Rio de Janeiro - Río de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro
Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro
Municipality
Rio Collage.png

Flag of the city of Rio de Janeiro.svg
Coat of arms of the city of Rio de Janeiro.svg

Other names : Wonderful City, The Carioca Capital
Rio de Janeiro located in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Location of Rio de Janeiro in the homonymous state
Rio de Janeiro located in Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Location of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

Interactive map
Coordinates 22°54′30″S 43°11′47″O / -22.908333333333, -43.196388888889Coordenadas: 22°54′30″S 43°11′47″O / -22.908333333333, -43.196388888889
Entity Municipality
Country Brazil's flag Brazil
State Flag of the state of Rio de Janeiro.svg Rio de Janeiro
Region Rio de Janeiro
Mesorregión Metropolitan of Rio de Janeiro
Microregion Rio de Janeiro
Mayor Eduardo Paes ( DEM )
Foundation March 1, 1565
Surface
• Total 1200,329 km² km²
Altitude
• Media 11 msnm m s. n. m.
Weather Tropical seco Aw
Population (2010 (IBGE) last census)
• Total 6,320,446 hab.
Density 5,265.82 hab / km² hab / km²
• Metropolitan 1,090,607 hab.
Demonym Rio riojanereinse, [ 1 ] Rio [ 2 ]
START (nominal)
• Total R$ 220 924 561,000
• PIB per cápita R $ 34 571.91 IBGE / 2010
IDH 0.803 (Very High) - UNDP / 2010
Time zone UTC−3
Postal Code 20000-000
Telephone prefix 21
Registration RJ
Official Web site

Rio de Janeiro [ 1 ] (in Spanish , Rio de Janeiro , AFI: [ˈʁi.u dʒi ʒaˈnejɾu] ), founded as São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro , [ 3 ] is a city, Brazilian municipality and capital of the homonymous state , located in the southeast of the country. It is the second most populated city in Brazil after São Paulo . [ 4 ]

It was the capital of Portugal between 1808 and 1822 and, later, the capital of Brazil since 1822, when the nation declared its independence from the Portuguese country . It retained that rank until the inauguration of Brasilia in 1960.

It is one of the main economic, cultural and financial resource centers of Brazil. It is internationally known for its cultural icons and landscapes, such as the Sugarloaf Mountain , the statue of Christ the Redeemer (one of the seven wonders of the modern world ), the beaches of Copacabana and Ipanema , the Maracanã Stadium , the Tijuca national park ( the largest urban forest in the world), Quinta da Boa Vista , the island of Paquetá, the New Year's Eve festivities in Copacabana and the celebration of Carnival

It represents the second largest GDP in the country and 30th largest in the world, as well as being the headquarters of two of the most important Brazilian companies - Petrobras and Vale do Rio Doce , now privatized - and the main oil and telephone companies, as well as the largest conglomerate of media and communications companies in Latin America . [ 5 ] It is the second largest research and development center in Brazil, reaching 17% of the national scientific production (according to 2005 data).

Rio de Janeiro is also considered a beta global city by Loughborough University's (GaWC) 2018 inventory . [ 6 ]

It is known worldwide as the "Wonderful City" ( Cidade Maravilhosa ), in Portuguese , it hosted the 1950 Soccer World Cup , the 2013 Confederations Cup , the 2013 World Youth Day , the 2014 Soccer World Cup and the Olympic Games of Rio de Janeiro 2016 . It was the venue for the Copa América 2019 , in the Maracaná Stadium the final of the Cup was played, with Brazil winning .

Toponymy

On New Year's Day 1502 ( janeiro means 'January') the Portuguese navigator Gaspar de Lemos entered with his ship in a bay whose native name is still Guanabara today on the Brazilian coast. In the Portuguese language of the time, the bays were also called "rivers" or "rías", which is why he named it Rio de Janeiro ('January River').

History

Colonial period

Map of the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1820, then capital of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve , after the transfer of the court to America.

On January 20, 1502, Portuguese explorers reached Guanabara Bay on an expedition led by Gaspar de Lemos . The European presence in the area began shortly after. In 1519 when Ferdinand Magellan docked his ships in the bay, French smugglers were already using it as a post for smuggling Brazil stick . When French naval officer Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon arrived in 1555 with a fleet of two ships and 600 soldiers and settlers, he founded the first permanent European settlement in the area. The colony was named Antarctic France . The settlers consisted mainly of French Huguenots andSwiss Calvinists .

The Botafogo cove in 1889.

The city was founded on March 1, 1565 by Estácio de Sá , nephew of the Governor General of Brazil ( Mem de Sá ) with the name of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in homage to King Sebastián I of Portugal .

At the end of the 16th century, Rio was a strategic place in the Atlantic for the transit of ships between Brazil , the colonies of Africa and Europe . Forts were built and an alliance was formed with nearby native tribes for the defense of the city. Sugar cane was the first industry in the area. First, natives were used, but later the slaves from Africa were used for these manual works.

Until the beginning of the 17th century, the city was threatened or invaded by French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin . After 1720, when the Portuguese found gold and diamonds in the neighboring captaincy of Minas Gerais , Rio de Janeiro became much more useful as a port for exporting wealth than Salvador de Bahia , since it was much further north.

