguese victory at Aljubarrota in 1385. [ 26 ]
The Age of Discovery and the felipine dynasty
With the end of the war, Portugal began a process of exploration and expansion known as the "Age of Discoveries", whose leading figures were the infant Henry the Navigator and King John II . After the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 and the passage of Cape Bojador by Gil Eanes , the exploration of the African coast continued until Bartolomé Díaz verified in 1488 the communication between the Indian and Atlantic oceans by doubling the Cape of Good Hope . [ 27 ] In a short time the Portuguese discovered routes and lands in North America, South America and the Orient , mostly during the reign of Manuel I , the Adventurer . The expansion towards the East, mainly thanks to the conquests of Alfonso de Alburquerque , concentrated almost all the efforts of the Portuguese, although in 1530 Juan III began the colonization of Brazil. [ 28 ] The wealth found there made the Portuguese focus on the New World , with the consequent loss of other places in the Indian Ocean , such as Hormuz , compared to other European powers. [ 29 ]
The country had its "golden age" during this time. However, in the battle of Alcazarquivir against Morocco , in 1578, the young King Sebastián and part of the Portuguese nobility died. King Cardinal Enrique ascended to the throne , who died two years later, thus opening up the succession crisis of 1580 , which was resolved with the so-called Iberian union between Portugal and Spain, during which the two kingdoms had separate crowns but ruled by the same king. Felipe II of Spain was the first of three Spanish kings. [ 30 ]Deprived of an independent foreign policy and embroiled in a war together with Spain against the Netherlands , the country suffered great setbacks in its empire and lost the monopoly of trade in the Indian Ocean. [ 31 ]
The union with Spain ended on December 1, 1640. The national nobility, after having defeated the royal guard in a sudden coup d'état, deposed the governor duchess and viceroy of Portugal Margaret of Savoy and crowned John IV as king of Portugal. [ 31 ] Thus began the Portuguese Restoration War , which lasted until 1668, the year in which the Treaty of Lisbon was signed , by which the Spanish King Carlos II recognized the independence of Portugal. [ 32 ]
Restoration, absolutism and liberalism
The end of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century witnessed the flourishing of mining in Brazil : the discovery of gold and precious stones made the court of John V one of the most opulent in Europe. These riches were used to pay for imported products, mostly from England, since there was no textile industry in the kingdom and the fabrics were imported from the British Isles. Foreign trade was based on the wine industry and efforts to reverse the situation with major mercantile reforms by the Marquis de Pombal , minister between 1750 and 1777, boosted economic development during the reign of José I. It was during this reign when an earthquake devastated Lisbon and the Algarve, on November 1, 1755. [ 33 ]
In order not to break the alliance with England , Portugal refused to join the continental blockade , so it was invaded by the Napoleonic armies in 1807. The royal family's court took refuge in Brazil and the capital moved to Rio de Janeiro until 1821. That year, Juan VI , from 1816 king of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve , returned to Lisbon to swear the first Portuguese constitution . The following year, his son Pedro was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil and declared his independence from the metropolis. [ 34]
During the rest of the 19th century, Portugal experienced periods of enormous political and social disturbance, such as the civil war and the repeated revolts and military uprisings such as the September revolution , that of Maria da Fonte , that of Patuleia , etc. Thanks to the Additional Act to the Constitutional Charter of 1852, a period of internal peace was possible as well as the start of public works policies led by Fontes Pereira de Melo . [ 35 ] At the end of the 19th century , Portuguese colonial ambitions collided with English ones, leading to theBritish ultimatum of 1890 . [ 36 ] The concession to British demands and growing economic problems caused the monarchy a growing discredit, culminating in the assassinations of Charles I and the crown prince Louis Philippe on February 1, 1908. The monarchy remained in the power for two more years, headed by Manuel II , but it was abolished on October 5, 1910 , establishing a republic . [ 37 ]
Republic, New State and democracy
The king went into exile in England after the establishment of the republic. [ 38 ] After several years of political instability, with workers' struggles, riots, uprisings, political killings and financial crises, problems aggravated by the Portuguese participation in World War I , the army took power in 1926. Two more years Later, the military regime appointed António de Oliveira Salazar , a professor at the University of Coimbra , as Minister of Finance , who in 1932 became president of the Council of Ministers . [ 39 ]
Salazar restored finances and instituted the Estado Novo , an authoritarian regime of state corporatism with a single party and state unions, in addition to a well-marked fascist affinity , at least until 1945, [ 40 ] when after the victory of the Allies in the World War II , Salazar came under pressure to transform Portugal into a democracy. In 1968, removed from power by an illness, he was succeeded by Marcelo Caetano . [ 41 ]
The regime's rejection of the decolonization of the overseas provinces marked the beginning of the colonial war, first in Angola (1961), and shortly after in Guinea-Bissau (1963) and Mozambique (1964). Despite criticism from some of the older army officers, including General António de Spinola , the government remained firm in its decision to continue this policy. [ 42 ] The latter published a book, Portugal and the future, in which he affirmed that the colonial war was unsustainable, for which he was dismissed. This fact increased the unrest among the youngest officers of the army, who on April 25, 1974 staged a coup, known as the Carnation Revolution . [ 43 ]
This revolution was followed by a period of very heated political confrontations between social and political forces, called the Ongoing Revolutionary Process , which reached its peak in the so-called hot summer of 1975, during which the country was on the verge of falling into a crisis. new period of dictatorship, this time communist in orientation. In this period, Portugal recognized the independence of all its former colonies in Africa. [ 44 ]
On November 25, 1975, paratroopers and the military police of the Lisbon Military Region, allied with various sectors of the radical left, carried out an attempted coup without clear leadership. The group of Nine reacted by implementing a military response plan, led by António Ramalho Eanes , which was successful. The following year democracy was consolidated and Ramalho Eanes himself was appointed president, the first to be elected by universal suffrage. A democratic constitution was approved and the local political powers - the autarchies - and the autonomous regional governments of the Azores and Madeira were established . 
Between the 1940s and 1960s, Portugal was a co-founding member of NATO (1949), the OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960), from which it left in 1986 to join the then EEC . [ 46 ] In 1999, Portugal joined the Euro zone [ 47 ] and that same year it handed over Macao sovereignty to the People's Republic of China . [ 48 ] Since joining the EU, the country has chaired the European Council three times, the last in 2007 when it presided over the signing ceremony of the Lisbon treaty..
government and politics
In Portugal the main law is the constitution , which dates from 1976 and which regulates all the others. The rest of the relevant laws of the Portuguese state are the Civil Code (1966), the Penal Code (1982), the Commercial Code (1888), the Civil Procedure Code (1961), the Criminal Procedure Code and the Labor Code . All of these codes have been revised since they were originally published. [ 50 ]
There are four sovereign bodies that are the president of the republic , the Assembly of the Republic , the government and the courts. The country has a semi-presidential regime , which in successive constitutional reforms has been reducing the power of the President of the Republic. [ 51 ]
The President of the Republic is the Head of State , elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. He performs a triple function: he controls the activity of the government, he is the supreme commander of the armed forces and formally represents the Portuguese state abroad. Officially resides in the Palace of Belém , in Lisbon. [ 52 ]
The Assembly of the Republic, which meets in the São Bento Palace in Lisbon, is elected for a four-year term. It is made up of 230 deputies, but can vary between 180 and 230. The country is divided into 22 electoral districts and the deputies are elected through a proportional representation system. The President of the Republic is in charge of dissolving parliament, calling new elections. [ 52 ]
The government is led by the Prime Minister , who has always been the leader of the most voted party in each legislative election and is appointed by the President of the Republic to form a government. The prime minister also appoints the remaining ministers [ 52 ] and lives in the prime minister's official residence, near the São Bento palace in Lisbon. [ 53 ]
The courts administer justice on behalf of the people, defend the rights and interests of citizens, prevent the violation of democratic legality, and settle conflicts of interest that may exist between different institutions. The Portuguese constitution establishes the following courts: the Constitutional Court , the Supreme Court of Justice and the judicial courts of first instance ( Comarca Tribunals ) and of second instance (“ Tribunal de Relation ”); the Supreme Administrative Court and the administrative and fiscal courts of first and second instance ( Central Administrative Courts) as well as the Court of Accounts . [ 52 ]
Since 1975, the Portuguese political landscape has been dominated by two parties: the Socialist Party (PS) and the Social Democratic Party (PSD). These parties have governed most of the municipalities since the establishment of democracy. However, parties such as the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), which directs some municipalities and has great influence on the union movement, or the Social Democratic Center-Popular Party (CDS-PP), which has governed the country in alliance with the PS As with the PSD, they also hold some importance. In addition to these, the Bloco de Esquerda (BE) and the Ecologist Party "Os Verdes" (PEV) have parliamentary representation . 
