Protests in Colombia in 2021 - Protestas en Colombia de 2021

National Strike in Colombia in 2021
Day of demonstrations on May 1 in Cali.
Demonstrations in Cali against the tax reform. Protesters dialogue with the ESMAD Mobile Anti-riot Squad in Medellín.
Looting of a Bank in Medellín.

From top to bottom, clockwise:
Day of demonstrations on May 1 in Cali . Protesters dialogue with the ESMAD Mobile Anti- riot Squad in Medellín . Attack on Bank in Medellín. Demonstrations in Cali against the tax reform.

Date From April 28, 2021 (1 month and 11 days)
Place ColombiaFlag of Colombia.svg Colombia
Action
Causes See Causes
goals
Outcome
  • Announcement of zero enrollment for strata 1, 2 and 3 for the 2021-2 semester.
  • Resignation of the Minister of Finance, Alberto Carrasquilla .
  • Removal of tax reform 2021. [ 1 ]
  • Resignation of Chancellor Claudia Blum [ 2 ]
  • Retirement health reform 2021. [ 3 ]
  • Withdrawal of the headquarters to Colombia from the Copa América 2021 . [ 4 ]
  • Increase in Inflation .
  • Condition In progress
    Consequences See Consequences
    Political figures
    Ivan Duque

    Alvaro Uribe

    Marta Lucia Ramirez

    Government of Iván Duque
    Spokesmen for the National Unemployment Committee.

    Francisco Maltese.

    Percy Oyola.

    Social union leaders and opposition to the government.
    Balance
    3 police officers killed
    • 1083 policemen wounded [ 5 ]
    • 19 retired police [ 6 ]
    61 dead [ 7 ]
    • 1062 wounded [ 8 ]
    • 1380 detainees
    • 129 missing [ 9 ]

    According to some NGOs ,

    See Deceased

    The protests in Colombia in 2021 , also called the National Strike in Colombia in 2021 and called by some media outlets as Colombia's social outbreak , are a series of multifactorial demonstrations triggered by the announcement of the tax reform project proposed by the government of Iván Duke , initially conducted with the goal of eliminating this restructuring proposal and which were mainly accentuated by the disproportionate use of force by the authorities [ 10 ] [ 11 ]And the resumption of the request for action to solve other social problems that had started 18 months before ( National Strike 2019-2020 ). Demonstrations have been affected by vandalism, violence actors in conflict, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and groups of civilians by shooting at demonstrators, [ 15 ] being recorded dozens of protesters killed in such context and hundreds of others reported as missing. [ 16 ] The Inter-American Court of Human Rights(IACHR) has condemned the serious human rights violations in the context of the protests. President Duque had refused to accept an immediate IACHR working visit to Colombia, [ 17 ] which was finally accepted for June 8. [ 18 ]

    The protests have been held indefinitely from April 28, 2021, and were called by the so-called National Unemployment Committee , made up of unions and labor centrals [ 19 ] that had called the protests in Colombia from 2019-2020 , [ 20 ] To which other social sectors have joined. The protests have been presented in different cities, municipalities and roads of the country, and abroad by nationals based in Spain , France , Portugal , United Kingdom , Sweden , Russia ,Italy , Mexico , Chile , Argentina , Canada , the United States , Germany , Poland , Australia and New Zealand , including in front of the United Nations headquarters in New York and Geneva ( Switzerland ). [ 21 ] [ 22 ] It also highlights actions on the Internet, [ 23 ] and artistic expressions during the protests. [ 24 ]

    Background

    Candle in the Municipal Administrative Center of Cali (CAM) during the protests in November 2019.

    During the government of Iván Duque (elected for the 2018-2022 period) there have been several protests, social mobilizations and demonstrations such as the 2018 university strike , held between the months of October and December of that year; the 2019-2020 protests , triggered by social discontent with government policies; [ 25 ] the protests over the death of Javier Ordóñez , a series of riots rejecting the cases of police brutality that occurred in September 2020; [ 26 ] the Minga of the Colombian Southwest, [ 27] [ 28 ] and the day of commemoration of the National Strike; [ 29 ] the pilgrimage for life and peace carried out by former FARC-EP combatants. [ 30 ]

    Several of the claims of these protests, mobilizations and demonstrations are the cause of social discontent (another cause of the national strike) have been maintained or worsened. The National Unemployment Committee that had called for the protests in Colombia for 2019-2020 did not finally reach an agreement with the Government of Colombia. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ]

