From left to right and from top to bottom: Mulhacen , Cerro Jabalcón , Alhambra de Granada , Guadix , Granada , Torrenueva Costa and Salobreña .
| President |
José Entrena ( PSOE ) |
174 municipalities |
9 judicial districts
|Foundation||Territorial division of 1833|
|• Total||12.531 km² (2,50 %)|
|• Media||unos 1070 m s. n. m.|
|• Maximum|| Mulhacén |
3478 m s. n. m.
79 kilometers of coastline |
0 m asl
|Climate||Continentalized Mediterranean climate|
|Population (2019)||17th position|
|• Total||914,678 hab. ( 1.95% )|
|• Density||72.41 hab / km²|
|START (nominal)||Since 21 .º|
|• Total||€ 18,188,802 million|
|• PIB per cápita||19 885 € (2019)|
|Patron (a)||San Antón|
|Official Web site|
Granada is a Spanish province located in the southeast of the peninsula , on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and in the middle of the Penibética mountain range , within the autonomous community of Andalusia . Its capital is the city of Granada .
It limits the northeast with the provinces of Albacete and Murcia ; to the east with Almería ; to the north with Jaén ; to the west with Málaga and Córdoba ; and to the south it has an exit to the Mediterranean.
Its surface is 12 635 km², its population is 914 678 inhabitants. ( 2019 ), of which approximately 25% live in the capital, and its population density is 72.79 inhabitants / km². It is divided into 174 municipalities and 6 autonomous local entities (see Annex: Municipalities of the province of Granada ).
The main population centers are Granada capital and its Metropolitan Area (55%), the Costa Granadina (10.5%) with the municipalities of Motril and Almuñécar , second and third provincial population centers respectively after the capital, and the interior areas from Guadix , Baza and Loja .
The coat of arms of the province of Granada since the creation of this in 1833 has had many coats of arms. The current was approved in 2008 and was based on the modification of the timbre (changing the royal crown open a closed royal crown ) of the model shield that had been set in 1969. [ 2 ]
The blazon of the coat of arms is as follows:
In silver field filleted with gules, a natural pomegranate, cracked with gules, carved and leafed with sinople. Borders made up of eight pieces: Alternated; four of silver with a rampant lion of gules, linguado of the same and crowned and clad in gold; four of gules with a castle of gold, donjonado, crenellated, cleared of azure and mazonado of saber. Sable outer fillet, loaded with a two-stranded silver braid, Al timbre, closed royal crown.Full council of Granada 26/02/2008 [ 3 ]
The flag of the province of Granada has the following description.
Rectangular cloth in the proportion 2/3, times and a half longer, -from the pole to the wing- than wide; green color traditionally used: Pantone 384c, loaded in its center with the exclusive coat of arms of the Diputación de Granada on both sides.Full council of Granada 26/02/2008 [ 3 ]
- Background to the Kingdom of Granada
Although there were previous territorial districts, such as the Cora de Elvira , which became the Taifa of Granada with the decomposition of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031 ; the birth of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada can be fixed in 1232 , when Yusuf ben Nasri 'Alhamar' proclaimed himself Sultan of Granada. [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
- The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
The area of the Kingdom was about 34,000 km², somewhat higher than the 27,000 km² in which the Christian Kingdom of Granada would be configured after its conquest (1482-1492). [ 6 ] The Emirate or Sultanate of Granada extended over the entire current provinces of Granada, Malaga and Almería , as well as border areas of the provinces of Jaén and Cádiz .