The last legislative elections were held on October 4, 2015. The turnout was 55.86% and the results were as follows:
- PàF - PSD / CDS-PP Coalition, 36.86% (102 deputies, including 84 deputies from PSD and 18 from CDS-PP).
- Social Democratic Party (outside the PàF coalition only in Azores and Madeira ), 1.50% and 89 deputies (including 5 in Madeira and Azores).
- Socialist Party , 32.31% and 86 deputies (with the parliamentary support of the BE and PCP - PEV ).
- Left Bloc , 10.19% and 19 deputies.
- Social Democratic Center-Popular Party (outside the PàF coalition only in Azores and Madeira ), 0.14% and 18 deputies.
- Unitary Democratic Coalition ( Portuguese Communist Party - Ecologist Party-Los Verdes ), 8.25% and 17 deputies.
- People-Animals-Nature , 1.39% and 1 deputy.
Portugal has the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force: the Anglo-Portuguese alliance , signed with England in 1373. [ 55 ] The country is also a founding member of NATO (1949), the OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960), which he left in 1986 to join the European Union [ 56 ] and is also the founder of the International Renewable Energy Agency . [ 57 ] In 1996 he co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) [ 58 ]To improve its ties with the rest of the countries where the official language is Portuguese .
Portugal has been a member of the European Union since 1986 and on June 25, 1992, it signed the Schengen Agreement . He has held the presidency of the European Council three times (1996, 2000 and 2007). In 2007, the last time the country held the presidency of the Council of Europe, the Lisbon Treaty was signed . [ 59 ]
Portugal is an active country within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and has sent troops on a peace mission to the Balkans . Along with Spain, Portugal is part of the Ibero-American Summit , [ 60 ] whose main objective is to expand the ties between the Iberian nations and the Ibero-American nations . He also helped East Timor , a former colony, economically and militarily to achieve its independence from Indonesia , supporting the young nation in negotiations with other Asian countries and in the deliberations of the United Nations..
The only international dispute that Portugal maintains is with respect to the Spanish municipality of Olivenza , which belonged to Portugal from 1297 to 1801, the year in which it was ceded to Spain by virtue of the Badajoz treaty , which ended the War of the Oranges . Portugal claimed in 1815 that it owned sovereignty over this territory as signed in the Congress of Vienna . [ 62 ] Likewise, there was a dispute over the Wild Islands, although Spain already recognizes its sovereignty, but even so, there are still problems regarding the boundaries of the SEZs . [ 63 ]Despite everything, the bilateral diplomatic relations between the two Iberian countries are cordial. [ 64 ]
Armed forces and security
The armed forces of Portugal have three branches: Army , Navy and Air Force . [ 65 ] The Portuguese army serves primarily as a self-defense force, whose mission is to protect the country's territorial integrity, provide humanitarian assistance, and ensure the security of its interests abroad. [ 66 ] Since 2004, military service is not compulsory. Also, the age for voluntary recruitment has been set at 18 years. [ 67 ] [ 68 ]In 2010, the number of military personnel in Portugal was 50,000 soldiers, of whom 7,500 (15%) were women. [ 69 ] The Defense budget for 2012 is 2,216 million euros and meant a reduction of about 4% with respect to the previous year. [ 70 ]
In the 20th century , Portugal participated in two major military interventions: the First World War and the Portuguese colonial war (1961-1974). [ 42 ] The discontent caused by the colonial war was a key factor in the uprising on the part of the army on April 25, 1974, which caused the fall of Marcelo Caetano and the subsequent arrival of democracy in Portugal with the approval of the Portuguese Constitution of 1976 , still in force. [ 71 ]
In recent years, he has assisted in peacekeeping missions in East Timor , Bosnia , Kosovo , Afghanistan , Iraq (specifically in Nasiriyah ) and in Lebanon . [ 61 ] More recently, in 2011, it has participated in Operation Atalanta, the objective of which is to combat marine piracy off the coast of Somalia . [ 72 ] The United States maintains a military presence in Portugal with 770 troops at the Lajes basein the Azores islands. The base employs 683 Portuguese and is the main source of employment on the island of Terceira behind the Public Administration. [ 73 ]
The security of the population is in charge of the National Republican Guard (GNR) and the Public Security Police (PSP). [ 74 ] [ 75 ] In addition to these bodies, Portugal has the Judicial Police (PJ), which is the main law enforcement body of criminal investigation of the country and was created to fight organized crime, terrorism, trafficking narcotics, corruption and economic and financial crimes. The judicial police are part of the Ministry of Justice and act under the orders of the Public Ministry . [ 76 ]
It is to be considered that one of the largest associations in favor of human rights in the world, Amnesty International , has its origin in an event that occurred in Portugal. In 1961, the English lawyer Peter Benenson started a campaign called "Appeal for Amnisty", with the publication of the article "The forgotten prisoners" in The Observer newspaper . This article made mention of the imprisonment of two Portuguese students for toasting freedom. This campaign was the seed of the association, which today has more than two million members. [ 77 ]
Amnesty International's 2008 report denounced some cases of police violence on detainees in Portugal. It also noted the creation of a new immigration law, which granted more rights to migrants and placed greater emphasis on their fight against mafias; the creation of a new general plan against violence against women (in 2006 39 women were killed by their partners according to government data) and the opening of an investigation into alleged CIA flights for extraordinary renditions that made a stopover in Portugal. [ 78 ]
|CESCR||CCPR [ 81 ]||CERD [ 82 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 84 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 88 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
The main administrative divisions of Portugal are its 18 continental districts and its two autonomous regions (Azores and Madeira). These are subdivided in turn into 308 concelhos or municipalities and these again into 4260 parishes . [ 89 ] The districts are the most relevant subdivision of the country and serve as the basis for different administrative divisions such as electoral districts . [ 90 ]Before 1976, the two Atlantic archipelagos were also integrated into the general structure of the Portuguese districts, although with a different administrative structure, as it appeared in the Statute of the Autonomous Districts of the Adjacent Islands, [ 91 ] which it granted General Meetings with their own powers. There were three autonomous districts in the Azores and one in Madeira:
- Azores— District of Angra do Heroísmo , District of Horta and District of Ponta Delgada . [ 91 ]
- Madeira— Funchal District . [ 91 ]
After 1976, the Azores and Madeira had the status of an autonomous region and were no longer divided into districts to have their own political-administrative status and governing bodies. [ 92 ] Currently the administrative division of Portugal is: [ 93 ] [ 94 ]
|1||Lisboa||2761 km²||2 250 382||10||Look||5518 km²||160 925|
|2||I would read||3517 km²||470 985||11||Coimbra||3947 km²||429 987|
|3||Santarem||6747 km²||453 633||12||Aveiro||2808 km²||714 218|
|4||Setubal||5064 km²||851 232||13||Viseu||5007 km²||377 629|
|5||Beja||10 225 km²||152 728||14||Braganza||6608 km²||136 252|
|6||Faro||4960 km²||451 005||15||Real Village||4328 km²||206 661|
|7||Évora||7393 km²||166 706||16||Port||2395 km²||1 817 119|
|8||Portalegre||6065 km²||118 448||17||Braga||2673 km²||848 165|