    Causes

    • Tax reform : following the guidelines of the International Monetary Fund [ 34 ] and denominated by the government as the Sustainable Solidarity Law : proposed by the national government and the then Minister of Finance Alberto Carrasquilla , which seeks to increase taxes on the middle class, tax the family basket with the Value Added Tax (VAT) affecting basic necessities, and basic public services (water, electricity, natural gas, public telephony) funeral services and other services until now exempted. Which would allow the government to raise an additional 23 billion Colombian pesos (about US $ 6.3 billion). [35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] The government, meanwhile, justified thisarguing that reform is needed to increase coverage and ensure the persistence of the program Join Solidarity , an initiative of financial support to households in poverty , extreme poverty and in a condition of economic vulnerability. [ 38 ] [ 39 ]Alberto Carrasquilla confessed in an interview his ignorance about the prices of basic foods for Colombians, he estimated a dozen eggs at 1,800 Colombian pesos, a figure 64% lower than the real one. In the same interview, Carrasquilla claimed to have a reputation among his family as a profligate. These statements angered many Colombians. [ 40 ]
    • Health and pension reform: Proposing changes in the health promoting entities (EPS) system. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] It is proposed regionalization of the health system, aims to create health regions with common aspects to ensure promotion, services, insurance and targeted networking, includes new payment mechanisms and contracting, the creation of the Health Research Fund (FIS). [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ]They also ask for the repeal of decree 1174 of 2020 on pensions in Colombia. [ 47 ]
    • Social discontent: Manifested from the breaches of the peace agreements between the national government and the FARC-EP (274 former combatants killed) [ 48 ] , the continuity of massacres and murders of social leaders and the increase in massacres in the country, [ 49 ] the announcement of the return of spraying glyphosate , [ 50 ] , the purchase of military equipment (tanks for Mobile Anti ESMAD, [ 51 ] and reinforcements for the same [ 52 ][ 53 ] , plans to purchase combat aircraft, reversed by protests [ 54 ] ). [ 55 ] In addition to the 6402 cases offalse positivesthat theJEPestimates occurred during the government ofÁlvaro Uribe Vélez(2002-2010). [ 56 ]
    • Handling of the pandemic: Product of the corruption denounced by the Attorney General's Office ; [ 57 ] [ 58 ] insufficient subsidies and care to the population, according to the National Unemployment Committee [ 59 ] and Merike Blofield , director of the German Institute for Global and Area Studies , [ 60 ] of current programs financial support provided by the National Government; the controversial management of the National Vaccination Plan, which is being carried out with delays, [ 61] After acquisition processes that, according to the opposition, have been not very transparent and delayed. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] SenatorGustavo Petro, leader of a sector of the opposition and the socalledPact Historic by Colombia, whose spokesperson and leadership during the protests have generated controversy, [ 64 ] [ 65 ] has criticized the management of the pandemic, alleging the insufficiency of financial support [ 66 ] and affirming that pharmacological treatments againstCOVID-19are not being used in hospitals.
    • Economic situation: The serious and unstable economic situation of the country, derived from the COVID-19 pandemic, was one of the main factors; In fact, on April 28, 2021, the National Administrative Department of Statistics reported a 6.8% increase in poverty in the country, a 10-year setback in the fight against poverty, which meant that the level of poverty in the country rose to 42.5%. [ 67 ] Other factors were the serious devaluation of the Colombian peso, the fourth worst of the emerging currencies, which caused an increase in the price of imports, [ 68 ] and inflation, which was 0.58% per month in April 2021. [ 69 ]
    • Participation of the opposition: The opposition parties claim that Iván Duque has not been included in the dialogues for the drafting of a new tax reform, after the original project was withdrawn on May 2. [ 70 ] The alleged electoral fraud materialized in the information obtained by the Office of the Attorney General of the Nation with audios that link "Ñeñe" Hernández, a drug trafficker, with an auxiliary of the Legislative Unit of Senator Uribe Vélez called Cayita Daza, who would have benefited Iván Duque over Gustavo Petro, during the 2018 presidential elections , and his constant claims, who has also ignored the legitimacy of the government of Iván Duque, [71 ] regarding the obstruction of the political participation of his movement, Colombia Humana . [ 72 ]
    • Police brutality : The violent repression by the National Police , especially the Mobile Anti-Riot Squad (ESMAD) towards the protests, in addition to the violation of Human Rights and the constant cases of murders, excessive use of force and rapes, have revived the demand for structural reform to the police and the dismantling of ESMAD. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 76 ]
    • Other requests: Other requests from the National Unemployment Committee are: emergency basic income of at least one current monthly minimum wage ; the defense of national production; non-discrimination of gender and ethnicity; and the withdrawal of the reform to the Colombian Institute of Educational Credit and Technical Studies Abroad , (Icetex). [ 77 ] [ 78 ]

    On May 7, the demands of the National Unemployment Committee were made public. The measures applied for exceed the 80 trillion pesos , [ 79 ] [ 80 ] more than 3 times the initial reform proposed by President Ivan Duque seeking to raise between 23 and 25 trillion pesos. [ 81 ]

    Organizers

    Convened by the National Unemployment Committee, made up of: Central Unitaria de Trabajadores (CUT): president, Francisco Maltés; National Confederation of Labor (CGT): president, Percy Oyola; Confederation of Workers of Colombia (CTC): president, Luis Miguel Morantes; Confederation of Pensioners of Colombia (CPC): spokesperson José Antonio Forero; Democratic Confederation of Pensioners (CDP): president, John Jairo Díaz; Colombian Federation of Education Workers (Fecode): president, William Velandia, Agricultural Dignity: spokesperson Óscar Gutiérrez; Truck Crusade: President Gustavo Betancur. [ 82 ]

    Sectors such as indigenous peoples have also joined: the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (ONIC), [ 83 ] the Regional Indigenous Council of Cauca (CRIC), [ 84 ] the Indigenous Authorities of the South West of Colombia (AISO); [ 85 ] students, peasants, transporters, social organizations such as the People's Congress , [ 86 ] people with disabilities, [ 87 ] among other movements and political parties.