During most of the seventeenth century, the city had a slow development. With about 30,000 inhabitants in the second half of the seventeenth century, Rio de Janeiro became the most populous city in Brazil, and was to be of fundamental importance for colonial rule. This importance became even greater with the exploration of gold deposits in Minas Gerais, in the 18th century: the proximity led to the consolidation of the city and economic center and the port.

In 1763, the Portuguese colonial administration in America moved to Rio. The city continued to be primarily the colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of Lisbon's noble associates , fleeing the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal , moved to Rio de Janeiro. The capital of the kingdom of Portugal was transferred to the city, which therefore became the only European capital outside of Europe .

The arrival of the Portuguese court deeply marked the city, weakened by the Napoleonic wars . After the opening of the ports, it became an important commercial center. In the first decades, it has raised various educational institutions, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts and the National Library - with the largest collection in Latin America - and the Garden Botanical . The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro , was put into circulation during this period. It was the only city in the world to become a European empire outside of Europe.

Imperial period

1000 crusaders banknote . An image of March 1 Street appears in 1905.
Workers in maintenance work at the Bondinho del Pan de Azúcar in the 1940s.

When Prince Pedro I proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822 , he decided to keep Rio de Janeiro as the capital of his new empire. Between 1808 and 1822 it was the de facto capital of Portugal.

After independence, the city became the capital of the Empire of Brazil . The province of Rio de Janeiro was enriched by the lucrative sugarcane crops in the Campos dos Goytacazes municipality and coffee in the Paraíba Valley . To separate the capital of the province from the Empire, the city became the Neutral Municipality in 1834 , Niterói becoming the provincial capital.

The city was the economic and political center of the country, concentrating political life in the Empire. The main stage was the abolitionist and republican movements in the second half of the 19th century. During the period known as República Velha , with the decline of its coffee growing areas, the State lost political power, being displaced by São Paulo and Minas Gerais .

Republican period

With the proclamation of the republic in the last decades of the 19th century , the city faced serious social problems due to its rapid and disorderly growth. With the decline of slavery , the city had begun to receive large numbers of European immigrants and former slaves, attracted by the opportunities for wage labor there. Indeed, between 1872 and 1890 its population doubled, from 274,000 to 522,000 inhabitants. [ citation required ]

At this time, the Municipal Theater and Rio Branco avenue opened, with buildings inspired by elements of the belle epoque in Paris and the inauguration in 1908 , the cable car to the Sugarloaf Mountain to the Mountains, a landmark of Brazilian engineering. that celebrated 100 years of the opening of the ports.

The current occupation of the South Zone was carried out with the opening of the Antiguo tunnel: this made it possible to connect Botafogo and Copacabana . In turn, the Copacabana Palace Hotel was inaugurated in 1923 and, in 1931 , the Cristo Redentor, one of the symbols of the city and the country. [ 7 ]

In the 1970s, urban renewal policies were produced that improved infrastructures while eliminating part of Rio's existing architectural heritage. These interventions are associated with the idea of ​​progress that lasted from the mid-19th century to the 1980s, based on the idea that progress would be achieved through the destruction of the old and the construction of the new. Thus, the Cerro Santo Antonio, in the Historic Center, a poor area of ​​the city, was eliminated in the 1950s, giving way to an esplanade that during the dictatorial regime would be occupied by new buildings. Some examples of new constructions that replaced the demolished ones are the Metropolitan Cathedral (1964) and the Petrobras buildings (1968) and the National Housing Bank (1968).[8]

Military dictatorship in Brazil

Between 1964 and 1985 a military dictatorship was established in Brazil. In the 1970s, urban renewal policies were implemented that improved infrastructures while eliminating part of Rio's existing architectural heritage. These interventions are associated with the idea of ​​progress that lasted from the mid-19th century to the 1980s, based on the idea that progress would be achieved through the destruction of the old and the construction of the new. Thus, the Cerro Santo Antonio, in the Historic Center, a poor area of ​​the city, was eliminated in the 1950s, giving way to an esplanade that during the dictatorial regime would be occupied by new buildings. Some examples of new constructions that replaced the demolished ones are the Metropolitan Cathedral (1964) and the Petrobras buildings (1968) and the National Housing Bank (1968). The transformations of the Center continued throughout the 70s under the pressure of real estate speculation that arose during the construction of the metro.[8]

Demography

Colored satellite image of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro surrounding Guanabara Bay , inside which is the Governor's Island .

According to data from the 2010 census, according to the IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estadística), the population of Rio was 6,320,446 people, which makes it the second largest urban area in Brazil and the third in South America .

Demographic development of Rio de Janeiro [ 9 ]
Favelas in Rio de Janeiro.
Evolution of the population density of Rio de Janeiro (hab / km) [ 10 ] [ 9 ]


Registered voters in Rio de Janeiro [ 11 ]
Year Total voters mens Women
2000 4.239.216 1.970.328 2.257.517
2005 4.456.249 2.035.101 2.412.088
2007 4.505.979 2.045.538 2.452.192

Population by sex

There are more women than men living in Rio de Janeiro according to the 2010 census.