|9||White Castle||6675 km²||196 262||18||Viana do Castelo||2255 km²||206 661|
|Azores|| || ||Azoriano|
|Madeira|| || ||Madeiran|
The urban areas , which can be defined as continuous territorial units formed by grouping concelhos , [ 95 ] are another form of Portuguese administrative division is rolling at different speeds. There are two types of urban areas:
- Large Metropolitan Areas (GAM) - urban area made up of nine or more concelhos , and with a population of more than 350,000 inhabitants. [ 96 ]
- Intermunicipal Communities (CIM) - urban area composed of three or more concelhos , and with a population of between 10,000 and 100,000 voting inhabitants. [ 97 ]
Portugal is made up of a continental territory located in southwestern Europe that covers 92,090 km² of surface. [ 3 ] The country occupies a large part of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and two archipelagos located in the Atlantic Ocean: Madeira and Azores , with a total of 440 km² of maritime zone. Its continental zone is bordered by a single nation, Spain , to the east and north, along 1,224 km, [ 3 ] limiting to the south and west with the North Atlantic Ocean along 1,793 km of coastline . [ 3 ]
Its continental territory is crossed by its main river, the Tagus , which divides the country in two in half. In the north, the landscape is mountainous in the interior areas with interspersed plateaus that allow the development of agriculture. In the south, up to the Algarve, the relief is characterized by the presence of plains, although there are some interspersed mountain ranges. Other main rivers are the Duero , the Miño and the Guadiana which, like the Tagus, originate in Spain. Among the rivers that have their entire course through Portuguese territory, the Voga , the Sado and the longest, the Mondego , which is born in the Sierra de la Estrella stand out.. In this mountain range where the highest mountain in continental Portugal and the second highest peak in Portugal are found, with 1993 m asl (only behind the Mountain of the Peak in the Azores ). [ 98 ]
The Azores Islands are located in the middle rift of the Atlantic Ocean. Some of the islands have recently had volcanic activity: São Miguel (1563) and Capelinhos (1957), which increased the western area of Faial Island . [ 99 ] The Dom João de Castro Bank is a large submarine volcano located between the islands Terceira and São Miguel and is 14 m below the surface of the sea. It erupted in 1720 and formed an island that remained on the water for several years, and it is estimated that a new island could emerge in the not too distant future. As already mentioned, the highest point in Portugal is theMontaña del Pico on the island of Pico , a volcano that reaches 2351 m above sea level. [ 100 ]
The islands of Madeira , unlike the Azores, are located inside the African plate and their formation is due to the activity of a hot spot unrelated to plate tectonics . This situation of stability and the location inside the tectonic plate makes this the region of Portugal that suffers the least earthquakes . The last volcanic eruption of which evidence remains occurred around 6000 years ago, on the island of Madeira where volcanism is currently manifested indirectly through the release of deep volcanic gases and hot and gasified waters when tunnels are opened.of road and galleries to capture waters in the interior of the main island. [ 101 ] The highest point in the archipelago is Pico Ruivo at 1862 m asl, [ 102 ] which is also the third highest point in the country. [ 103 ]
The Portuguese coast is extensive: it has 1230 km in continental Portugal, 667 km in the Azores and Madeira another 250 km, where also include Wild islands , Desertas Islands and the island of Porto Santo . The coast is made up of beaches with a multitude of cliffs and sandy areas. An important peculiarity of the Portuguese coast is the Aveiro estuary, estuary of the Voga river , near the city of Aveiro , 45 km long and a maximum of 11 km wide, which is rich in fish and seabirds. In it there are four channels, and between these several islands and islets where the four rivers meet the ocean. [ 104 ]With the formation of littoral cords, a lagoon was defined, considered one of the most important hydrographic elements of the Portuguese coast. Portugal, in turn, has one of the largest Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) in Europe, a maritime strip with about 1,683,000 km². [ 105 ]
Portugal has a Mediterranean climate , Csa in the south and Csb in the north, according to the Köppen climate classification . [ 106 ] The mean annual temperature in continental Portugal varies from 13 ° C in the mountainous interior to 18 ° C in the south, in the Guadiana depression . [ 106 ]Summers are pleasant in the highlands of the north of the country and in the littoral region of the extreme north and in the center. Fall and winter are typically windy, rainy and cool and are colder in the northern and central districts of the country, where temperatures are negative in the colder months. However, in cities further south, temperatures only drop below 0 ° C on rare occasions and hover around 5 ° C in most cases. [ 107 ]
Normally, the spring and summer months are sunny and temperatures are high during the dry months of July and August, when they can sometimes exceed 40 ° C in much of the country, [ 108 ] although more frequently inside the Alentejo . [ 109 ]
Average annual rainfall varies from just over 3000 mm in the northern mountains to less than 600 mm in the southern areas of Alentejo . [ 106 ] Portugal has about 2500-3200 hours of sunshine per year with an average of between 4 and 6 hours a day in winter and between 10 and 12 in summer, with higher values in the southeast and lower values in the northwest. [ 108 ] [ 110 ] Nieva regularly in four districts of northern Portugal ( Guarda , Bragança , Vila Real and Viseu ) but its frequency decreases towards the south to be non - existent in most of theAlgarve . In winter temperatures below -10 ° C are registered and snowfalls occur with some frequency in isolated points, such as the Sierra de la Estrella , the Sierra de Gerês and the Sierra de Montesinho , where it can snow from October to May. [ 107 ]
Flora and fauna
It stands out in its natural heritage, a place declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1999 for the size and quality of the laurel forest, a type of laurel forest : the Madeira laurel forest . [ 111 ] It has seven biosphere reserves : Paúl do Boquilobo (1981), Corvo Island (2007), Graciosa Island (2007), Flores Island (2009), Geres - Xures , cross-border with Spain, the archipelago of las Berlengas (2011) and Santana(2011). [ 112 ] A total of 86,581 hectares are protected as wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention , in total, 28 Ramsar sites. [ 113 ]
From the point of view of forest plantations, pine, especially resin ( Pinus pinaster ) and stone ( Pinus pinea ), also eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus ) and chestnut ( Castanea sativa ) are widely scattered for economic reasons . As for the forests of continental Portugal , the cork oak ( Quercus suber ), the holm oak ( Quercus ilex ) and the gall oak ( Quercus faginea ) predominate . [ 114 ] According to data from 2001, the most common forest plantations and natural forests in Portugal are:
|Forest species||% Forest area||Area (ha)|
|*Pinus pinaster||29,1||976 069|
|* Pine trees||2,3||77 650|
|* Rest of resinous||0,8||27 358|
|Quercus ilex||13,8||461 577|
|*Castanea sativa||1,2||40 579|
|Total||100,0||3 349 327|
Likewise, other species such as Gaillardia aristata are being introduced in the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira; the Jacobaea minuta , in the south of Portugal; the Rhaponticum longifolium , in the surroundings of Leiría ; the carnation of the Indies ( Tagetes patula ), on the border of the province of Salamanca ; the Zinnia elegans , in the region of Beira Alta , the Salvia viridis , in Extremadura ; the pink crown ( Securigera varia ) in Coimbra or the Claytonia perfoliata in the north of Portugal. 