    However, different communities have declared themselves self-represented, without political leaders. As the communities of the cities most affected by violence, organizing autonomously to carry out food preparation and distribution, artistic murals, educational sessions on the causes and objectives of the demonstrations, assemblies and other spaces for participation. [ 88 ] [ 89 ]

    Chronology

    Posters at the South American Station ( Medellín ) inviting the mobilizations of April 28.

    April

    On April 27, peasant mobilizations against glyphosate spraying began in Anorí ( Antioquia ). [ 90 ] Among the official start 28 to 30 April, protests, social unrest artistic statements, are presented cacerolazos , demolition of statues and riots in: Bogota , Cali , [ 91 ] Pereira , Pasto , Neiva , [ 92 ] Popayán , Cartagena , [ 93 ]Santa Marta , [ 94 ] Bucaramanga , [ 95 ] Ibagué , [ 96 ] Villavicencio , [ 97 ] Soacha , Medellin , [ 98 ] and between other cities and villages. Peasants and transporters blocked the roads of: Cali - Buenaventura , [ 99 ] the Vía Panamericana , [ 100 ]Bogota - Tunja, [ 101 ] and Bogota - Facatativá, [ 102 ] among other routes of the country.

    Mayo

    Between May 1 and 5, the fourth to eighth days of the national strike, there are mobilizations, protests, demolition of statues and riots in: Medellín and Cali (where there was militarization of the city, clashes, abuses of authority, shootings and violations of human Rights, [ 103 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] netblocks , a British NGO, confirms the interruption of Internet service amid riots between demonstrators and security forces [ 106 ] ), in Bogota (they tried enter the National Capitol , headquarters of the National Congress ,[ 107 ] a helicopterBlack Hawkof the National Police landed without authorization in a school in the town ofBosa [ 108 ] ) inIbague,Bucaramanga, [ 109 ] ManizalesandPereira(protesters were shot from a car particular), [ 110 ] in Barranquilla, Cartagena (they try to demolish the statue ofPedro de Heredia [ 111 ] ), Pasto, [ 112 ] Villavicencio,Yopal, Neiva, [ 113 ] Popayan, Valledupar , San Jose de Guaviare , Mitu , [ 114 ] Buga (alleged attack by helicopter, [ 115 ] Another version is armed plainclothes shooting at the helicopter), [ 116 ] and other populations of the country. Presented roadblocks throughout the country [ 117 ] [ 118 ] and burning tolls. [ 119 ] In Miamia plane flies over with a message against former president Álvaro Uribe . [ 120 ] The resignation of Finance Minister Alberto Carrasquilla and his deputy minister was presented, likewise the matches of the Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana were suspended due to the National Strike. [ 121 ] Anonymous hacked the site of the National Army and revealed key officials. [ 122 ] Some political sectors ask the government to declare a state of internal commotion . [ 123]

    Protesters burn a National Police vehicle in Medellín on May 1.

    During the 6th and 10th May ninth to thirteenth day of protests, riots, downing statues in: Bogotá, [ 124 ] (disturbances in the Portal of the Americas and the Portal de Suba [ 125 ] [ 126 ] ), Bucaramanga, [ 127 ] Cali (where there were confusing facts related to a truck and armed individuals, [ 128 ] A road for humanitarian corridor, for food, medicine and fuel was opened; [ 129 ] incidents with armed civilians shot at members of the Indigenous Minga in theUniversity of the Valley [ 130 ] ) Barranquilla, Riohacha , Neiva, Popayán, [ 131 ] Medellin, Pereira, Cúcuta , [ 132 ] Gachancipá (which would have introduced excessive force) [ 133 ] Florence [ 134 ] Sincelejo , [ 135 ] Lorica , [ 136 ] Dagua [ 137 ] Yopal, [ 138] Bucaramanga. [ 139 ] and in other towns in the country. Blockades on roads in the country such as the Bogotá-Villavicencio road, [ 140 ] inHuila, [ 141 ] among others. During the weekend, Colombians living abroad rallied in support of the strike. [ 142 ]

    The mayor of Cali, Jorge Iván Ospina ; the governor of Valle del Cauca, Clara Luz Roldán ; the commander of the National Army , General Enrique Zapateiro , and the Minister of Defense, Diego Molano for repression. [ 143 ] Mass disappearances are reported to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights . [ 144 ] International organizations and personalities demanded the resignation of the High Commissioner for Peace, Miguel Ceballos . [ 145 ] The former Spanish judge ,Baltasar Garzón , warns President Iván Duque in an open letter to stop human rights violations in the demonstrations, by the National Police, and to go to dialogue, under penalty of taking him to trial before the International Criminal Court for crimes of Against humanity in the protests, in the same way that an accusation was filed before the aforementioned court against the president of Chile , Sebastián Piñera , for the abuses of the authorities of that country during the protests in Chile . [ 146 ] They are also sent to the International Criminal Courtcases of police abuse during the national strike. [ 147 ] Ivan Marquez , commander of dissidence of the FARC ruled on the stop. [ 148 ]

    Portal de Las Américas in Bogotá, named by protesters as "Portal de la Resistencia".

