Film producer - Productor de cine
The film producer or film producer is, in the film economy or film industry , the legal representative of a film work and responsible for the organizational and technical aspects of making a film , thus complementing the creative activity of the director . He is in charge of hiring top-of-the-line personnel, financing the work, and contacting publicists and distributors for the dissemination of the work.
Roles and denominations
In many respects, their job overlaps closely with that of the director, especially in controlling the cast and selection of the artistic team ( cinematographer , editor , special effects staff , artistic director , composer , etc.) who will collaborate. in the production; These attributions meant that during the early years of the Hollywood film industry the producer was largely responsible for the aesthetics and content of their products. A famous case was that of Howard Hughes, who exercised a tight control over the directors whom he hired, although this type of relationship was frequent in the so-called Hollywood studio system , in force until the late 1950s .
With the growing financing and marketing needs caused by the renewal of the industry in the 1980s , the producer has once again taken on an important role, and some of them (such as Jerry Bruckheimer ) are figures as identifiable as any director by the characteristics of their productions.
The word “producer” is used interchangeably to designate both the figure of the cinematographic entrepreneur and the professional in charge of leading the production of a film. Sometimes these two figures coincide in the same person, but in other cases the employer hires a professional delegating the responsibility to him.
The different adjectives that can be applied to the producer usually define his real status in the film. According to the Anglo - Saxon nomenclature executive producer ( executive producer ), producer line ( line producer ), consulting producer ( consulting producer ) or producer ( producer), define different figures. The executive producer is the entrepreneur or representative of the company, while producer and line producer refers to the professionals in charge of production. Other production positions or credits that are granted are: co-producer, associate producer, external production manager (appointed by the insurance of good term), production manager, production coordinator, field producer, production assistants. Others that are part of the production organization chart are all external consultants, hired by the production department such as: legal advisers, accounting advisers, publicists, doctors, etc.
According to the Spanish nomenclature, when the producer is named, the employer is usually referred to and when the professional is referred to, it is usually under the names of executive producer or production director.
Typical production process
The typical production process ends with the first copy or zero copy. It is the exact moment in which the work can be exhibited and reproduced as many copies are required. From the beginning we find two possibilities: the process will begin when the producer considers making a film; the other is that the process will begin when work begins to acquire the film. With the first, we are going to talk about a process with a broad sense and with the second, a process with a narrow sense. At the moment in which a film is to be produced , it can be said that it is the right moment where work begins on the production of the shoot. The first path is the pre-production stage, which will end when the shooting preparation begins.
The producer must account for two main elements, one of them is the financial problem and the other the economic problem. The financial problem occurs in the search for the financial means to make the film, while the economic problem refers to the total recovery of the investment. Until the forecasts of the work plan are made, it will not be known what is the amount necessary to make the film. The producer who owns the script has an element of analysis where he obtains the necessary data on which he bases his decision to make the film and the resolution of the economic-financial problem. The producer's work will be enhanced when, in addition to being present in the choice of the film, he contributes or collaborates in the construction of the script. Here comes a new type of producer called the Producer-Writer. From the layout of the script, the so-called "high technical-artistic team" will be put together, the work of the producer, who will begin by choosing the director of the film. Another important step is the selection of the most important interpreters; the moment it is carried out is when you already have what is called a "package": layout of the basic production design.
The script breakdown will be done by the production manager. It will be called a breakdownto the analysis of the script that serves to detect the set of elements necessary in the shooting itself. It is going to try to extract from the script all the necessary significant data; First, the script is divided into a certain number of scenes or mechanical sequences. We refer to mechanical sequences distinguishing them from dramatic sequences, since dramatic sequences can take place in different settings. A dramatic sequence can comprise several mechanical sequences, which will correspond to a part of the action that will take place in the same setting without time lapses occurring. Once the mechanical sequences have been determined, we will try to obtain all the significant data taking into account the accessories, the numbers of plans and pages, the costumes and their accessories, the relationship of the characters, the vehicles and the place of the action and effect (day / night). The estimated shooting time of each sequence will be determined on the number of plans and pages.
The main objective when considering the realization of the shooting plan is to obtain the maximum saving of time. There are criteria for a filming plan: on the one hand the planning or order of the filming by scenarios and on the other the filming order that favors the temporal proximity of the interventions of the interpreters. With the first criterion, shooting units will be created based on the scenarios. With the second, an attempt will be made to program non-continuous interventions in continuity and with maximum proximity, thus reducing the periods in which interpreters must be at the disposal of the production company. By agreeing on the production and management criteria, a shooting plan will be drawn up, which will form the basis of the work plan.
Shooting preparation phase
When there is external financing , the producer must know the dates that the payments will take place. Then the director will be in charge of making the necessary hiring and for this the work plan and budget will be needed .
Hiring the technical team
The producer is usually the one who hires the director. In hiring the rest of the entire technical team, the production manager has the most relevant participation. Another important participation of the production manager is that which refers to the establishment of priorities in the selection-hiring. [ 1 ]
The technical team must attend to different sources and will have to offer different solutions. Generally it is going to try that the first weeks of filming is a period of relative demand. The production manager and his assistants will be the ones who demand the expense vouchers from each of the branches, in order to control general expenses. [ 2 ]Once filming arrived, the production has prepared everything so that the tasks can be carried out in harmony. In case of an alteration of the plans, it must immediately be communicated to the production area. Every day that they are going to shoot, at the end of each shot the filming secretary must note in the "camera report" if the shot is positive; The shot number and shot number must appear according to those on the clapperboard.
At this stage, the contract with the actors and most of the technical team has practically been finalized. The missing processes are of great importance, they will define the final quality of the product. This is how the assembly , the sound, the laboratory work, the final edition, among others, will proceed . An assistant to the producer is the one who will take care of the practical aspects, while the executive producer will continue with his work of checking the progress of the work and managing the resources available to achieve a good film. The final results must be compared with those that gave rise to the project.
The stage will end with obtaining the complete copies. The first copy will be very special, as it will acquire uniqueness, autonomy and prestige. It then becomes a commodity , an object that has one's value and that must face its inclusion in commercialization.
- Jacoste Quesada, José. The film producer .
- Drink up, Kami. Introduction to Film Production .