  • Female population: 53.2% (3,360,629 people)
  • Male population: 46.8% (2,959,817 people) [ 9 ]

Ethnic groups

Ancestrality autosomal genome unrelated individuals in Rio de Janeiro as genetic study of 2009 [ 12 ]
color Indigenous contribution African contribution European contribution
White 6.7% 6.9% 86.4%
pardo 8.3% 23.6% 68.1%
negro 7.3% 50.9% 41.8%

51.2% of the population is white ( &&&&&&&&03234812.&&&&&03,234,812 people), 36.5% are brown or mestizo ( &&&&&&&&02307104.&&&&&02,307,104), 11.4% are black ( &&&&&&&&&0724197.&&&&&0724,197) and 0.7% are Asian ( &&&&&&&&&&046484.&&&&&046,484 people) and 0.1% are indigenous (6764). 0.01% (1085 people) did not report their race in the 2010 census. [ 9 ]

As a result of the diversity of immigrants who arrived in Brazil between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries , Rio de Janeiro also has Jews from Ukraine and Poland , Lebanese and Syrians, Italians, Germans, Spaniards, and people from other parts of Brazil. [ 13 ]

Another recent "black" genetic study of autosomes, at a school in the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro, with "white", "brown", and reached similar conclusions to those of the genetic study of 2009. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] the same reached an autosomal genetic study of 2011. [ 12 ]

Religion

Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 60.71

3.556.096

Christianity 17.65 1.034.009
Without religion 13.33 781.080
Spiritists 3.44 201.714
Umbanda 0.72 71.946
Jews 0.4 23.862
Others 3.75 219.656
Catholic Church in Rio de Janeiro
Church of the Third Order of San Francisco de la Penitencia

Geography

Rio de Janeiro
UNESCO logo.svg Welterbe.svg
Unesco World Heritage Site
Christ on Corcovado mountain.JPG
Landscape of Rio de Janeiro from the Christ the Redeemer.
country BrazilFlag of Brazil.svg Brazil
General data
Kind Cultural
Criteria v, vi
ID 1100
Region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription 2012 (XXXVI session )
Official Web site

Location

The city occupies the western margin of the Guanabara Bay, which encompasses the existing land between Copacabana and Itaipú, and some of its islands, such as Gobernador and Paquetá. It sits on flat terrain, surrounded by mountains and hills. The Sierra del Mar, on the Atlantic edge of the plain, is located northwest of the city, about 40 km from the coast. The city occupies an area of ​​1,182.3 km², which means a population density of 4,781 inhabitants / km².

Rio de Janeiro is based on three large stones: Piedra Blanca, Piedra de Gericino and Piedra de la Tijuca, which are covered by beautiful Atlantic vegetation. The main hills are: Tijuca National Park (1,022 m), Bico do Papagaio (975 m), Andaraí (900 m), Pedra de la Gávea (842 m), Corcovado (704 m), Dois Irmãos (533 m) and Pan de Azúcar (395 m), located at the entrance to the bay.

Barrios

Rio de Janeiro is divided into 34 Administrative Regions, which include the 160 neighborhoods of the municipality. It is also subdivided into 19 subprefectures.

Most of the best known neighborhoods and also with the highest HDI in the city are located in the southern zone : Copacabana , Ipanema , Botafogo , Flamengo , Leme , Leblon , Lagoa . In Cosme Velho is the Ferro da Corcovado station, the train that takes Christ the Redeemer . In Urca is the Pan de Azúcar hill .

The Barra da Tijuca neighborhood is located in the West Zone, and has the Maria Lenk Aquatic Park and the Barra Shopping, where the first multiplex of movie theaters in Rio has been inaugurated and has the emblematic replica of the Statue of Liberty .

The neighborhoods located in the North Zone have soccer stadiums. In the Tijuca and Maracanã neighborhoods there is the Maracanã Stadium , the Engenho de Inside neighborhood the Engenhão Stadium and in São Cristóvão the São Januário Stadium , the only private sports stadium, belongs to the Vasco da Gama football team , one of the most important and traditional from Brazil .

Rio only has three zones: north, south and west because to this is the Guanabara bay.

Hills

Pedra da Gávea

Altitude: 844 m

Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Cordillera Serra do Mar

Pedra da Gávea is a monolithic mountain in the Tijuca Forest, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Composed of granite and gneiss, its altitude is 842 meters, making it one of the highest mountains in the world along the ocean shores. The roads in the mountain were opened by the native agricultural population in the 1800s; Today, the site is managed by the Tijuca National Park. Differentiated weathering on one side of the rock created what is described as a stylized human face. The markings on the other side were described as an inscription. Geologists and scientists almost agree that the "inscription" is indeed the result of erosion and that the "face" is a product of pareidolia.

Cabeza del Emperador, Pedra da Gávea

Parks

The city has parks and ecological reserves , such as the Tijuca National Park , considered "Environmental Heritage and Biosphere Reserve" by UNESCO , the Piedra Blanca State Park , the Boa Vista Park , the Botanical Garden , the Parque Lage , the Zoological Garden and the Public Walk


Quinta da Boa Vista

[16]

Quinta da Boa vista is a municipal park in the Imperial District of San Cristóbal, located in the North Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was the official residence of the royal family from 1808 until the Proclamation of the Republic, in 1889. The name of the Quinta is due to the good view that it had from the construction, from where it was possible to see the Guanabara Bay . Quinta da Boa Vista is Quinta da Boa Vista is one of the largest urban parks in the city, with almost 155 thousand square meters. It housed the National Museum of Brazil. On September 2, 2018, the building was affected by a large fire. Although the entire structure remained, the interiors of the palace, as well as much of the museum's heritage, were completely destroyed.