    From May 11 to 15, fourteenth to eighteenth days of protests, riots, demonstrations in: Bogotá (at the Portal de las Américas , [ 149 ] and at the Monument to the Heroes [ 150 ] ), Cali [ 151 ] (Iván Duque visits the city at dawn, the Indigenous Minga left Cali and settled in Caldono , Cauca . [ 152 ] ), Barranquilla (around the Romelio Martínez Stadium during the Junior-River Plate matches [ 153 ] and America-Mineiro [ 154] ), Medellín, [ 155 ] Cartagena, [ 156 ] Bucaramanga, Villavicencio (peasant marches), Tunja, Ibagué, Popayán [ 157 ] (a minor allegedly committed suicide after being arrested,abusedandsexually assaultedby members of ESMAD). [ 158 ] Buga [ 159 ] (helicopters in facilities ofthe National Learning ServiceSENA [ 160 ] ) and in other towns in the country. TheGaitanista Self-Defense Forces of Colombia(Clan del Golfo) spoke out on the strike. [ 161 ]

    According to a Datexco poll, 75% of Colombians support the national strike. [ 162 ] It is requested to locate 168 disappeared persons. [ 163 ] The national strike committee begins to negotiate with the government since May 14. [ 164 ] The Colombian government was sued before the International Criminal Court for Crimes Against Humanity . [ 165 ] While the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights requested permission to visit the country after various complaints of human rights violations. [ 166 ]

    Between May 16 and 31, nineteenth to thirty-three (one month old) of days of protests, sit-ins and riots in: Bogotá (Portal de Las Américas, protests by fans against the Copa América in the Colombian Football Federation [ 167 ] ), Cali (symphonic concert in Loma de la dignidad, resignation of the Cali Police Commander [ 168 ] ); Cúcuta, Medellín (indigenous minga of Antioquia [ 169 ] ), Piedecuesta, Yumbo, [ 170 ] Barranquilla (mobilization of women), [ 171 ] Tulua (burned the courthouse). [ 172] Blockades persist on the country's roads such asSogamoso-Duitamaand Medellín-Bello. [ 173 ] The port ofBuenaventurawas also blocked. [ 174 ] Between April 28 and May 21, 2,151 road blockades were registered throughout the country. [ 175 ] Colombia is withdrawn as the venue for the Copa América 2021, [ 176 ] and theHigh Commissioner for PeaceMiguel Ceballos, who was leading the talks with the National Unemployment Committee, resigns. [ 177 ]A motion of censure debate is presented to Defense Minister Diego Molano , in the Congress of the Republic , which is denied with 69 votes against and 31 in favor. [ 178 ] The visit of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR), initially denied for June 8, was approved . [ 18 ]

    June

    From June 1 to 7, thirty-four to forty days of protests, sit-ins and riots in the different cities of the country. The roadblocks were ordered to be lifted, some of which persist until June 7, according to the Ministry of Defense. [ 179 ] Negotiations between the government and the national strike committee are also progressing. [ 180 ] On June 6, the National Unemployment Committee unilaterally suspended negotiations with the Government, since the latter "is not interested and has purposely delayed the negotiation of the emergency document." [ 181 ] In addition the visit of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights begins. [ 182 ]

    Government responses

    Mural painted on Avenida 80 ( Medellín ), at the height of Calle San Juan, to reject the actions of the public force.

    On April 28, the deployment of the Public Force was ordered in the cities, and curfews were decreed in several cities of the country. [ 183 ] Two days later, President Iván Duque announced the construction of a new tax reform text. [ 184 ] The following day, he authorized the militarization of the cities of Colombia. [ 185 ]

    On May 2, Duque announced the withdrawal of the tax reform project in the Congress of the Republic, and that he would convene political parties to carry out a new tax project, however, he did not convene opposition parties for said project. [ 186 ] On May 3, the Minister of Finance Alberto Carrasquilla and the Vice Minister of Finance Juan Alberto Londoño resigned . The government nominated Carrasquilla as a candidate for the presidency of the CAF - Development Bank of Latin America . [ 187 ] [ 188 ] Named Jose Manuel Restrepo , (previousMinister of Commerce ) as Minister of Finance. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] On the same day Defense Minister Diego Molano accused the dissidence of the FARC-EP and the Army of National Liberation (ELN) to fund and participate in the protests violently. [ 191 ]

    On May 5, Miguel Ceballos , High Commissioner for Peace announced that meeting with the National Committee Paro be held on May 10, [ 192 ] [ 193 ] He also announced 11 meetings with different social, political and economic sectors of the country. [ 194 ] Duque announced arrests and rewards for perpetrators of crimes and vandalism. [ 195 ]