The fauna of mammals is very varied and includes the fox , the badger , the Iberian lynx , the Iberian wolf , the mountain goat , the wild cat , the hare , the weasel , the mongoose , the genet and, occasionally, the brown bear ( near the river Miño and the Peneda-Gerês National Park ), [ 117 ] among others. Portugal is an important stopping place for bird migrationsthat move between Europe and Africa, especially in places like Cape San Vicente or the Sierra de Monchique . The country has about 600 species of birds, of which 235 are nesting, and almost every year there are new records. [ 118 ]
Portugal has a large number of freshwater fish species ranging from the giant catfish in the Tagus International natural park , to the small endemic species that only live in small lakes. [ 119 ] Some of these rare species are seriously threatened due to habitat destruction, pollution, and droughts. [ 119 ] Portuguese marine waters are among the richest in biodiversity in the world, as their marine species number around a thousand and include sardines , tuna and Atlantic mackerel . [ 120 ]
In Portugal the upwelling phenomenon can be appreciated , especially on the west coast, which makes the sea rich in nutrients and biodiversity. [ 121 ] The protected areas of Portugal include national park , [ 122 ] thirteen natural parks , [ 123 ] nine nature reserves , [ 124 ] five natural monuments [ 125 ] six protected landscapes . [ 126 ]In 2005, the Litoral de Esposende protected landscape area was classified as a natural park for the "conservation of the coastline and its natural physical, aesthetic and landscape elements." [ 127 ]
Portugal has become a diversified economy and increasingly based on the services sector since it joined the European Union in 1986. Different governments have carried out a vast reform program: they have privatized many state-owned companies and liberalized the dominant areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. Portugal has been a member of the European Monetary Union (EMU) since its inception in 1998. On January 1, 2002, its new currency, the euro , began to circulate , along with 11 other EU member countries . [ 128 ]
Between 1991 and 2000, economic development was above the European Union average. The 2005 annual competitiveness list of the World Economic Forum placed Portugal in 22nd place, ahead of countries such as Spain , Ireland , France , Belgium or the city of Hong Kong . [ 129 ] However, the country has been losing competitiveness and in 2012 it ranked 45th, only above Cyprus , Hungary , Malta , Slovenia and Latvia in the European Union. [ 130]
Portugal has an eminently agricultural past although, after the development that the country has registered in the 1980s and 1990s, the structure is based on services and industry, which in 2010 represented 74.5% and 22.8% of the VAB , respectively. [ 131 ] Portuguese agriculture is quite developed thanks to the climate, the relief and the favorable soils. In recent decades, agricultural modernization has intensified, but still 10.9% of the population works in the sector. [ 131 ] Olive groves (4000 km²), vineyards (3750 km²), wheat (3000 km²) and corn (2680 km²). The winesEspecially the port wine and Madeira wine , and oils Portuguese are quite known. Portugal is also a producer of fruit , especially oranges from the Algarve, the red pear from the West region, the cherry from Gardunha and the banana from Madeira. Sweet beets , sunflower oil, and tobacco are also important . [ 132 ]
The economic importance of fishing has been declining and employs less than 1% of the workforce. The decrease in stocks of fishing resources has been reflected in the reduction of the Portuguese fishing fleet which, although it has been modernized, still has difficulties to compete with other European fleets. Despite the limited extent of the Portuguese continental shelf, there is a great diversity of species in the waters of the Portuguese EEZ , which is one of the largest in Europe. The Portuguese fleet catches in international waters and in the EEZs of other countries. [ 133 ] The species most caught are sardines , mackerel , octopus, the saber fish , the wahoo and the tuna . The ports with the highest landing of fish in 2001 were those of Matosinhos , Peniche , Olhão and Sesimbra . [ 105 ]
The cork has a fairly significant production because Portugal leaves 54% of the cork produced in the world. [ 134 ] The most significant minerals in Portugal are copper , lithium , tungsten , tin , uranium , feldspar , salt , talc, and marble . [ 135 ]
The Portuguese trade balance is in deficit and the value of exports barely covered 65% of the value of imports in 2010. [ 136 ] The largest exports correspond to tractors, electrical equipment and materials, fuels and mineral oils, machines and mechanical devices, plastic materials and their manufactures, paper and cardboard and knitted garments, among others. [ 136 ] The main countries from which Portugal imports products are members of the European Union: Spain , Germany , France and the United Kingdom.
On May 16, 2011, eurozone leaders officially approved a € 78 billion rescue package for Portugal. [ 137 ] The rescue loan will be distributed between the European Financial Stability Mechanism , the European Financial Stability Fund and the International Monetary Fund . [ 138 ] According to the Portuguese Finance Minister, the average interest rate on the rescue loan was expected to be 5.1%. [ 139 ] Portugal thus became the third country in the eurozone , after Ireland and Greece., in receiving a financial rescue.
In the secondary sector, it is worth highlighting the automotive industry, with production plants such as Volkswagen Autoeuropa , located in Palmela , with a production capacity of more than 220,000 cars per year, according to 2018 data. [ 140 ] In addition, Groupe PSA has a center of production in Mangualde , founded in 1962. [ 141 ] The aerospace industry has been developed mainly by OGMA , specialized in maintenance and manufacturing of aerostructures, and by Embraer . The chemical industryit is centered especially around three poles: Lisbon, Porto and Sines . [ 142 ]
Portugal is a country where the tertiary sector is the predominant one. However, the primary sector is still very important. Thus, in the first quarter of 2012, the services sector employed just over 3 million people (62.5%), the most important subsectors being commerce (724,500 people), education (384,000) and health (351 600). The secondary sector employed 27.5% of the active population (1.3 million people), broken down into 958,900 for industry and 447,100 for construction. The primary sector employed 487,400 people (10%). [ 143 ]
According to data from the National Institute of Statistics for 2012, unemployment had risen to 14.9% in the first quarter of 2012. [ 143 ] This affected more women (15.1%) and young people (36 ,two %). [ 143 ] By region, the most affected by unemployment were the Algarve (20%) and Lisbon (16%) and those with the least unemployment were the Central Zone with 11.8% and the Azores (13.9%) . [ 143 ] For its part, the inactive population represents 39.2% of the total population. [ 143 ]
In 2012, around 11% of university graduates were unemployed; about 115,000 people with university degrees were unemployed. [ 143 ] According to Eurostat , Portugal was the ninth poorest country of the twenty-seven member states of the European Union in terms of purchasing power , for the period 2005-2007. The latest European survey of workers (published in 2007, and which forms the basis of the 2009 research study) shows that Portugal is the fifth European country with the lowest quality of work. [ 144 ]
Portugal has been a member of the World Tourism Organization since 1976. [ 145 ] In 2011, the 100th anniversary of the spread of tourism in Portugal was celebrated. [ 146 ] Tourism is a very important economic sector for the nation since it represents 10% of employment and 11% of GDP. [ 147 ] The number of visitors has been increasing significantly in Portugal, reaching 6.4 million in 2010; [ 147 ] These came mostly from Spain (21.9%), the United Kingdom (16.3%), Germany (10.8%) and France (9.1%). [ 147 ] 
The most important type of tourism is the so-called "sun and beach" and is concentrated in the Algarve , Madeira and the Azores , [ 147 ] although Lisbon also stands out as a tourist destination. [ 149 ] However, the Portuguese government continues to promote new tourist destinations such as the Tagus Valley , Lisbon , the Beiras , Porto and northern Portugal. Thermal tourism is also strongly encouraged. [ 147 ] In 2006, Lisbon was the second European city, after Barcelona, with the highest number of overnight stays, with 7 million. However, the destination that became more dynamic was the north of Portugal, especially Porto , due to low-cost flights. [ 150 ]
Despite the fact that in recent years it has lost its share of visitors, being surpassed by countries such as Turkey , Hungary , Malaysia or Thailand , Portugal is the 18th tourist destination by volume of visitors. The objective of the last National Strategic Plan for Tourism was to attract around 21 million tourists by 2015, as well as to register an income of between 14.5 and 15.5 million EUR in that same year. [ 149 ]
Transportation was seen as a priority in the early 1990s, driven by rapid growth in car use and industrialization. The country has a road network of 82,900 km, [ 152 ] of which at least 3,000 km are part of the 44 highway system . Portugal was one of the first countries in the world to have a highway, in 1944, and it linked Lisbon with the National Stadium, in what would be in the future the Lisbon-Cascais highway (now A5). However, although other stretches of expressways were built in the 1960s and 1970s, it was only in the late 1980s that large-scale highway construction began. Currently the network of motorways and expressways is highly developed and links the coast with the main cities in the interior, with a network of 3000 km. There are also main routes and complementary routes that can be made up of expressways and expressways.