Botanical Garden

[17]

The Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro was inaugurated at the beginning of the century before John VIIt has 83 hectares of forests and 54 hectares of cultivated areas. The garden shows more than 40 thousand plants, and about 6725 different species. It is one of the largest collections of plants in the world. It is a research institute and botanical garden located in the Botanical Garden neighborhood, in the southern part of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1808 by Don Juan VI, the Botanical Garden is an important tourist spot in the city and widely visited by researchers who study the hundreds of species that inhabit it.The garden also has works from the beginning of the 16th century, keeping a valuable historical heritage and cultural. The park is also an excellent place for bird watching, as it has more than a hundred different species in its trees. The Tom Jobim Space and Environment Museum,


Public Walk


The Paseo Público (in Portuguese , Passeio Público ) is a park in the Lapa neighborhood , near the vicinity of Cinelandia , in the city of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil. It was inaugurated in the 18th century , which is why it was the first public park in America . It was designed by urban planner Valentim da Fonseca e Silva. The Public Walk was built in an area full of earth, where the Boqueirão lagoon used to exist, which went to the Arcos de Lapa. The original work mixes French and English styles. The Public Walk is declared historical heritage by the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage.


Flemish landfill

[18]

Aterro do Flamengo is a leisure complex in Rio de Janeiro , in Brazil . Built on successive embankments in the Guanabara Bay, is known for being one of the largest leisure complexes in the city: the place is ideal for those who want to take advantage of a sunny day and do outdoor activities. The area - which goes from the Santos Dumont Airport, in Centro, to the beginning of Botafogo beach, passing through the Glória and Flamengo neighborhoods - is sought after, mainly on weekends, for the practice of sports such as walking , run, bicycle, skate, skates and others. In the area known as Parque Brigadeiro Eduardo Gomes, in Glória, the public can take advantage of the football, tennis, volleyball and basketball blocks, in addition to conferring the gardens designed by Roberto Burle Marx.


Weather

The climate is tropical Atlantic, monsoon Am / Aw according to the Koppen climate classificationwith hot summers and warm winters. Maximum temperatures can rise to over 35 degrees and occasionally exceed 40 degrees in inner city areas. In the main tourist areas the temperature is moderated by the cool breeze coming from the ocean. The hottest months are December and January. The maximum temperature recorded was 43.8 degrees in January 1984. The coldest months are June and July, normally with an average of 18-27 ° C. The lowest recorded temperature was 4.8 degrees in July 1928. Precipitation is quite divided between summer and winter, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year, when the southerly winds dominate.

Gnome-weather-few-clouds.svgAverage climatic parameters of Rio de Janeiro (1961-1990) [ Note 1 ]WPTC Meteo task force.svg
My One. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Ago. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Temp. máx. abs. (°C) 40.9 41.8 41 39.3 36.3 35.9 34.9 38.9 40.6 42.8 40.5 43.2 43.2
Temp. max. media (° C) 30.2 30.2 29.4 27.8 26.4 25.2 25 25.5 25.4 26 27.4 28.6 27.3
Temp. media (°C) 26.3 26.6 26 24.4 22.8 21.8 21.3 21.8 22.2 22.9 24 25.3 23.8
Temp. min. media (° C) 23.3 23.5 23.3 21.9 20.4 18.7 18.4 18.9 19.2 20.2 21.4 22.4 21
Temp. mín. abs. (°C) 17.7 18.9 18.6 16.2 11.1 11.6 12.2 10.6 10.2 10.1 16.5 17.1 10.1
Rains (mm) 137.1 130.4 135.8 94.9 69.8 42.7 41.9 44.5 53.6 86.5 97.8 134.2 1069.4
Rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 11 7 8 9 6 6 4 5 7 9 10 11 93
Hours of sun 211.9 201.3 206.4 181 186.3 175.1 188.6 184.8 146.2 152.1 168.5 179.6 2181.8
Relative humidity (%) 79 79 80 80 80 79 77 77 79 80 79 80 79.1
Fuente: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]
View from the Sugarloaf Mountain . On the left, Copacabana ; on the right, Botafogo .

Politics

Public Power

In Rio, the Executive Power is represented by the prefect and divided into 19 sub-prefectures. The Legislative Power is represented by the municipal council, made up of 50 councilors. All politicians are elected under a democratic regime and serve for four years.

Because it is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, it also houses the Guanabara Palace, seat of the Executive Power and the Legislative Assembly of Rio de Janeiro (ALERJ), located in the Tiradentes Palace .

Public or mixed economy companies

Several companies responsible for public services belong to the prefecture - or are partners in their social capitals.