    For May 6, the Congress of the Republic holds a special session with representatives of the National Unemployment Committee. [ 196 ] Vice President Marta Lucía Ramírez denounces the alleged interference of Nicolás Maduro in the protests. [ 197 ] On May 7, Duque met with members of the "Coalition of Hope", led by former presidential candidates Sergio Fajardo and Humberto de la Calle , and by various senators and representatives to the Chamber, they met with President Duque requesting an end to the repression and that he begin negotiations with the strike committee. [ 198 ] Duque gave the order to deploy the Military Forces in Cali. [ 199 ]

    On May 10, President Iván Duque met with members of the National Unemployment Committee, without reaching an agreement. [ 200 ] [ 201 ] At the next day announced free education in higher education enrollment levels 1, 2 and 3 only for the semester 2021-2. [ 202 ] Since May 17, meetings between representatives of the government and the National Unemployment Committee, without results and little progress until May 23. [ 203 ] [ 204 ] Ivan Duque announced the deployment of the security forces to unlock the country roads. [ 205 ]On May 22, the High Commissioner for Peace , Miguel Ceballos , who was leading the negotiations with the Unemployment Committee, resigned. [ 177 ]

    Mural painted in the Monument to Los Héroes (Bogotá).

    In addition, on May 22, videos of President Iván Duque were made viral, which the press has classified as "self-interview." [ 206 ] In said audiovisual pieces, Duque is shown responding to what, at first glance, seems to be a journalist who is never seen, in said footage Duque points out to the senator and ex-presidential candidate Gustavo Petro (without mentioning him directly) how the mastermind of the social crisis that Colombia has experienced since April 28, further indicating that Petro has been the main obstacle to his government since the day he took office as president. The curiosity of the videos lies in the fact that Duque speaks in English, [ 207 ]This aspect has been criticized by many, since Colombia is a predominantly Spanish-speaking country.

    Shortly after, the Caracol Radio station stated that the audiovisual pieces were produced by the digital equipment of the Palacio de Nariño . [ 208 ] Through the portal La línea del medio, it was revealed that Luigi Echeverri, personal friend and former adviser of President Duque, would be circulating videos on WhatsApp , with the message " Exclusive interview with Colombian President Iván Duque ", for consumption in the abroad and, particularly, in the United States . The journalist Laura Gil mentioned: "Interview with whom? It seems more like a me with me paid with our taxes, an exercise in official disinformation." [ 209 ]

    On May 26, Emilio Archila , High Councilor for the Stabilization and Consolidation of the Regions, was appointed to resume the talks with the National Unemployment Committee, [ 210 ] resume the pre-agreements [ 211 ] and begin negotiations on the tender documents. emergency. [ 212 ]

    On May 28, President Iván Duque after a day of demonstrations and riots in Cali and Valle del Cauca, which left thirteen dead, ordered the maximum deployment of military assistance for the Colombian National Police , according to the president, " to guarantee the protection of all the strategic assets of the Nation, productivity and logistics ". [ 213 ] For May 29, Iván Duque ordered military assistance in Popayán and Cauca, according to the president "for serious acts of vandalism and low-intensity urban terrorism, attacks on public infrastructure, theft of weapons from a URI, theft of seized narcotics and burning of files." [ 214 ] That same day, Duque made a tour of the neighborhoods of Cali, in Ciudad Jardín, received with applause, in the central and southern areas, he was insulted and booed. [ 215 ]

    On June 6, Duque announced a reform to the structure of the National Police, the Ministry of Defense and changes of colors in uniforms and patrols, among other aspects. [ 216 ]

    Consequences

    Human Rights Defenders in the demonstrations of April 28, 2021, Medellín.

    Deceased

    They have reported about 50 deaths during the protests. [ 217 ] The Defense of the People confirmed at least 42 civilians killed in protests, and two dead cops are reported. [ 218 ] June 03 The NGO Temblores reported 45 verified deaths, 3,789 cases of police violence, 25 victims of sexual violence and 1,649 arbitrary detentions. [ 219 ] While the NGO Human Rights Watch reported 67 verifiable deaths since the start of the protests. [ 220 ] As of May 8, 548 alleged disappearances have been reported. According toOffice of the Attorney General of the Nation , as of May 23, 290 people have already been located and 129 are still in the process of verification and location. [ 221 ] Several of the dead protesters such as student leader Lucas Villa , and the minor Alison Salazar , became symbols of the protests. [ 222 ] As of May 24, only one alleged disappearance had been reported during the protests. [ 223 ] However, as of June 4, 91 people are still missing, according to the Office of the Attorney General of the Nation. [ 224 ]

    Wounded

    Colombian students protest. Tyumen , Russia . May 5, 2021.