The two largest metropolitan areas also have underground networks: the Lisbon Metro and Metro Sul do Tejo in the metropolitan area of Lisbon and Oporto Metro in the Porto Metropolitan Area , each with over 35 km of lines . [ 153 ] [ 154 ] In Portugal, the service Lisbon tram network has been provided by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa ( Carris ), for more than a century. In Porto , a tram network, of which only one tourist line remains on the banks of theDuero river in service, began to be built on September 12, 1895, the first in the Iberian Peninsula. [ 155 ] All large cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.
The rail transport of passengers and goods derives from the use of the 3,319 km of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,436 km are electrified and in some 900 km of these, trains can circulate at speeds greater than 120 km / h. [ 152 ] The railway network is managed by REFER while the transport of passengers and goods is the responsibility of Comboios de Portugal (CP), both being state-owned companies. In 2010, CP transported 130 million passengers and 9,750,000 tonnes of goods. [ 156 ]
The geographical position of Lisbon makes it a stopover point for many foreign airlines to the rest of the country's airports. For this reason, the government decided in 2008 to build a new airport on the outskirts of Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon's Portela airport . [ 157 ] The country currently has about 65 airports, [ 152 ] of which the most important are the Portela in Lisbon ( hub of TAP Portugal ), [ 158 ] Faro , Porto , Funchal( Madeira ) and Ponta Delgada ( Azores ). [ 159 ] The main ports of Portugal are those of Leixões , Lisbon , Setúbal and Sines . The country also has about 210 km of waterways . [ 152 ]
Portugal has one of the highest rates of mobile phone use in the world, as the number of mobile phones has exceeded the total population (in 2011 the number of mobile phones was 13,100,000). [ 160 ] This network also has wireless connections to the mobile Internet and reaches the entire territory. At the end of the third quarter of 2011 in Portugal there were about 2.6 million users with mobile broadband internet access and about 2.2 million fixed broadband users. [ 161 ]
Most Portuguese have access to pay cable TV . At the end of the first quarter of 2008, consumers of cable or satellite TV (DTH) services were 36.2% of households. The penetration of this service is above average in the autonomous regions of Azores and Madeira. [ 162 ]
By government initiative, Radio y Televisión de Portugal (RTP) was established on December 15, 1955. In 1975 the company was nationalized and became first the public company Radiotelevisión Portuguesa and later Radio y Televisión de Portugal. [ 163 ] At the end of the century, the State granted permits for the creation of two television stations: Sociedade Independente de Comunicação in 1992 [ 164 ] and Televisão Independente in 1993. [ 165 ] Currently, these are the only four channels with free signal in Portugal but there are also two regional channels: RTP Azores(1975) [ 166 ] and RTP Madeira (1972). [ 167 ] The Radio and Television of Portugal (RTP) also has three radio stations : Antena 1 , Antena 2 and Antena 3 . [ 168 ] In addition, there are three, of which the oldest known private broadcasters and are Rádio Renascença , [ 169 ] Rádio Comercial and Rádio Clube Português . [ 170 ]
The Açoriano Oriental newspaper was founded on April 18, 1835 and is considered the oldest in Portugal and one of the ten oldest in the world. [ 171 ] Over time, several newspapers have emerged, of which O Século , Diário de Notícias and Jornal de Notícias can be highlighted . In Portugal, there are several magazines on the newsstands on the most varied topics. However, the ones that have the most readers are those that deal with the social chronicle, such as Nova Gente , Caras , Lux , VIP and Flash , which are also the best sellers. 
Portugal is a highly deficient country in energy terms and imports all of the fossil fuels it consumes. [ 174 ] This meant that in 2005 Portugal imported 87.3% of the total energy it consumed. [ 175 ] Regarding electricity production, Portugal produced in 2005 85% of the electricity it consumed and imported the remaining 15%. [ 176 ] Total production for that year was 46,575 GWh, distributed as follows: non-renewable 80.8%; of which 32.7% from coal , 29.2% from natural gas and 18.9% from oiland renewable 19.2%; of which 11% comes from hydroelectric energy , 3.8% from wind energy , 3% from biomass and the rest 1.4% from others. [ 176 ] However, for the first time in its history, in the first five months of 2010 it had a positive electricity trade balance and exported more energy than it imported (982 GWh against 946 GWh). [ 177 ]
In 2007, the world's largest solar power plant began to produce electricity in Brinches , [ 178 ] shortly before the first commercial wave power plant opened its doors in September 2008 in Aguçadoura , north of Portugal. [ 179 ] The country will also increase the installed power in wind farms, which will increase from 2,000 MW in mid-2007 to 8,500 MW in 2020, while the installed hydroelectric power will increase from 5,000 MW in 2005 to 8,600 MW in 2020. [ 180 ]
|1422||1 043 274||-||1900||5 423 132||+7,4 %|
|1527||1 262 376||+21,0 %||1911||5 960 056||+9,9 %|
|1636||1 100 000||-12,9 %||1920||6 032 991||+1,2 %|
|1736||2 143 368||+94,9 %||1930||6 825 883||+13,1 %|
|1770||2 850 444||+33,0 %||1940||7 722 152||+13,1 %|
|1776||3 352 310||+17,6 %||1950||8 441 312||+9,3 %|
|1801||2 931 930||-12,5 %||1960||8 851 289||+4,9 %|
|1811||2 876 602||-1,9 %||1970||8 568 703||-3,2 %|
|1838||3 200 000||+11,2 %||1981||9 852 841||+15,0 %|
|1849||3 411 454||+6,6 %||1991||9 862 540||+0,1 %|
|1864||4 188 410||+22,8 %||2001||10 356 117||+5,0 %|
|1878||4 550 699||+8,6 %||2006||10 599 095||+2,3 %|
|1890||5 049 729||+11,0 %||2011||10 562 178||-0,3 %|
Source: Statistics Portugal , Lisbon |
«Portuguese Historical Statistics" [ 181 ]
The data on the genetic makeup of the Portuguese indicate that there is very little internal differentiation and that they have a continental European Palaeolithic genetic base. [ 184 ]
In the 19th century , censuses began in Portugal. The first census considered modern, since it complied with a series of international standards, [ 185 ] was carried out on January 1, 1854. This included the entire national territory —both the continental and the archipelagos—, but not the colonies that the country possessed at that time. [ 186 ] In 1868 the results were presented in a volume of 340 pages in which the population was differentiated by district, municipality and parish and, in the case of the archipelagos, also by island. [ 187 ] According to this census, in Portugal at that time there were 4,188,410 inhabitantsde facto . [ 188 ] Between 1864 and 1911, the Portuguese population increased by 42%, reaching 5,547,708 inhabitants. [ 189 ] This was due to economic improvements and general living conditions. Thus, the last great "food crisis" occurred between 1856 and 1857. The arrival, albeit late, of industrialization in Portugal caused a rural exodus that led to the progressive abandonment of the fields and a rapid growth of cities, especially Lisbon and Porto , where people crowded into houses that occupied one block and in which more than 15 families could live. [ 189 ]The aforementioned growth was also possible due to the decrease in emigration that occurred after Brazilian independence and that would only increase again after the end of the war between Brazil and Paraguay in 1869. This strong emigration resulted in an aging of the population. [ 189 ]
Already in the 1960s, there was a new rural exodus that attracted people to the big cities and tourist centers and depopulated the inland areas, especially those that were close to the borders with Spain. [ 190 ]
Portugal was a country of emigrants until 1970, which made the population barely grow. However, the arrival of democracy and the loss of the colonies turned the situation around and Portugal experienced a demographic boom . [ 191 ] Since then, the number of immigrants has not stopped increasing and thus, between 1980 and 2001, the number of legal immigrants on Portuguese soil has multiplied by 6. This has meant that the population has not aged as much as in other countries in northern and central Europe. [ 191 ]
The Portuguese population is made up of 14.9% of people aged between 0 and 14 years, 65.9% between 15 and 64 and 19.1% over 65 years. [ 192 ] The average life expectancy is 78.54 years. [ 193 ] The literacy rate stands at 93.3%, according to 2003 data. [ 9 ] Population growth stands at 0.212%, with the birth rate of 9.94 births for every 10 000 inhabitants and the mortality rate of 10.8 deaths per 10 000 inhabitants. [ 9 ] The fertility rate stands at 1.5 children per woman, which makes the country have a vegetative growthnull. [ 9 ] Portugal ranks as one of the countries with the lowest infant mortality rate (4.66 per thousand) in the world. [ 9 ] [ 194 ] Although Portugal is a developed country, there are people still without access to running water (one 12nbsp;% of the population in 2005) [ 195 ] and electricity, although their number will reducing.