  • Centro de Feiras, Exposição e Congressos (Riocentro): it is the largest convention center in Latin America , with 571 thousand m², it organizes events of great proportions, such as ECO 92 and the Pan American Games of 2007 .
Pedro Ernesto Palace
  • Companhia Municipal de Energía e Iluminação (Rioluz): manages the public lighting of the state and the elaboration and execution of projects in monuments of the natural, historical, architectural and cultural heritage of the city.
  • Companhia Municipal de Limpeza Urbana (Comlurb): it is the largest public cleaning organization in Latin America .
  • Traffic Engineering Company (CET-RIO): responsible for the inspection of traffic.
  • Films Distribution Company (Riofilme): Works for the revitalization of Brazilian cinema, located in the "Pink Houses"
  • Municipal Graphic Arts Company (Imprensa Oficial): meets all the graphic service needs of 54 public institutions in the city.
  • Municipal Information Technology Company (IplanRio): manages technology resources.
  • Municipal Company of Multimeios Ltda. (MultiRio)
  • Municipal Urbanization Company (Riourbe): it is in charge of the development of projects and public works.
  • Municipal Surveillance Company (Municipal Guard): security strength.
  • Tourism Company (Riotur): Secretariat of Tourism.

Twin cities

Rio de Janeiro established brotherhood relations with the following cities:

Pacts, conventions and agreements


Predecessor:
Bolivian flag Peace
Logo of the Organization of Ibero-American States.svg
Ibero-American Capital of Culture

2000
Successor:
Paraguay flag Assumption

Economy

Tourism and entertainment are key aspects of the economic life of the city; It is the biggest tourist attraction in the country, both for Brazilians and foreigners.


Rio de Janeiro is the second richest city in Brazil, surpassed only by São Paulo , and ranks as the 30th richest city in the world with a GDP of R $ 201.9 billion in 2010. The city's per capita income it was R $ 22,903 in 2007 (about US $ 14,630). [ 97 ] According to the ranking of cities prepared by the consulting firm Mercer on the cost of living for foreign employees , Rio de Janeiro is located in the 12th position among the most expensive cities in the world in 2011, seventeen places higher than its 2010 ranking (29th place), ranking immediately after São Paulo (10th place), and ahead of London, Paris , Milan and New York . [ 98 ] [ 99 ] Rio also has the most expensive hotel rates in Brazil, and their daily rate of five - star hotels are the second most expensive in the world, surpassed only by New York hotels. [ 100 ]

Republic of Chile Avenue

Rio de Janeiro became an attractive place to locate companies when it was the capital of Brazil , because important sectors of society and the government were present in the city. This is in the second position in the indicator of industrial production of the country and is an important financial and services center. The city's industry produces processed food, chemicals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, metallurgists, textiles, ships (at the shipyards), and furniture. However, the service sector dominates the economy, getting the biggest piece of the GDP (65.52%) [ 101 ]

The service covers the largest portion of the GDP (65.52%), followed by industry (11.06%) and agriculture (0.04%). Rio de Janeiro, according to IBGE , has a GDP of R $ 187,374,116,000, constituting the second largest wealth pole in Brazil . [ 102 ]

Main companies located in Rio

The largest cultural and entertainment companies are located in the city: Projac de la Rede Globo de Televisão, RecNov de la Rede Record TV, NET , SKY , Globosat el Polo de Cinema de Jacarepaguá - responsible for nearly 10,000 direct jobs and 30 thousand indirect.

The main national and international groups in the naval sector and the largest shipyards in the country. Also the main phonographic industries such as EMI , Universal Music , Sony BMG , Warner Music and Som Livre and the telecommunications sector, such as Intelig , Vivo , Oi and Embratel .

Buenos Aires Avenue

Las giant Coca-Cola Brazil, Michelin , PSA Peugeot Citroën , Xerox Brazil, GE Oil & Gas , Light , Chemtech , Transpetro , Souza Cruz (British American Tobacco) , Previ , SulAmérica Group , Queiroz Galvão Group , Ponto Frio , Lojas Americanas .

Public, federal or state companies such as Petrobras, Caixa Económica Federal, Vale do Rio Doce (the second largest mining company in the world in 1996, [ 103 ] privatized in 1997, when it changed its name to Vale)., [ 104 ] National Bank for Economic and Social Development ( BNDES ), Eletrobrás (largest company in the electric power sector in Latin America ), Casa da Moeda do Brasil, Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Financier of Studies and Projects (FINEP), Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ( IBGE), Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA-Rio), Inmetro, National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI), Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM), Central Office of the National Petroleum Agency (ANP), National Nuclear Energy Commission ( CNEN), National Trade Confederation (CNC), National Cinema Agency ( ANCINE ) and National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS).

The largest international pharmaceutical companies have their Brazilian headquarters in Rio, such as Arrow , Darrow , Baxter , Mayne , Mappel , Schering-Plow , GlaxoSmithKline , Sanofi-Aventis , Roche and Merck .

As it is the region that produces the majority of Brazil's oil production , it meant that many oil and gas companies settled in Rio de Janeiro, such as the Brazilian subsidiaries of Shell , EBX and Esso .