    More than 2149 have been injured according to the Ministry of Defense (1062 civilians and 1083 police) until 25 May; [ 225 ] The NGO Tremors complaint, until 22 May, 2,905 cases of police violence victims, including 39 eye 21 cases of sexual violence. [ 219 ] are reported until 23 May, 149 attacks on journalists in the protests, by the Foundation for Press Freedom (FLIP). [ 226 ] Until 12 May 30 reported victims of ocular attacks , protesters have lost their eyes due to the action of the Mobile Anti-Riot Squad (ESMAD), [ 227] Injured by tanks, [ 228 ] and firearms. [ 229 ] [ 230 ] Among the wounded police recorded attacks with incendiary devices, [ 231 ] acid, [ 232 ] ocular victims, [ 233 ] and one case of sexual violence [ 234 ] Amid protests and riots.

    Detained

    Until May 23, 1,264 people were arbitrarily detained. [ 235 ] The Office of the Attorney General of the Nation reported, on May 3, 278 captured and 83 accused. [ 236 ] As of May 22, they report 331 captured by blockades. [ 237 ]

    Damage and attacks on public infrastructure

    Monuments affected

    Torn down and / or vandalized the statues of Sebastian de Belalcazar in Cali, [ 245 ] Gilberto Alzate Avendaño in Manizales, [ 246 ] Diego de Ospina and Medinilla , Misael Pastrana , [ 247 ] Rodrigo Lara Bonilla and Francisco de Paula Santander in neiva, [ 248 ] [ 249 ] Francisco Fernandez de Contreras in Ocana , [ 250 ]Antonio Nariño in Pasto, [ 112 ] Simon Bolivar in several towns in Nariño, [ 251 ] Julio Arboleda Pombo [ 252 ] and Francisco de Paula Santander in Popayan, [ 253 ] Peter Manjarrés in Valledupar , [ 254 ] Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada [ 255 ] and the monument to Los Héroes in Bogotá.

    Economic consequences

    The massive protests and, in general, the generalized opposition to the reform caused a devaluation of the price of the Colombian peso . [ 256 ] [ 257 ] [ 258 ] It also caused the fact that financial instability make that investment bonds were sold like Colombia country risk are not rated. [ 259 ] [ 260 ] Subsequently, the withdrawal of the proposed tax reform resulted, as expected, [ 261 ] [ 262 ]The loss of the risk rating that Colombia had, from BBB- to BB +, removing the investment grade, [ 263 ] (which would take between two years [ 264 ] to twelve years [ 265 ] to recover ) . There also began to be a shortage of dollars in circulation. [ 266 ]

    Inflation, as a consequence of the demonstrations, reached 1% per month and 3.30% annualized. [ 267 ]

    Only on the first day of protests, and as a consequence of the closures due to curfews and demonstrations, formal commerce in the country suffered losses equivalent to $ 230,000 million Colombian pesos ; [ 268 ] for May 2, the losses reached 300,000 million pesos, [ 269 ] figure that rose to $ 880,000 million for May 6, [ 270 ] to $ 8.3 billion on May 14, [ 271 ] To $ 10.2 billion on May 19 [ 272 ] and to $ 19.3 billion pesos on June 6 (equivalent to 2% of Gross Domestic Product ).[ 273 ] Likewise, and due to road blocks, food prices increased. [ 274 ] The productive sector reported a shortage of eggs and chickens in the market, and losses. [ 275 ] There has also been a fuel shortage. [ 276 ] The prices of meat, eggs, chicken and milk rose. [ 277 ] Theft of cattle was reported. [ 278 ] There was a shortage of food and fuel in some regions. [ 279 ] Closure of industrial plants. [ 280]

    In Valle del Cauca, one of the most affected regions, there were significant impacts on tourism, [ 281 ] as well as, together with the department of Cauca, it lost 4% of its economy and 16% of the companies went bankrupt ; this figure was 21% in Cauca. [ 282 ] 90% of the companies in that region were unable to operate for more than a month, [ 283 ] a figure that was 22% nationwide. [ 284 ]

    There have also been vandalism attacks and looting of 363 commercial establishments, 433 bank offices, 420 ATMs, 13 private motorcycles, 48 ​​vehicles, 1 hotel and 2 private religious institutions until May 25, [ 225 ] during the protests and riots in different cities and towns of the country. [ 285 ] [ 286 ] [ 287 ] Attacks facilities RCN TV , NTN 24 , and Week magazine . [ 288 ]

    Sports consequences

    On May 4, protests led to the suspension of the match between Santa Fe and River Plate (Argentina) corresponding to the third day of the group stage of the Copa Libertadores 2021 . This match, which was originally to be played at the Centenario Stadium , in Armenia , was rescheduled to be played at the General Pablo Rojas Stadium in Asunción ( Paraguay ) on Thursday, May 6. [ 289 ] In the same way, the match between Atlético Nacional and Argentinos JuniorsOn the same date, it was rescheduled to be played previously at the Manuel Ferreira Stadium in Asunción on the same day. For its part, the match between Equidad Seguros and Lanús for the Copa Sudamericana was scheduled at the Defensores del Chaco Stadium . [ 290 ]