The border between the Crown of Castile and the kingdom of Granada was formed by a complicated defensive-offensive system, established by the Pact of Jaén and characterized by the construction of fortifications parallel to the natural limit of the Betic Systems , [ 7 ] except for the With the exception of the Sierras de Cazorla and Segura , where the Advancement of Cazorla and the Encomienda de Segura de la santiaguista were located , respectively, which formed the outpost of the territories of the Crown of Castile . [ 8 ]
- Christian conquest
The extension of the Kingdom of Granada after its reconquest , was reduced to what today are the provinces of Malaga , Granada and Almería , except for the county of Antequera and the current municipalities of Sierra de Yeguas , Alameda and Cañete la Real , which belonged to the former Kingdom of Seville . On the other hand, the towns of Solera and Bélmez de la Moraleda , which are currently integrated into that of Jaén , were part of the Kingdom of Granada. [ 9 ]
- The Kingdom of Granada in the Crown of Castile
This demarcation was only administrative and fiscal, since the kingdom of Granada, incorporated into the Crown of Castile , did not have any type of attribution over its limits or political capacity for autonomous action or decision, beyond municipal life and voting in Cuts . The territory was divided into zones or parties of collection of rents and extraordinary rights for the Crown , in some cases based on the existing ecclesiastical circumscriptions. In this way, the following demarcation was made: 1. The city of Granada with the parties of the alcaicería , the major and minor incomes, the cattle corral, the tithes and farmsteads , the silk rent, the income of the Alpujarra , Almuñécar , Salobreña and Motril . 2. Baza Party . 3. Guadix Party . 4. Malaga and its bishopric 5. Almería and its bishopric. [ 10 ]
Another form of collection of extraordinary tributes - destined to military expenses - were the brotherhoods that had an important development in century XVI . The numerous companies that Carlos I and later Felipe II undertook , provoked a slight attempt at capitalized territorial organization in the 17 cities that had representation in Cortes . In 1591, [ 11 ] a collection of assets was carried out — known as the Tomás González Census—, [ 12 ] where Granada appears as a city with representation in the Cortes —it will be city number 18— and will centralize the "province" [13 ] of the Kingdom of Granada in the collection of taxes between its different cities, towns, places and villages that made it up. [ 14 ]
In the early days of the Modern Age , there was no single criterion for the determination of regional entities within the Crown of Castile: Lucio Marineo Siculo [ 15 ] (1500), when distinguishing the different Spanish provinces attends to Roman provincialization, while Pedro de Medina [ 16 ] (1548) made another classification, in which he presented the Kingdom of Granada differentiated from a Province of Andalusia that incorporated the Canary Islands. [ 17 ] The creation of the General Captaincy of Granada and the definitive installation asRoyal Chancery of Granada of the former Royal Court and Chancery of Ciudad Real (1505), whose jurisdiction included the entire territory south of the Tagus River - to the north it competed with the Royal Court of Valladolid -, indicates that neither from the political point of view -administrative had intended to carry out any type of regional integration - anachronistic concept for the time - that specifically associated the Kingdom of Granada with the Andalusia of the Guadalquivir. [ 18 ] In 1525 the Royal Hearing of the Degrees of Seville was created , with a lower level of competence.
- Formation of the province of Granada
The province arose in 1833 with the provincial division carried out by the Motrilen minister Javier de Burgos , taking the central part of the territory that to date was part of the Kingdom of Granada , which had emerged after the annexation of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada to the Crown of Castile in 1492 .
However, it was by decree of the Cortes of Cadiz in December of maypole of 1813 that created the Provincial Council of Granada as an entity to represent and promote the interests of the Granada province. The first headquarters of this corporation was located in the House of the Inquisition, which had become vacant after its dissolution shortly before, which was located in front of the current Church of the Sacred Heart , in the heart of Gran Vía de Colón in the capital; being demolished on the occasion of the construction of this street in the early years of the 20th century . Since 1981 this province has been part of the Autonomous Community ofAndalusia .
They can distinguish four distinct climatic zones good: the fertile and green Vega grenadine , as well as the western half, which records a few summers warm and winters very cold -being Granada the capital of Mediterranean province with the lowest temperatures around the country-; the part of the Hoya de Guadix and the Altiplano, with an almost semi-desert climate , except for the banks of the rivers - such as the Fardes - and the mountainous areas of Baza , La Sagra , Sierra Nevada and Castril ; the extensive territory of the Alpujarra and south of the Marquesado, with a typically mountainous climate; and the coastal area, where temperatures are mild throughout the year, which allows the cultivation of subtropical products such as custard apple or avocado , and even during the 20th century sugar cane was cultivated with which It produced the famous pale rum of Motril .
It is mountainous because of the Sierra Nevada, which is located in the center-east of the province, with some notable plains such as Las Vegas de Granada and Guadalfeo , or a good part of the Altiplano and Guadix area included in the Granada Geopark [ 19 ] .
Organization of the territory
In Granada, unlike other provinces, there has always been a lot of roots towards the traditional regions , which are from north to south:
- Region of Huéscar , with capital in Huéscar .
- Comarca de Baza (or La Bastetania ), with capital in Baza .
- Region of Guadix (or La Accitania ), with capital in Guadix .
- Los Montes , with capital in Iznalloz .