About 451,000 immigrants live in Portugal (according to 2009 data), which represents 5% of the Portuguese population. Most are from Brazil (115 882), Ukraine (52 253) and Cape Verde (48 417), but also from Moldova , Romania , Guinea-Bissau , Angola , East Timor , Mozambique , São Tomé and Príncipe and Russia . [ 196 ]
The official language of Portugal is Portuguese according to article 11 of the Portuguese Constitution, [ 197 ] and it has been since King Dionysius I of Portugal adopted it in 1290 by decree. [ 198 ] With more than 210 million native speakers [ 199 ] it is the fifth most widely spoken language in the world and the third most widely spoken in the Western world . [ 200 ] As a legacy of Portuguese rule, it is also the official language in Brazil , Angola , Mozambique , Cape Verde , São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau , East Timor , and Macao , in addition to being spoken in ancient Portuguese India ( Goa , Damão , Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli ). It also has the status of an official language in the European Union , UNASUR , Mercosur and the African Union . [ 201 ]
The Portuguese language is a Romance language , like Italian , French , Romanian and Romansh , among others, [ 202 ] from the Iberian- Romance group , such as Spanish , Catalan and Galician , the latter language with which it has many similarities. Portuguese is also known as the «language of Camões» (due to Luis de Camões , author of Os Lusíadas ), «the last flower of Lazio», an expression used in the sonnet Língua Portuguesa [ 203 ]By Olavo Bilac and also the "sweet tongue" by Miguel de Cervantes . [ 204 ]
Sign language is also officially recognized and protected by Article 74 of the Portuguese Constitution. [ 197 ] Mirandés, which is officially protected in the municipality of Miranda do Douro , [ 205 ] has its origin in Asturleonés and is taught as a second language in the schools of the municipality of Miranda do Douro and part of the municipality of Vimioso . Its use is quite restricted although there are actions that guarantee the linguistic rights of its speaking community. [ 206 ]
|Religion in Portugal (2019)|
|Catholic Church (83%) Christians (5%)Other Irreligion (6%) others (5.9%)|
The Portuguese Constitution guarantees religious freedom and equality between religions. [ 207 ] However, there is a concordat that privileges the Catholic Church [ 208 ] in various dimensions of social life, such is the case of some official public ceremonies such as official State inaugurations in which there is a presence of a representative of the Catholic Church. However, the religious beliefs of elected politicians are considered irrelevant to voters. Proof of this is that the two previous presidents of the Republic ( Mário Soares and Jorge Sampaio) were openly secular people . [ 209 ]
Most of the Portuguese (84.6% of the total population, according to the official results of the 2001 census), are inscribed in the Catholic tradition. [ 210 ] Regarding the Sunday practice of Catholicism , according to a study of the same year carried out by the Catholic Church in Portugal, there are 1,933,677 practicing Catholics (18.7% of the total population) and the number of people that take communion is 1,065,036 (10.3% of the total population). About half of all marriages are Catholic although same-sex marriages and divorce are allowedas established by the Portuguese Civil Code, despite the fact that Canon Law does not provide for these figures. There are twenty dioceses in Portugal, grouped into three ecclesiastical districts: Braga , Lisbon and Évora . [ 211 ]
The Protestantism in Portugal has several denominations and cults come mostly inspired evangelical neopentecostal (for example, the Assemblies of God in Portugal and Manna Church) or Brazilian immigration, for example, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God . [ 212 ]
The Jehovah 's Witnesses have about 50,000 faithful in Portugal, distributed in about 650 congregations. The religion has been present in the country since 1925 and was officially banned between 1961 and 1974, a period in which it operated in hiding. In December 1974, the Association of Jehovah's Witnesses was legally recognized and today it is based in Alcabideche . [ 213 ]
The Jewish community in Portugal has managed to maintain itself to this day, despite the order of expulsion of the Jews on December 5, 1496 by decree of Manuel I , which forced many to choose between forced conversions or the effective expulsion of the country, or jail and the consequent penalties handed down by the Portuguese Inquisition which, for this reason, was one of the most active in Europe. The way in which the cult developed in Belmonte is one of the examples of the perseverance of the Jews as a unit in Portugal. In 1506, in Lisbon there was a massacre of Jews in which between 2000 and 4000 people lost their lives and was one of the most violent of the time in Europe. [ citation required] There are also Islamic minorities (15,000 people) [ 214 ] and Hindus who are mostly descendants of immigrants , as well as specific foci of Buddhists , Gnostics and spiritualists . [ 215 ]
The Portuguese health system is characterized by being made up of three coexisting systems: the « National Health Service » (SNS), the «special social health insurance schemes for certain professions» (health subsystems), and the «private insurance health volunteers ». The SNS provides universal coverage. [ 216 ] In addition, around 25% of the population is covered by health subsystems, 10% by private insurance, and the other 7% by mutual groups. [ 217 ]
The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policies, as well as directing the SNS. There are also five regional health administrations that are in charge of implementing the objectives set by the Ministry of Health for the SNS, of developing the guidelines and their protocols, and also of supervising the performance of health care. Decentralization efforts are currently underway and are based on sharing financial and managerial responsibility at the regional level. [ 217 ] However, in practice, the autonomy of regional health administrations is limited to primary care. The SNS is financed mainly by the collection of taxesgeneral. Employment and employee contributions represent the main source of funding for the health subsystems. In addition, direct patient payments and voluntary private health insurance provide a large portion of the funds. [ 217 ]
As in other European Union countries, the majority of Portuguese die from chronic diseases. [ 217 ] Mortality associated with cardiovascular disease is higher than in the euro area ; but its two main components (cardiac ischemia and cerebrovascular accidents) present trends inverse to those present in the eurozone countries, with cardiovascular accidents as the main cause of death in Portugal (17%). [ 217 ] 12% of Portuguese die of cancer , a lower rate than in the eurozone, although the rate does not decline as fast as in Europe. Portugal has the highest death rate due todiabetes of the euro, with a significant increase in the late 1980s [ 217 ]
The rate of infant mortality in Portugal has been greatly reduced since the late 1980s, when twenty four out of every thousand babies died before reaching their first birthday. In 2006, this figure stood at three deaths for every thousand newborns. This improvement is mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from 15.5 to 3.4 per thousand live births. [ 217 ] In 2010, life expectancy was 78.88 years. [ 218 ]
Lisbon (with about 500,000 inhabitants and 2.1 million inhabitants in the Lisbon region) [ 52 ] has been the capital since the 12th century , [ 52 ] the largest city in the country, [ 52 ] the main center economic, [ 52 ] the main Portuguese seaport and airport and the richest city in Portugal with a GDP per capita higher than the European Union average. Other important cities are Porto (about 240,000 inhabitants and 1,000,000 in Greater Porto), [ 219 ]The second largest city and economic center, Aveiro (considered the Portuguese Venice), [ 220 ] Braga (the city of the archbishops), [ 221 ] Chaves (historical and millenary city), Coimbra (with the oldest university in the country), Guimarães (birthplace of the nation), [ 222 ] Elvas (most fortified city in Europe), Évora (city museum), Setúbal (third largest port), Portimão (3 er cruise port) Faro and Viseu .