Culture / Music

We know that Rio de Janeiro is known worldwide for its musicality. Represented by samba, choro, bossa nova, and various other musical rhythms;

As the city receives people from various parts of Brazil, or even from abroad, all are quite influenced by music;

Roda de Samba at the Fumagueiros Club - Tijuca - Río de Janeiro.jpg https: //wikimédia.org

For example:

Funk : the intense rhythm, representative beat works as a perfect contrast to the Rio de Janeiro communities. The lyrics usually talk about social inequality and life in those places. [ 105 ]

Samba : the musical style began to circulate in the Marvelous City after the abolition of slavery (1888) and the samba rodas became part of the Rio de Janeiro tradition - Morro da Conceição: all Monday is the same at Morro da Conceição, At the end of the afternoon, around 5:00 p.m., the residents start to organize themselves, turn on the loudspeaker, call their friends and start with the samba. [ 106 ]

Bossa Nova : it is a great present from Rio for all Brazilians. Created more than 60 years ago, it is part of the history of the country and, mainly, of Ipanema. "Chega de Saudade" was the first bossa nova record. [ 107 ]

Choro : it is a music from the XIX century in Rio, based on a mixture of European dances. The style emerged 60 years before Samba with a repertoire that demands a lot from music. [ 108 ]

Rap : in Catete you will find musical quality, this place is one of those that most breathes the culture and art of rap in Rio de Janeiro. [ 109 ]

Main singers of Rio de Janeiro :

Jorge Ben Jor: Guitarist, singer and composer, Jorge Ben has been singing and living the Rio since the 1960s. He is one of the artists with the most songwriters in the world and one of the largest exporters of the Brazilian MPB.

Elza Soares : The "singer of the millennium", chosen by the BBC in London in 2000, became famous after participating in introductions for beginners in the late 1950s. She collects Brazilian music hits such as "Se perhaps você chegasse", "Cadeira vazia" and "Aquarela brasileira".

Cazuza : Agenor de Miranda Araújo Neto, or simply Cazuza, is considered one of the greatest composers of Brazilian music and also an idol of the Rio de Janeiro youth of the 1980s.

Fernanda Abreu : Fernanda is known for her “carioquíssimo” accent and other lyrics with the city as a theme. It is in fact a "Garota Sangue Bom", as she sings herself.

Tim Maia : Marked by his difficult temperament and the power in his voice, Tim is one of the most memorable voices in Brazilian music. He was born and raised in Tijuca, a neighborhood in the North Zone of Rio.

Marcelo D2 : D2 is a reference in Rio's rap, but he never hid his connection with samba. Topics such as drugs, police abuse and corruption are present in his lyrics.

Falcão : The vocalist of O Rappa is known for his lyrics about social inequalities and scenes from the Rio de Janeiro suburb. “Rodo daily”, one of the group's most famous music.

Chico Buarque : He spent most of his childhood in São Paulo, among the intellectuals. As soon as he returned to his hometown, he quickly incorporated the Rio de Janeiro style of living, always among teachers such as Tom Jobim and Vinicius, with whom he made several associations.

Tom Jobim and Vinícius : Two of the greatest idols of Brazilian Popular Music, creators of bossa nova, were close friends. They made and sang true hymns of Rio, like “Garota de Ipanema” and “Samba do avião”. [ 110 ]

According to IBGE , in 2005 the city had 6,094,183 inhabitants, but considering the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro , the population growth reached 11,351,937 million inhabitants with a total area of ​​4,659 km², making it the second largest metropolis populated in Brazil and the fourth in Latin America . Beyond its tourist attractions, it is also a great center for trade, services and industries, and has two important ports for exports and imports: the Port of Rio de Janeiro , which is located in Guanabara Bay , east of the city. , and Itaguaí , in the bay of Sepetiba, west of the metropolis. It is served by two airports: Santos Dumont (IATA SDU code ), which concentrates domestic flights and those to Mercosur; and the Antonio Carlos Jobim (known as Galeāo, IATA code GIG ), located on the Island of the Governor.

On the other side of the Guanabara bay is Niterói , with fluid communication with Rio de Janeiro thanks to the Presidente Costa e Silva bridge , better known as Rio-Niterói .

Carnival of Rio de Janeiro

The Brazilian carnival is celebrated annually forty days before Palm Sunday . Usually the celebration, closer to a secular festival than a religious event, takes place between February and March. [ 111 ] [ 112 ]

The Rio de Janeiro carnival is one of the most famous in the world, visited by tourists from all latitudes. [ 113 ] Each year parade in the Sambadrome the samba schools representing neighborhoods and cities cariocas the State of Rio de Janeiro , which must meet strict regulations. The jury awards marks for each aspect exhibited in the parade and the samba school that collects the most points is crowned champion. [ 114 ] Until 2005, the samba school with the highest score at the sambadrome was Beija-Flor de Nilópolis, followed by Imperatriz Leopoldinense, Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel and Mangueira. [ 115]

Although the most well-known carnival party in Rio is the Special Group parade that takes place at the sambadrome (organized since 1984 by the Independent League of Samba Schools of Rio de Janeiro, LIESA [ 116 ] ), throughout the city There are celebrations with street bands and blocos , popular dances, private events, the parade of the samba schools of the Access Group (which aspire to be promoted to the Special Group) and the parade of champions, as well as rehearsals of the samba schools that are they can visit all year round. [ 112 ]

Reservations are required well in advance, since hotel occupancy usually exceeds 95% during carnival time. [ 117 ] It is common for hotels to raise their prices these days, as well as at the end of the year. [ 118 ]

tourism

Rio de Janeiro attracts a large amount of national and international tourism, which comes to the city in search of its beaches, its varied cultural offer and its lively nightlife. However, half of the passengers registered in Rio's hotels visit the city for work reasons, while 29% travel for pleasure, 12% attend conventions and / or congresses, and 4% are crew members. aerial. The remaining 5% belongs to the "others" category. [ 119 ]

180 degree view of the Botafogo inlet .
Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas and Jockey Club of Río de Janeiro.
Aterro do Flamengo and Financial District.
Sunset seen from the Sugarloaf Mountain.