- Region of Loja , with capital in Loja .
- Vega de Granada , with capital in Granada .
- Region of Alhama , with capital in Alhama de Granada .
- Valle de Lecrín , with capital in Dúrcal .
- Alpujarra Granadina , with capital in Órgiva .
- Costa Granadina , with capital in Motril .
The regions of Baza and Huéscar form a sub-region called the Granadino Altiplano ; also Loja and a good part of Alhama form the Poniente Granadino . There are also sub-regions, such as El Marquesado in Guadix, La Contraviesa between the Alpujarra and the Coast, the Montes Orientales in Los Montes and El Temple in Alhama.
- Commonwealth of Municipalities of the Costa Tropical
- Association of Municipalities of the Baza Region
- Association of Municipalities of the Huéscar Region
- Commonwealth of the Marquesado del Zenete
- Monachil River Commonwealth
- Commonwealth of the Ribera Baja del Genil
- Lecrín Valley Commonwealth
- Commonwealth of the Valley of the Rivers Alhama-Fardes
- Commonwealth of the Vega Alta de Granada
- Association of Municipalities of the Alpujarra Granadina
Provincial government and administration
The provinces are regional administrative entities , inferior to the autonomous community, determined by the grouping of municipalities, with their own legal personality and full capacity to comply with the guarantee of the principles of solidarity and inter-municipal balance, within the framework of economic and Social.
The Government and the autonomous administration of the province correspond to the Provincial Council . The Provincial Council of Granada has been chaired since 2015 by the socialist José Entrena Ávila and has its headquarters in the city of Granada, at Calle Periodista Barrios Talavera, No. 1.
History of the Provincial Council of Granada
The main population centers are Granada capital and its Metropolitan Area , which are home to more than 55% of the population of the province; the Costa Granadina (10.5%) with the municipalities of Motril and Almuñécar , second and third provincial population centers respectively after the capital, and the inland areas of Guadix , Baza and Loja .
The province of Granada is the 36th in Spain with the highest percentage of inhabitants concentrated in its capital (25.46%, compared to 31.96% for the whole of Spain).
During the 20th century, the population of the province of Granada has experienced a general increase, except for the period between the 1950 and 1970 census , both included. The growth rate between the 1900 and 2001 censuses is 66.18%.
If we analyze the municipal registers of the last 20 years, there is also a population increase of 13.84% between 2008 and 2018, although the maximum was reached in 2011 and since then there has been a slight loss of population.
|Graph of demographic evolution of the Province of Granada between 1900 and 2018|
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- Worldpostalcodes.org, Postal codes of Spain by province .
- Diputación de Granada (ed.). «He made a Chronology of the exclusive coat of arms of the Provincial Council of Granada» (PDF) . Retrieved February 20, 2013 .
- dipgra.es (February 26, 2008). "Minutes of the Ordinary Plenary Session of the Granada Provincial Council of February 26, 2008" . Archived from the original on November 4, 2011 . Retrieved May 1, 2013 .
- ESPINAR, 1995:78-80
- To see in detail the formation of the Nasrid kingdom and its organization see the doctoral thesis: BOLOIX, 2007
- FERRER, 2002:14
- Rodríguez, 2000:205
- To see in greater depth the role played by the Granada border see: RODRÍGUEZ, 2000
- FERRER, 2002:15
- LAREDO QUESADA, 1992:221-222
- The first known census was carried out between the years 1528-1536 and is known as the Census of the pecheros, although the Kingdom of Granada was excluded from this. For more detailed information see: GARCÍA, 2007 .
- GARCÍA, 2007:4
- The term "province" was used in the census of Tomás González, although they have nothing to do with the current province
- LAREDO QUESADA, 1992:225-226
- Lucio Marineo Sículo en need some notable things in Spain (Alcala de Henares, 1530).
- For a more detailed view see: GONZÁLEZ , 1944
- LAREDO QUESADA, 1992:228-229
- LAREDO QUESADA, 1992:242-244
- "UNESCO designates 15 new Geoparks in Asia, Europe, and Latin America" . Retrieved October 15, 2020 .
- Own elaboration based on data from the IEA-SIMA
- National Institute of Statistics (Spain) (ed.). of Granada «Population census of the Province of Granada» . Alterations of the municipalities in the Population Censuses since 1842 . Retrieved November 16, 2011 .
- Own elaboration based on data from IEA SIMA