In the metropolitan area of Lisbon there are cities with a high population density such as Agualva-Cacém and Queluz ( Sintra municipality ), Amadora , Almada , Amora , Seixal , Barreiro , Montijo and Odivelas . In the Porto metropolitan region, the most populated municipalities are Vila Nova de Gaia , Maia , Matosinhos and Gondomar . In the Autonomous Region of Madeira the main city is Funchal. In the autonomous region of the Azores there are three main cities: Ponta Delgada , on the island of São Miguel; Angra do Heroísmo , on the island of Terceira and Horta , on the island of Faial . [ 223 ]
| Main cities of Portugal |
Census of 2011
Vila Nova de Gaia
|3||Vila Nova de Gaia||North||302,092||13||Guimaraes||North||158,108|
|7||Braga||North||181,819||17||Santa Maria da Feira||North||139,393|
|8||Amadora||Lisboa||175,558||18||Vila Franca de Xira||Lisboa||136,510|
|10||Almada||Lisboa||173,298||20||Vila Nova de Famalicão||North||133,804|
The Portuguese educational system is regulated by the State through the Ministry of Education and Science . [ 224 ] The public education system is the most used and the most widespread, although there are also other private schools for any level of education. [ 225 ]
The educational system is divided into preschool (for those who are less than six years old), basic education (duration of nine years; in three stages and compulsory), secondary education (duration of three years, up to twelfth grade and compulsory since 2009) , [ 226 ] and higher education ( university and polytechnic ). [ 225 ] At the end of each cycle, students take assessment tests (1 st and 2 nd cycle) and the national exam (3 rd cycle) in the disciplines of mathematics and Portuguese. The tests evaluate students on the subjects learned during the corresponding cycle. [ 225 ] [ 227 ] [ 228 ]
The secondary cycle has its own organizational system, different from that of the other cycles. It is also possible for any student to attend training courses and education, equivalent to the 9th year (or first year of secondary) and professional courses, equivalent to the 12th year (3 rd and final year of secondary) within the framework of the "New Opportunities" initiative. [ 229 ] All students can complete secondary education, day or night. These courses are available at any school. [ 230 ]
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon, before moving to Coimbra. The largest university in Portugal is the University of Porto , with about 31,000 students, and its Faculty of Engineering is the largest in Europe. Universities are normally divided into faculties . The Bologna Process was adopted by Portuguese universities and polytechnic institutes in 2006. The University of Porto is also building the largest Life Sciences pole of the Iberian Peninsula, which will bring together the Abel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences and the Faculty of Pharmacy. [ 231 ]
The total adult literacy rate in 2003 was approximately 93.3%, the rate for men being 95.5% and for women 91.3%. The influx of Portuguese to primary education is close to 100%. 20% of college-age students attend one of the country's higher education institutions. In addition to being a key destination for international students , Portugal is one of the largest places of origin for international students. The total number of students in both domestic and international university learning, was 380,937 in 2005. [ 196 ]
Portugal has developed a particular culture, as it has been under the influence of the different civilizations that crossed the Mediterranean and Europe, although it also introduced some cultural elements when the nation played an active role during the Age of Discovery. [ 232 ]
Although the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation had already been created in Lisbon in 1956 , it was not until the 1990s and 2000s that Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities. In Lisbon, the Belém Cultural Center was created and in Porto, the Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Música , as well as other public cultural facilities such as municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities throughout the country. . [ 233 ]
Traditional Portuguese music is very varied. The dances do vira , in the Minho region, the pauliteiros from the Mirandesa area, the corridinhos from the Algarve or the bailinhos from Madeira are part of the folklore . Typical instruments are the cavaquinho , the bagpipe , the accordion , the violin , the drum , the Portuguese guitar (typical of fado ) and a variety of wind and percussion instruments . There are also orchestrasfrom each locality that play various musical styles, from popular to classical. [ 234 ]
The best known Portuguese style of music is fado , which has helped spread the Portuguese, whose most famous interpreter was Amália Rodrigues , who also made forays as an actress and singer in Portuguese cinema . Some more recent popular interpreters are the group Madredeus , whose vocalist was Teresa Salgueiro , and the singers Mariza , Mísia , Mafalda Arnauth , Cristina Branco and Dulce Pontes . [ 235 ] Among the best known male interpreters are Carlos do Carmo ,Alfredo Marceneiro y Camané . [ 236 ]
Although fado remains the best known genre beyond its borders, the "new" Portuguese music also plays an important role. Thus, we can highlight Rui Veloso , father of Portuguese rock ; to Sara Tavares , who has a style with African influences; to Xutos & Pontapés , group of rock portuguese formed in 1978 and still active; to Moonspell , a heavy metal band quite famous in Europe, or to Blasted Mechanism , an alternative rock group. [ 237 ]
The scholarly Portuguese music constitutes an important chapter of Western music. Throughout the centuries, the names of composers and interpreters have stood out, such as the troubadours Martín Codax and Dionisio I; the polyphonists Duarte Lobo , Filipe de Magalhães , Manuel Cardoso and Pedro de Cristo ; the organist Manuel Rodrigues Coelho ; the composer and harpsichord player Carlos Seixas ; the singer Luísa Todi ; the symphonist and pianist João Domingos Bomtempo or the composer and musicologist Fernando Lopes Graça. The golden age of Portuguese music coincided with the heyday of classical polyphony in the s. XVII (Évora School, Santa Cruz de Coimbra ). Among the great current references, the names of the pianists Artur Pizarro , Maria João Pires , Olga Prats and Sequeira Costa stand out ; of the viola Anabela Chaves ; the violinist Carlos Damas ; the baritone Jorge Chaminé ; the composer Emmanuel Nunes and the composer and teacher Álvaro Cassutto . The most important symphony orchestras are the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Orchestra , theNational Orchestra of Porto and the Portuguese Symphony Orchestra . With regard to opera, the National Theater of San Carlos , in Lisbon, is the most representative. [ 237 ]
Portuguese literature, one of the first western literatures, developed through text and music. It shares its origins with the medieval Galician , in the Galician-Portuguese cantigas . In the official canon of literature, a special value, already recognized at the time, is given to the epic Os Lusíadas by Luís de Camões , which narrates in verse the journeys and adventures of the Portuguese discoverers on the way to India during the century XV . Gil Vicente , for his part, was one of the founders of the Portuguese and Spanish dramatic traditions. [ 238 ] [ 239 ]