According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment, Rio de Janeiro had 441 hotel establishments in 2004, most of them located in the South Zone, mainly in Copacabana and Ipanema.

Main tourist destination in the Southern Hemisphere

Rio de Janeiro is the main tourist destination in the Southern Hemisphere, according to a survey released on January 20, 2010 by the Euromonitor International consultancy. The study was conducted in 2008 and shows that the city received 2.82 million international tourists. [ 120 ]

Visits to Rio de Janeiro, percentage of total Brazilian [ 121 ]
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
37,40% 30,20% 32,50% 34,10% 28,80% 38,58% 36,90%

Most of the tourism bound for Rio de Janeiro comes from Brazil itself (65%), while 35% comes from other countries. Of the international tourists, 38% are from Europe, South America contributes 24%, the same percentage that North America shows, while the remaining 14% comes from Asia, Africa, Central America and Oceania. [ 119 ]

Percentage of registered guests in hotels in Rio, according to the place of origin [ 122 ]
Birthplace Percentage
1 Brazil's flag Sao Paulo 20,07%
2 Argentina's flag Argentina 10,05%
3 Brazil's flag Rio de Janeiro (state) 6,34%
4 Brazil's flag State of Sao Paulo 5,67%
5 Brazil's flag Minas Gerais 3,70%
6 Flag of France France 3,48
7 Brazil's flag federal District 3,04%
8 Flag of germany Germany 3,04%
9 United States flag U.S 3,02%
10 Flag of the United Kingdom UK 2,72%

sports

Marina da Glória , where the sailing competitions were held at the 2007 Pan American Games .

In Rio de Janeiro, as in the whole country, the sport with the most followers is soccer. There are four great soccer teams in the city: Flamengo , Vasco da Gama , Fluminense and Botafogo . Other sports that stand out for having important teams located in Rio de Janeiro are judo , basketball , swimming and volleyball . As in all of Brazil, in Rio de Janeiro team sports have more fans than individual ones.

The Maracana Stadium was built for the 1950 Soccer World Cup , in which the Brazilian team was defeated by Uruguay at the Maracanazo . It has also been used for the 2014 World Cup Finals [ 123 ], which after the renovations will have a capacity for almost 80,000 people. [ 124 ] and the 2016 Olympic Soccer Tournament , as well as the opening ceremony of the [Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic Games]].

In addition to hosting the 2014 World Cup games, Rio de Janeiro hosted the International Communications Center and the preliminary draw. [ 125 ]

Venue of the 2016 Olympic Games

Rio 2007 Games at the Maracanã Stadium .

On October 2, 2009, during the course of the 121st session of the Executive Committee of the IOC held in Copenhagen ( Denmark ), Rio de Janeiro was named host of the Olympic Games of 2016 . Chicago was eliminated in the first round , Tokyo in the second , and in the last election round they beat Madrid by 66 to 32 votes. [ 126 ]

Rio de Janeiro already tried to organize the Olympic Games in 2004 and 2012 , but finally the chosen venues were respectively Athens and London .

With this designation to organize the 2016 Olympic Games, Rio de Janeiro became the first South American city to achieve this event, since other cities tried unsuccessfully in the past to host the 2016 Olympic Games , such as Buenos Aires , Cali or São Paulo .

The candidacy of Rio de Janeiro proposed the realization of almost all sporting events within the urban area, concentrating on the areas of Maracaná , Barra da Tijuca , Deodoro and Copacabana . The only exception will be the soccer events that will be distributed in São Paulo , Salvador de Bahia , Belo Horizonte and Brasilia . All of these cities were host to the 2014 Soccer World Cup .


Predecessor:
Flag of the United Kingdom London
Olympic flag.svg
Olympic City

2016
Successor:
Japan's flag Such
Predecessor:
Flag of the dominican republic Santo Domingo
Flag of PASO.svg
Pan-American City

2007
Successor:
Mexican flag Guadalajara
Predecessor:
Ecuador Flag Cuenca
Odesur.png
Ciudad Sudamericana
Next to São Paulo , Curitiba and Belém

2002
Successor:
Argentina's flag Buenos Aires

Education

Aerial view of one of the UFRJ campuses .

Some of the most important higher education centers in Brazil are located in Rio de Janeiro, including UFRJ , the first and largest university in the country. In the city there are 4 public universities (UFRJ, UNIRIO , UERJ and UEZO), some public centers and many other private institutions of higher education.

Primary and secondary education are offered by public schools in the State of Rio de Janeiro and private, with public schools, however, much lower. They generally suffer from a shortage of teachers, teaching materials and laboratory, being frequented by the poorest people. There are some renowned, well-equipped and well-maintained public primary and secondary schools that also receive children from wealthier families, such as the Colegio Federal D. Pedro II, the Colegio Militar and the Federal Center for Technological Education (Cefet).