    The Copa Libertadores match between Junior and River Plate was played normally in Barranquilla on May 12, even with severe disturbances outside the Romelio Martínez Stadium . The game had to be paused on several occasions due to the tear gas that was breathed from the field of play. [ 153 ] At the end of the game, River's technical director, Marcelo Gallardo , spoke out, describing the situation as abnormal. [ 291 ] That same day, the match between Nacional and Atlético Nacionalit was delayed by the demonstrations in Pereira. [ 292 ] A similar situation occurred after the match between América de Cali and Atlético Mineiro in Barranquilla on May 13, a match that had to be stopped due to tear gas . [ 154 ]

    The South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL ) expressed its concern regarding the Copa América 2021 , which would be held jointly by Colombia and Argentina , both due to the scope of the pandemic in Colombia and the protests. The possibilities of holding the competition only in Argentina or, failing that, in Paraguay were expressed . [ 293 ] Even so, on May 5, President Iván Duque affirmed that the organization of the Copa América in Colombia was still in place. [ 294 ]And although CONMEBOL had ratified Colombia as the host of the Copa América on May 13, [ 295 ] days later it rectified its decision by withdrawing the host country when the national government asked CONMEBOL to postpone the tournament to November, citing reasons of calendar for not accessing the order. [ 176 ]

    The match between Deportivo Cali and Deportes Tolima of the First Category A was also postponed four times. [ 296 ]

    Reactions

    Nationals

    The National Federation of Merchants (Fenalco) rejected the acts of vandalism that occurred during the National Strike. [ 297 ] In addition, the Episcopal Conference of Colombia ruled in favor of a dialogue, postponing the marches, and changing the tax reform. [ 298 ] The rectors of seven universities in the country demonstrated in favor of peaceful mobilizations and a broad dialogue of social actors. [ 299 ]

    Various figures were in favor, such as the senator and former presidential candidate Gustavo Petro , who invited to participate in the strike, [ 300 ] as well as the senator Gustavo Bolívar and the mayor of Cartagena William Dau . [ 301 ] In addition, actress Lina Tejeiro , the actor Alejandro Riaño , actor Julian Roman , Colombian band Morat , [ 302 ] singers Adriana Lucia , Mario Muñoz , Karol G . [ 303] [ 304 ] [ 305 ] also showed their support for the National Strike professional soccer players participating in the national leagues, asking even suspend Colombian football. [ 306 ] Similarly, Colombian artists likeShakira, [ 307 ] Juanes, [ 308 ] Sebastian Yatra, [ 309 ] J Balvin [ 310 ] and by athletesEgan Bernal,[ 311 ] Radamel Falcao, [ 312 ] Juan Fernando Quintero, [ 313 ] and the exfutbolistaRené Higuita [ 314 ] among others, have expressed solidarity with the victims, and made a call for the cessation of violence, as well as they have asked the government to listen to the Colombian people.

    Characters such as former president Álvaro Uribe Vélez showed their rejection , who spoke out against the strike and in favor of the armed reaction of the Public Force , [ 315 ] for which a trill on his Twitter account was blocked . [ 316 ] The journalist Vicky Dávila , [ 317 ] the former mayor of Bogotá Enrique Peñalosa , [ 318 ] the singer Marbelle , [ 319 ] and the former soccer players Faustino Asprilla were also shown against, [ 320 ] and Eduardo Pimentel . [ 321 ]

    International

    Governments

    • Argentina's flag Argentina : The President of Argentina , Alberto Fernández, expressed on Twitter his concern about the repression in Colombia, which he referred to as institutional violence. “With concern I observe the repression unleashed in the face of social protests that occurred in Colombia. I pray for the Colombian people to resume social peace, ”and he added a direct allusion to the country's government, urging it to stop institutional violence. [ 322 ]
    • Bolivian flag Bolivia : The President of Bolivia , Luis Arce expressed his concern about the crisis in Colombia and hopes that the country can resolve the conflict internally and as soon as possible, stating the following: «We regret what is happening in Colombia and we hope that the The Colombian people can solve their problems internally and that they do not need anyone so that this can be resolved as soon as possible because we are talking about lives, we are talking about people and we hope that this does not happen to adults. [ 323 ]
    • Chile's flag Chile : The Minister Spokesman for the Government of Chile , Jaime Bellolio , declared that "the violation of human rights must be prosecuted without nuances", referring to the situation in Colombia. [ 324 ]
    • Vatican City Flag City of the Vatican : The Pope Francis expressed concern about the demonstrations: "I wantexpress my concern about the tensions and violent clashes in Colombia, which have caused deaths and injuries," the pope said in a later message the LordPrayer of the May 9. [ 325 ]
    • Ecuador Flag Ecuador : The President of Ecuador , Lenin Moreno urged the government of Nicolás Maduro to end "interference" in Colombia and thus allow stability in the country led by Iván Duque. "The request is for Maduro to remove his bloody and corrupt hands from democracy and the stability of the Colombian people," said the president after participating as keynote speaker at the "Defense of Democracy in the Americas" forum organized by the Inter-American Press Association (SIP), in Miami . [ 326 ]
    • United States flag United States : The United States Department of State asked the Colombian government for "maximum restraint" by the security forces to avoid further loss of life. [ 327 ] In the same way, Democratic Representative Gregory Meeks of the House of Representatives asked to reduce violence and withdraw military support for the Colombian government to continue the human rights violations by the authorities. [ 328 ] Democratic Rep. Jim McGovern, for his part, expressed his rejection of excessive use of force. [ 327] The United States security adviser on Latin America Juan González said "Peaceful protest is a fundamental right, but violence and vandalism are not." [ 329 ]
    • Peru flag Peru : The Foreign Ministry of Peru reported that: "it deeply regrets the acts of violence and the victims that occurred in Colombia," and stressed that both countries are united by good relations and cooperation. " [ 330 ]
    • Uruguay flag Uruguay : From the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay they expressed "concern at the serious acts of violence that occurred in recent days in Colombia", urging to recover "quickly the channels of dialogue and peace within the framework of the full functioning of democratic institutions and respect for human rights ”. [ 331 ]
    • Venezuela's flag Venezuela : The Attorney General of Venezuela, Tarek William Saab , in a message posted on Sunday on his Twitter account stated that: "The Duque government [is] massacring the population that repudiates the criminal structure of that narco-state." He also questioned the silence of the Organization of American States the United Nations and the High Commissioner of the United Nations Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet . [ 332 ] [ 333 ]