In addition to these authors, it is worth highlighting the figures of Fernando Pessoa , famous for his heteronyms , and Eugénio de Andrade in poetry. In prose, some names can be highlighted such as José Saramago , winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1998, Eça de Queirós ; author of Los Maia , the culminating novel of Portuguese realism, and of The Crime of Father Amaro ; Aquilino Ribeiro , who was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1960 or Miguel Torga , famous for his defense of Iberism . In theater, in addition to Gil Vicente , mentioned above, stand outAntónio José da Silva - nicknamed "the Jew" - and Bernardo Santareno . [ 238 ] [ 239 ]
The Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, starting its journey at the dawn of this art, at the end of the century XIX . [ 240 ] Portuguese film directors such as Arthur Duarte , António Lopes Ribeiro , Manoel de Oliveira , António-Pedro Vasconcelos , João Botelho and Leonel Vieira , are some of those who have achieved greater fame. Some famous Portuguese actors are Joaquim de Almeida , Maria de Medeiros , Erica Fontes , Diogo Infante , Soraia Chaves ,Vasco Santana , Ribeirinho , and António Silva , among many others. [ 241 ]
Among the films, it is worth highlighting some quite famous, such as A canção de Lisboa (1933), the first feature film entirely shot in Portugal; Wing-Up! (1942), the first Portuguese film to win an award at the Venice International Film Festival ; Camoens (1946), exhibited at the first Cannes festival ; A costureirinha da se (1958), the first Portuguese film in color and cinemascope; Dom Roberto (1962), special mention of the jury at the Cannes festival; Mudar de vida (1966), one of the greatest European successes in Portuguese cinema, also selected for the Venencia festival;O sapato de cetim (1985), a Franco- Portuguese production, awarded the Critics' Prize at the Venice festival; Memories of the Yellow House (1989), Silver Lion at the Venice Festival; Três irmãos (1994), with which Maria de Medeiros won the Volpi Cup for best actress at the Venice festival; Capitanes de abril (2000), one of the best known Portuguese films beyond the borders; Alice (2005), "Young Looks" award at the Venencia Film Festival for the best new director and Odete (2005), award at the Milan LGTB film festival, among others. [ 241 ]
Science and Technology
The activities of research in science and technology in Portugal are mainly organized in units of research and development pertaining to public universities and autonomous government research institutions as INETI (National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation) and INRB (National Institute of Biological Resources). The financing and management of this research system is mainly directed under the authority of the Ministry of Education and Science. [ 225 ]The largest R&D units of public universities by volume of research and scientific articles include both the bioscience research institutions and the Institute of Molecular Medicine , [ 242 ] the Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar , the Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology , [ 243 ] the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology [ 244 ] or the IMATIMUP (Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto). In private universities the most notable research center is theLaboratory of Facial Expression of Emotion . State research centers are also internationally recognized, in other fields the Iberian International Nanotechnology Laboratory stands out , a research cooperation between Portugal and Spain. Among the largest non-state research institutions in Portugal are the Gulbenkian Institute of Science and the Champalimaud Foundation , [ 245 ] which year after year awards one of the highest paid scientific awards in the world. One of the oldest teaching institutions in Portugal is the Lisbon Academy of Sciences . [ 246 ]
Portugal has signed various agreements with European scientific organizations, becoming a full member of these organizations. These include the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), ITER , and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Portugal has signed cooperation agreements with MIT (United States) and other North American institutions to increase development capacity and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese research and higher education. [ 247 ]
Portugal has the second largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanarium , [ 248 ] and also has other notable institutions of scientific exhibition and dissemination, such as the state agency Ciência Viva , a program of the Ministry of Education and Science to promote culture science and technology among the Portuguese population, [ 249 ] the Scientific Museum of the University of Coimbra , the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium .
With the emergence and growth of science parks around the world that have helped create thousands of science, technology and knowledge companies, Portugal began to create various science parks throughout the country. [ 250 ] These include the Taguspark (in Oeiras ), the Coimbra iParque (in Coimbra), the Madeira Tecnopolo [ 251 ] (in Funchal ), the Sines Tecnopolo [ 252 ] (in Sines), the Tecmaia [ 253 ] (in Maia ) and the Parkurbis [ 254] (InCovilhã). The companies located in the various science parks have the advantage of a greater number of services from financial and legal advantages to advertising and technological support.
Many scientists and inventors have emerged from Portugal who have contributed to the development of science worldwide. It is important to highlight the names, in this area, of António Egas Moniz , inventor of lobotomy and angiography and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for the "discovery of the therapeutic value of lobotomy in certain psychoses"; [ 255 ] as well as Jaime Filipe , winner of various awards for some inventions such as the wheelchair lift. Other prominent Portuguese inventors include Amílcar Ventura, Inventor of the driving simulator for driving schools for which won the gold medal at the Geneva Motor Show and Maximiliano Augusto Herrmann , inventor of the telephone wall in 1880. [ 256 ]
The gastronomy is varied. Each area of the country has its typical dish consisting of various meats ( veal , sheep , pork and white meats ), different sausages , types of fish (especially cod ) and shellfish . Among the cheeses, Serra da Estrela , Azeitão and São Jorge stand out , among many others. [ 257 ] [ 258 ]
Portugal is a strongly wine-producing country , and the wines of the Douro , Alentejo and Dão , the green wines of Minho , and the liqueur wines of Port and Madeira are famous . As for pastries, there is a huge variety of traditional recipes such as the famous Belém cakes , Aveiro mole eggs , Tentúgal cake , sericaia or Ovar cake , as well as many others. [ 257 ] 
Among the popular dishes, stand out the Portuguese stew , the " golden cod ", the " cod a la Gomes de Sá ", the espetadas from Madeira, the "volcanic stew" from the Azores, the " roast suckling pig Bairrada »,« Rojões »from Aveiro and Minho , chanfana from Beira, Alentejo-style pork, grilled fish (throughout the country), tripe (from the Oporto region),« pataniscas de bacalao »And the Portuguese gazpacho. Portuguese cuisine has influenced other cuisines such as Japanese , with the introduction of thetempura.
The oldest examples of Portuguese architecture date back to the first settlers. Among the abundant evidences of megalithic monuments in Portuguese territory, it is worth highlighting the Crómlech de los Almendros , one of the most important in Europe. [ 259 ] The arrival of the Romans brought their architecture with them and a good example of this is the Roman temple of Évora , dedicated to the goddess Diana . [ 260 ]
After the fall of the Roman Empire , the Visigoths also left their mark on architecture, and a good example of this is the Chapel of San Fructuoso de Montelios . [ 261 ] During the period of Muslim rule (711-1249), they left examples of Islamic art in the Mértola mosque , [ 262 ]