There are over 80 universities / colleges in Rio de Janeiro [ 127 ]

Transportation

Rio de Janeiro tram crossing the Mauá square . In the background, the Museum of Tomorrow , designed by Santiago Calatrava .

On November 14, 1968 , the Companhia do Metropolitano do Rio de Janeiro was created by state law No. 1,736 and began to function in 1975 by Law-Decree No. 25. On June 23, 1970 , construction work began on the Jardim da Glória. Between 1971 to 1974 construction work was halted due to limited resources, and started again the following year.

The Rio de Janeiro metro began commercial operation in March 1979 , during the administration of Governor Chagas Freitas. At the beginning there were only five stations (Praça Onze, Central, Presidente Vargas, Cinelândia and Glória), it had 4.3 kilometers of tracks, had four trains of four wagons and operated from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., hours that were extended until 11 p.m. December of that same year. [ 128 ] Line 1, with a flow of 300 thousand passengers per day, has 18 stations and 15.2 kilometers of tracks. Line 2, with a daily flow of 250 thousand passengers, has 15 stations (counting Estácio as Line 1 station) and 21.7 kilometers of tracks. [ 129 ]Metrô Rio has a complex service integrations with buses themselves, municipal bus lines and rail service. [ 130 ]

Public Transport Statistics

According to the report made by Moovit in July 2017 , the average time that people spend on public transport in Rio de Janeiro, for example to and from work, on one day of the week is 95 min., While that 32% of people spend more than 2 hours every day. The average time that people wait at a stop or station is 19 minutes, while 35% of people wait more than 20 minutes each day. The average distance that people usually travel in a single trip is 12.3 km., While 37% travel more than 12 km in one direction. [ 131 ]

Human development

Leblon is the most expensive upper-class neighborhood in Brazil , [ 132 ] Tourists who come to Leblon mainly seek its beaches. The neighborhood borders the Vidigal neighborhood.
Barrio Vidigal.

Rio's human development varies greatly by location. There are neighborhoods that exhibited a very high Human Development Index (HDI) in 2000 (equal to or higher than the indices of countries such as Scandinavia ), but also had many at the lower end. [ 133 ]

There is a correlation between the incidence of homicides registered in each area of ​​Rio and the Human Development Indices. However, the HDI is not sufficient to explain this complex phenomenon in its entirety. For example, the Madureira neighborhood is among the three most violent city but its HDI is 0.831, ranking 67 out of 126. [ 134 ]

The neighborhoods with the highest HDI index
Neighborhood Indice UAG [ 135 ] Comparison [ 136 ]
Gávea 0,970 Like Australian flag Australia , the country with the second highest HDI in the world)
Leblon 0,967 Greater than Canada's flag Canada (0.966, # 4 in the world)
Garden Guanabara 0,963 Like Sweden flag Sweden (0.963, # 7 in the world)
Ipanema 0,962 Greater than Flag of France France (0.961, # 8 in the world)
lagoon 0,959 Like Finland flag Finland (0.959, # 12 in the world)
Neighborhoods with the lowest HDI index
Neighborhood Indice UAG [ 135 ] Comparison [ 136 ]
Manguinhos 0,726 Smaller than Mongolian flag Mongolia (0.727, # 115 in the world)
Tide 0,722 Smaller than Vietnam flag Vietnam (0.725, # 116 in the world)
Acari and Parque Colúmbia 0,720 Like Mongolian flag Mongolia (0.720, # 112 in the world)
Costa Barros 0,713 Smaller than Equatorial Guinea Flag Equatorial Guinea (0.719, # 118 in the world)
Complexo do Alemão 0,711 Smaller than Equatorial Guinea Flag Equatorial Guinea (0.719, # 118 in the world)
Administrative Regions of Rio with the highest HDI index
Administrative Region Indice UAG [ 135 ] Comparison [ 136 ]
Copacabana 0,956 Like Finland flag Finland (0.956, # 12 in the world)
lagoon 0,951 Like Italian flag Italy (0.951, # 18 in the world)
Botafogo 0,947 Like Flag of the United Kingdom UK andFlag of germany Germany (0.947, # 21 in the world)
Tijuca 0,923 Greater than BruneiBrunei flag Brunei (0.920, # 29 in the world)
Barra da Tijuca 0,918 Greater than Kuwait flag Kuwait (0.916, # 31 in the world)
Administrative Regions of Rio with the lowest HDI index
Administrative Region Indice UAG [ 135 ] Comparison [ 136 ]
Guaratiba 0,746 Smaller than Flag of the savior El Salvador (0.747, # 106 in the world)
Rocinha 0,735 Smaller than Palestine flag Palestinian Territories (0.737, # 110 in the world)
Jacarezinho 0,731 Like Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua (0.732, # 112 in the world)
Tide 0,719 Like Equatorial Guinea Flag Equatorial Guinea (0.719, # 118 in the world)
Complexo do Alemão 0,709 Smaller than Uzbekistan flag Uzbekistan (0.710, # 119 in the world)

Illustrious Rio de Janeiro characters

Notes

  1. Data relating to conventional station INMET of Rio de Janeiro, located in the neighborhood Saúde.

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Bibliography

  • Taxis del mundo, Fascicle River, Ed. Planeta DeAgostini.

external links