    Supranational organizations

    Regarding the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Colombia , Commissioner Juliette de Rivero reported that members of the High Commission were threatened and attacked in Cali while investigating the violation of human rights against the protesters. [ 335 ]
    • European union flag European Union : The spokesman for the European Union , Peter Stano, said that "we are closely monitoring the situation, and we condemn the acts of violence" and reported that "it is really a priority to contain the escalation of violence and avoid the disproportionate use of force. ». [ 336 ]
    • Emblem of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.png Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America : Condemned the excessive use of force by Colombian security agents in the protests through a statement: "The Alliance, faithful to the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, to the right international, respecting the self-determination of the peoples, social justice and peace, condemns the excessive use of force by security agents of the Colombian State. " [ 337 ]

    Others

    • Progressive International : Issued a statement condemning the political brutality and administration of Iván Duque, while calling on “the progressive forces of the world to respond to his call and demand that the Duque government be held accountable in all communities, courts and parliaments in which we work ”. [ 338 ]
    • Human Rights Watch : José Miguel Vivanco, director for the Americas of HRW, expressed his "enormous concern about the situation in Colombia." «I reiterate my urgent call for the protest to be peaceful and for the security forces to respect human rights. We have been able to confirm 6 deaths related to the protests, "Vivanco posted on Twitter. [ 339 ]
    • Inter-American Commission on Human Rights : It ruled on the decision of President Iván Duque to deploy the military: “The IACHR reiterates the international obligations of the State on internal security and inter-American standards that provide that the participation of the armed forces in security tasks must be extraordinary, subordinate, complementary, regulated and supervised, "said the agency via Twitter. [ 340 ]
    • Puebla Group : Expressed its concern about the situation of violence that is hitting Colombia and about the unjustifiable excesses in the use of force that undermine guarantees and freedoms inherent to democracy and the rule of law. [ 341 ]
    • Ibero-American Progressive Parliamentary Group: Declared that it condemns the acts of violence that occurred in the sister Republic of Colombia, during the social mobilizations carried out against the tax reform proposal proposed by President Iván Duque and the structural problems that affect Colombian society. [ 342 ]
    • United Socialist Party of Venezuela : The Venezuelan ruling party pointed out that the "brother people of Colombia", who "suffer in their streets the murder of their sons and daughters at the hands of those who stain their hands and conscience with the blood of those who only raise their voice, but they receive the discharge of rifles ". According to the PSUV, the Duque government violates the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law "which enshrines the sacred right to life and respect for the self-determination of peoples." In addition, he regretted the "complicity" of organizations such as the Organization of American States, the Lima Group , the European Union or the United States. [ 343 ]
    • Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador : The indigenous organization published a statement on Twitter, in which it shows its rejection of the repression of the protests in Colombia, comparing them with those suffered during the demonstrations in Ecuador in October 2019 . [ 344 ]
    • Elected legislative bench of the Union for Hope of Ecuador : Made a publication in which he urged Colombian authorities to curb the climate of violence. [ 345 ]

    Characters

    Additionally, different international figures expressed their solidarity with the Colombian people and with the protesters. These personalities include former Bolivian president Evo Morales , [ 346 ] Puerto Rican singer Residente , [ 347 ] British singer-songwriter and musician Roger Waters , [ 348 ] American singer Demi Lovato , American actors Mateo and Moisés Arias , [ 349 ]American singer Nicky Jam , [ 350 ] the socialite American Kim Kardashian , [ 351 ] the singer Canadian Justin Bieber , [ 352 ] American guitarist Tom Morello , [ 353 ] the influencer Spanish Ibai Llanos , [ 354 ] The Panamanian singer Rubén Blades , [ 355 ] the Puerto Rican singerDon Omar , [ 356 ] and the Mexican blogger Luisito Comunica [ 357 ] (who even participated in the marches in Colombia ), and the Spanish youtuber AuronPlay , [ 358 ] among other international personalities.

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